Westminster College (Missouri)

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Westminster College
Westminster College (MO) seal.png
Former names
Fulton College (1851–1853)
MottoReligio et Scientia (Latin)
Motto in English
Faith and Knowledge
Endowment$56.6 million[1]
PresidentFletcher Lamkin
Academic staff
Administrative staff
110 (Fall 2016) [2]
UndergraduatesApprox. 1,000
LocationFulton, Missouri, U.S.
CampusRural town, 86 acres (0.13 sq mi; 34.80 ha)
ColorsNavy blue, light blue, white[3]
Sporting affiliations
MascotWinston Blue Jay
Westminster College logo.svg

Westminster College is a private, residential, undergraduate college with a curriculum based on the liberal arts. Located in Fulton, Missouri, the College was established in 1851 as Fulton College. The National Churchill Museum (formerly known as the Winston Churchill Memorial and Library) is a national historic site located on campus and is recognized by the US Congress and by the International Churchill Society. It is home to the Church of St Mary, Aldermanbury. The church, designed by Sir Christopher Wren in 1667, was rebuilt on the campus to commemorate Sir Winston Churchill, who made his famous "Iron Curtain" speech at the college gymnasium in 1946. Mikhail Gorbachev gave a speech there in 1992, declaring the end of the Cold War. Steeped in historic tradition, the college continues with contemporary and world-known speakers discussing topical issues impacting society.[4]



Westminster College was founded as a college for young men by the Rev. William W. Robertson and local Presbyterians in 1851 as Fulton College and assumed the present name in 1853. Throughout the next century, Westminster College continued to be an all-male institution until the first coeducational class in 1979.[5]

In 1909, the original Westminster Hall was destroyed by fire – only the Columns remained. Since then, the Columns have been restored and serve as a symbolic rite of passage for new and graduating students. Freshmen walk ceremoniously through the columns to campus and graduating seniors walk out ceremoniously out of the columns into the world.[6]

Westminster College gained worldwide attention when United States President Harry S. Truman invited former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, to speak at Westminster. Churchill delivered his famous Iron Curtain speech on campus in 1946 as part of the Green Lecture Series, now known as the John Findley Green Lecture Series.[5] 

Ronald Reagan lecturing at Westminster College

Other leaders who have lectured on its campus include Margaret Thatcher,[7] former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev[8] George H. W. Bush,[9] Gerald R. Ford, Ronald Reagan, Harry S. Truman, Lech Wałęsa, Dick Cheney, John Kerry, Ralph Nader, Robert F. Kennedy Jr., John Major, and James A. Baker III.[4] See more.

In 1969, Westminster College dedicated one of its most recognizable landmarks – the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermanbury. The Church was moved to campus from London. The undercroft of the Church is now home to the National Churchill Museum. Also in 1969, Westminster College became independent of the Presbyterian Church[10] but maintains a loose affiliation with the Presbyterian Church (USA).


This period is marked by growth, innovation, and collaboration. The endowment grew from $27 million in 2000[11] to its current $56.6 million. Programs were introduced that are unique to Westminster. The annual Hancock Symposium, introduced in 2006, brings two days of lectures, panel discussions, and presentations by noted experts on one particular subject of global interest. Notable past speakers have included General David Petraeus, Robert Kennedy, Eugene Washington, among others.[12] The Take a Friend Home Program, also introduced in 2006 and now managed through the Churchill Institute for Global Engagement, encourages global travel. International students select a friend with whom they would like to travel and share their family experience. Likewise, American students may select an international friend with whom they might like to share their American family experience over a holiday such as Thanksgiving or Christmas / Winter break. The College pays for the round trip airfare for the international flight for each "team" of students. Participating students agree to host their friends and share their experiences with the Westminster community upon their return.[13]

In 2007, the Undergraduate Scholars Forum was launched. This annual event showcases students' achievements in a formal and comprehensive way. Students offer paper presentations, poster presentations, multi-media presentations, and creative performances.[14]

Westminster began offering online classes in 2011.[15] The Churchill Institute for Global Engagement was created in 2013 to further global education with new academic programs and global initiatives. This period also saw the establishment of new corporate and academic partnerships, including a dual-degree program agreement with Washington University in St. Louis.[16]


From its founding in 1851 through 1954 and again from 1861 to 1864, the college was overseen by the chairmanship of the faculty, which rotated among faculty members, instead of a president.[17] The following have served as presidents of Westminster College:

  • Samuel Spahr Laws, 1855–1861
  • John Montgomery, 1864–1865
  • Michael Montgomery Fisher, 1865–1868 (acting)
  • Nathan Lewis Rice, 1868–1874
  • Michael Montgomery Fisher, 1875–1877
  • Charles Campbell Hersman, 1877–1887
  • William Hoge Marquess, 1887–1894
  • Edward Clifford Gordon, 1894–1897
  • John Jay Rice, 1898–1899 (interim)
  • John Henry McCracken, 1899–1903
  • John Jay Rice, 1903–1904 (interim)
  • David Ramsey Kerr, 1904–1911
  • Charles Brasee Boving, 1911–1914
  • John Jay Rice, 1914–1915 (interim)
  • Elmer Ellsworth Reed, 1915–1926
  • Marion Edmund Melvin, 1927–1933
  • Franc Lewis McCluer, 1933–1947
  • William Webster Hall, 1948–1954
  • Robert L. D. Davidson, 1955–1973
  • Dale Purcell, 1973–1976
  • William L. Stucker, 1976–1977 (interim)
  • John Harvey Saunders, 1977–1992
  • John E. "Jack" Marshall, 1992–1993 (interim)
  • James F. Traer, 1993–1999
  • Neal Creighton, 1999–2000 (interim)
  • Fletcher M. Lamkin, 2000–2007
  • George B. "Barney" Forsythe, 2007–2015
  • Benjamin Ola. Akande, 2015–2017
  • Carolyn Perry, 2017 (acting)
  • Fletcher M. Lamkin, 2017–present[17]


