This article is about the defunct Westinghouse Electric Corporation founded in 1886, renamed CBS Corporation in 1997, and purchased by Viacom in 1999. For the present-day industrial company, see
Westinghouse Electric Company
. For other uses of the term "Westinghouse" including modern incarnations and recent licensing deals, see
Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company. It was founded on January 8, 1886, as Westinghouse Electric Company and later renamed Westinghouse Electric Corporation by George Westinghouse. George Westinghouse had previously founded the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. The company purchased CBS in 1995 and became in 1997. CBS Corporation
In 1998, CBS established a brand licensing subsidiary
Westinghouse Licensing Corporation ( Westinghouse Electric Corporation). A year later, CBS sold all of its nuclear power businesses to British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). Soon after, BNFL gained license rights on the Westinghouse trademarks and they used those to reorganize their acquired assets as Westinghouse Electric Company. That company was sold to Toshiba in 2007.
History [ edit ]
Westinghouse Electric was founded by
George Westinghouse in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1886. The firm became active in developing electric infrastructure throughout the United States. The company's largest factories were located in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where they made turbines, generators, motors, and switchgear for the use of electricity. In addition to George Westinghouse, engineers working for the company included [1 ] William Stanley, Nikola Tesla, Vladimir Zworykin, Frank Conrad, Oliver B. Shallenberger, Stephen Timoshenko, Benjamin Garver Lamme and his sister Bertha Lamme. The company was historically the rival to General Electric, which was founded by George Westinghouse's arch-rival Thomas Edison (see War of the Currents).
Products and sponsorships [ edit ]
The company pioneered long-distance power transmission and high-voltage
alternating-current transmission, unveiling the technology for lighting in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.
The company is also known for its
time capsule contributions during the 1939 New York World's Fair and 1964 New York World's Fair. They also participated in the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904. They sponsored the Westinghouse Auditorium at the fair, where they showed films documenting Westinghouse products and company plants. [1 ]
Westinghouse produced the first operational American
turbojet, but fumbled on the disastrous J40 project. It not only severely hampered a generation of U.S. Navy jets when the project had to be abandoned, but led to leaving the aircraft engine business in the 1950s.
Timeline of company evolution [ edit ]
Pittsburgh Plant (before 1888)
1886 – Founded
Westinghouse Electric Company 1889 – renames itself the
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company
Alternating currents promoter
1900s to 1920s [ edit ]
Growth and change
1901 – acquires
Bryant Electric Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut, which continues operation as a subsidiary 1904 - with
Baldwin, markets Baldwin-Westinghouse electric locomotives and A.C. electrification of railroads, particularly to the New Haven Railroad 1909 – introduces continuous-filament tungsten light bulb; ousts George Westinghouse as chairman during bankruptcy reorganization
1914 – acquires
Copeman Electric Stove Company in Flint, Michigan from Lloyd Groff Copeman, moves it to Mansfield, Ohio and enters the home appliance market (sold in 1974 to White Consolidated Industries) 1914 - George Westinghouse dies, with a legacy including 361 patents and the founding of 60 companies.
New England Westinghouse Company opens for business. First product is Mosin–Nagant rifles for the Russian Czar's army. Within two years, the Bolsheviks overthrow the Russian Provisional Government and cancel a previous order of over 1 million rifles. Facing bankruptcy, Westinghouse is rescued by the American Government when it purchases the rifles for use by the military. 1916 – share of British Westinghouse purchased by a British holding company, which becomes
Metropolitan-Vickers 1919 - 8XE Pittsburgh experimental station goes on the air.
1919 - Creates RCA with GE, AT&T and United Fruit, buys the American division of Marconi.
[5 ] 1920 - Acquires International Radio Telegraph Company (formerly known as the National Electric Signaling Company)
[6 ] 1921 – acquires the Pittsburg High Voltage Insulator Company
1920s – enters the
broadcasting industry, with stations like KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and WBZ in Massachusetts 1926 - In partnership with GE and RCA founds NBC Broadcasting.
1930s and 1940s [ edit ]
Close up of Westinghouse logo on historic kitchen stove at John & Mable Ringling Museum, Sarasota
1950s to 1970s [ edit ]
1951 - conducts first live network TV in U.S.
[5 ] 1952 - opens Cathode Ray Tube facility in
Horseheads, NY; facility housed three divisions: Cathode Ray Tube, Electronic Tube, and Industrial and Government Tube. 1954 - enters finance as
Westinghouse Credit Corporation 1954 - adopts "You Can Be Sure... If It's Westinghouse" as advertising slogan for home appliances
1955 - buys KDKA-TV (then WDTV) and WKYW (originally, and currently WTAM) radio Cleveland.
[5 ] 1955 –
Westinghouse J40 engine failure causes all F3H fighters using the engine to be grounded, and all other jets using it to switch to other engines. Westinghouse forced out of aircraft engine business.
1961 – acquires
Thermo King (sold in 1997 to Ingersoll Rand) 1964 – begins
Skybus project; beginning of automated mass transit 1965 - buys Marketeer Electronic Vehicles
[5 ] 1966 - founds Cinema Center Films
[5 ] 1966 - starts housing and real estate development divisions
[5 ] 1966 - buys a toy manufacturer
[5 ] 1967 - lights America's first computer-controlled outdoor electric sign
[10 ] 1967 - makes the lowest bid for the
BART project [11 ] 1969 - buys 7-Up bottling
[5 ] 1973 - develops world's first
AMLCD displays 1974 – sells well-known home appliance division to
White Consolidated Industries which becomes White-Westinghouse 1979 – withdraws from all oil related projects in the Middle East after
1981 – acquires both
cable television operator TelePrompter (sold 1985), Muzak (sold September 1986) and 50% of Showtime for $576 million. [12 ] [13 ] 1982 – acquires robot maker
Unimation 1982 – sells
street light division to Cooper Lighting 1983 – sells electric lamp division to
Philips 1984 - buys Unimation robotics for $105 million.
[5 ] 1986 - buys Los Angeles TV station.
[5 ] 1987 - buys radio stations in Sacramento and Chicago.
[5 ] 1987 - buys electrical equipment, engineering and waste disposal divisions.
[5 ] 1988 – sells elevator/escalator division to
Schindler Group 1988 – Enters into joint venture with Taiwan Electric to build Electric motors; Taiwan Electric eventually becomes sole owner of business as TECO Motor Company
1988 - spins Industrial and Government Tube Division off as Imaging and Sensing Technologies Corporation.
1988 – closes the East Pittsburgh plant, which had once been the primary Westinghouse manufacturing facility
Bryant Electric subsidiary closed, assets sold to Hubbell in 1991 1988 – Transportation Division, including railroad (locomotive and mass transit) equipment business sold to
AEG, later merged into Adtranz 1996 and Bombardier Transportation in 2001 [3 ] [14 ] 1989 – sells transmission and distribution business to
Asea Brown Boveri Group (ABB) 1989 - buys Shaw-Walker Furniture and Reff Furniture.
[5 ] 1989 - buys Legacy Broadcasting.
1990s to 2000s [ edit ]
1990 - buys Knoll International Furniture.
1994 - buys United Technologies' Norden electronic systems.
[5 ] 1994 – Cleveland operations and facilities purchased by
Eaton Corporation for $1.6 billion. Cleveland Westinghouse facilities, as well as manufacturing plants converted into other commercial enterprises [15 ] 199x – separates IT and phone service sales into Westinghouse Communications division
1995 – under the leadership of Michael H. Jordan buys
CBS for $5.4 billion ($8.4 billion today) 1996 – buys
Infinity Broadcasting for $4.7 billion. [5 ] 1996 – sells Westinghouse Electronic Systems defense business to
Northrop Grumman for $3 billion ($4.5 billion today), becoming Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems 1997 - sells
Thermo King division to Ingersoll Rand 1997 - buys American Radio Systems for $2.6 billion, increasing station network to 175.
[5 ] 1997 – sells most non-broadcast operations; renames itself CBS Corporation as of December 1
1998 – sells remaining manufacturing asset, its nuclear energy business, to
BNFL which sold it to Toshiba in 2006 which still operates it as Westinghouse Electric Company today 1998 - sells its non-nuclear power generation and energy units to
Siemens AG, which operates under the name Siemens Westinghouse until 2005. 1998 – CBS Corporation creates
Westinghouse Licensing Corporation ( Westinghouse Electric Corporation) subsidiary to manage the Westinghouse brand 1999 - buys
Outdoor Systems for $8.7 billion and King World Productions for $2.5 billion. [5 ] 1999 – CBS acquired by
Viacom, marking the end of the original Westinghouse Corporation 2005 – Viacom is split into two companies on December 31, with a new
Viacom being spun off of the company, and the "old" Viacom being renamed CBS Corporation thus reviving Westinghouse's last name prior to sale and reversing the 1999 Viacom-CBS merger. 2010 – The
Westinghouse Electric Company ( Toshiba) opened new headquarters in Cranberry Township, Butler County, Pennsylvania where it preserves the industrial legacy of the original Westinghouse Electric Corporation.
George Westinghouse 1886-1909
[16 ] Edwin M. Herr 1911-1929
[17 ] F.A. Merrick 1929-Feb. 1938
[18 ] George H. Bucher Feb. 1938-1946
[19 ] Gwilym A. Price 1946-57
[20 ] [21 ] Mark W. Cresap, Jr. 1957-63
[22 ] Don Burnham 1963-1975
[23 ] Robert Kirby 1975-1983
[24 ] Douglas Danforth December 1983-December 1987
[25 ] [26 ] John Marous 1988-June 29, 1990
[27 ] Paul Lego June 30, 1990-January 1993
[28 ] Gary Clark January 1993-July 1993
Michael Jordan July 1993 – 1998
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ a b "Steam Hammer, Westinghouse Works, 1904". . 1904-05 World Digital Library . Retrieved . 2013-07-28
^ . Books.google.com. 30 July 2009 John W. Klooster, Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates, page 305 . Retrieved . 10 September 2012
^ a b "Bombardier Fact Sheet: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania" (PDF). Bombardier Inc.
^ "WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORP. - The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History". Case Western Reserve University.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Westinghouse: Chronology". Ketupa.net . Retrieved . April 20, 2013
^ Westinghouse Company Enters Wireless Field (1920). Earlyradiohistory.us (1920-10-16). Retrieved on 2013-11-02.
^ "Westinghouse Electric Corporation". ExplorePaHistory.com.
^ Feurer R (2006). Radical Unionism in the Midwest, 1900–1950. University of Illinois Press.
^ "Heartland of UE Struggle". UE. September 2002 . Retrieved . 2008-04-20
^ "Westinghouse Sign". . 16 January 1968. p. 49. Pittsburgh Press
^ "Three Decades of Wall Street's Muzak Fixation - Ray Gustini". The Atlantic Wire. March 24, 2011 . Retrieved . April 20, 2013
^ "Bombardier in the United States, page 3" (PDF). Bombardier Inc.
^ "WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORP. - The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History". Case Western Reserve University.
^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - In the beginning". Old.post-gazette.com. March 12, 1914 . Retrieved . April 20, 2013
^ Gwilym A. Price, 89, a high school dropout who became... - Orlando Sentinel. Articles.orlandosentinel.com (1985-06-04). Retrieved on 2013-08-18.
^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 1: Doing Well by Doing Good". Old.post-gazette.com . Retrieved . April 20, 2013
^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 2: Sue Me, Sue You Blues". Old.post-gazette.com . Retrieved . April 20, 2013
^ Douglas Danforth: Executive Profile & Biography - Businessweek. Investing.businessweek.com. Retrieved on 2013-11-02.
^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 3: Money, It's a Hit". Old.post-gazette.com . Retrieved . April 20, 2013
^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 4: Big Money and Bad Choices". Old.post-gazette.com. June 29, 1990 . Retrieved . April 20, 2013
^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 5: Coming Apart at the Seams". Old.post-gazette.com. January 15, 1991 . Retrieved . April 20, 2013
^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 6: Free at Last". Old.post-gazette.com . Retrieved . April 20, 2013
External links [ edit ]