Academic Divisions and Departments include Humanities, Natural and Mathematical Sciences, and Social Sciences. The college offers 35 majors, 39 minors, and 12 pre-professional programs.[18] Westminster's Cadaver Program, beginning as a small independent study in the Fall of 2005, is offered for pre-med, biology, and psychology students, who can explore the anatomy of the human body through scientific dissection.


Westminster College is a member of the Higher Learning Commission (HLC) and is regionally accredited by HLC. Westminster College's business program is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Business Scholls & Programs (ACBSP); Westminster College's education program is accredited by the Missouri Department of Secondary Education (DESE).

Pre-professional programs[edit]

The pre-professional programs at Westminster are Dual-Degree Engineering with Washington University in St. Louis or Missouri University of Science and Technology,[19] Dual-Degree Nursing with the Goldfarb School of Nursing at Barnes-Jewish College,[20] Dual-Degree Chiropractic with Logan University College of Chiropractic,[21] Health Professions, and Legal Professions.

Academic and Corporate Partnerships[edit]

Westminster has partnered with Washington University in St. Louis to create a 4+1 Master's in Accounting program. Students earn a liberal arts degree from Westminster in four years, then complete one year of study at the Olin School of Business at Washu to receive their MA degree. A partnership with Maryville University in St. Louis allows students to earn an accelerated Master's in Business Administration. Westminster has also partnered with Ameren UE in Missouri and Illinois to offer continuing education and degree completion programs for the Ameren's employees.

Mentoring program and seminar[edit]

All incoming students are provided with two seminar mentors and a seminar professor who will advise students throughout their years at Westminster College. To make the transition from high school to college easier, mentors help orient students to their new life at Westminster and provide guidance in the areas of academics, social and residential life.

Rankings and Recognitions[edit]

U.S. News & World Report ranked Westminster College in the Top 150 schools for undergraduate education.[22] It also ranked Westminster College fourth among liberal arts colleges for its proportion of international undergraduate students[23] and as one of the 10 American Colleges with the most students in fraternities.[24] Westminster College was also ranked as “Best in the Midwest” by The Princeton Review[25] and recognized by Forbes as one of the nation's top colleges.[26] Westminster was also ranked the Top Liberal Arts College in Missouri and 53rd nationally by enrollment of undergraduate students.Washington Monthly.[27]


Westminster College Historic District
Westminster College (Missouri) is located in Missouri
Westminster College (Missouri)
Westminster College (Missouri) is located in the US
Westminster College (Missouri)
LocationOff Westminster Ave., Fulton, Missouri
Area18 acres (7.3 ha)
Architectural styleColonial Revival, Classical Revival
NRHP reference #82004633[28]
Added to NRHPApril 12, 1982

The Westminster College Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982.[28] It encompasses nine contributing buildings and six contributing objects. They include the Hall of Science (1900–1901), Steam Heating Plant (1919–1920), The Columns ("Old" Westminster Hall) (1853–1854), Westminster Hall (1909–1911), the Gymnasium (1928), Swope Chapel Memorial (1967), Washington West House (1907), Re-Union Hall (1903), and Reeves Library (1950–1951).[29]

Historic Westminster Gymnasium[edit]

The Gym was built in 1928 and completely renovated in 1972. This national historic landmark is where Winston Churchill presented his Iron Curtain Speech in March 1946. Vice President Dick Cheney also visited the college during the 2004 campaign and spoke in the Gym. When new bleachers were installed, the old bleachers were recycled into new lockers for the men's and women's locker rooms. The floor has been renamed for Henry “Hank” Iba, Class of 1927, who was an all-state basketball, football and baseball player at Westminster before going on to coach Oklahoma State University to two national basketball titles and the U.S. Olympics basketball team to two gold medals. The Gym houses a basketball/volleyball court, athletic offices, and an exercise room. It also housed an indoor swimming pool until 2016.

Westminster Hall on Westminster College Campus, Fulton MO

Westminster Hall[edit]

This hall was built in 1911 and renovated in 1973–74. It is the main administrative building on campus and houses the Business Office, the Dean of Student Life offices, the Registrar, the Study Abroad Coordinator, and Dean of Faculty offices along with two classrooms. The lower level houses Westminster's Health and Counseling Services, and Learning Opportunities Program.

The columns at Westminster College.jpg

The Columns[edit]

These columns are the only remains of the first Westminster Hall built in 1854 and destroyed by fire in 1909. These Columns are the center of a campus tradition, which is known as the Columns Ceremony.

Newnham Hall[edit]

Formerly the Hall of Science and was originally built in 1901. It is the oldest building on campus and was completely renovated and remodeled in early 1970 as a gift of an alumnus. This building houses several classrooms plus some faculty offices. Greg Richard Resource Center—Office of Career Services is located in the basement; a gift from alumnus and trustee.

Reeves Library and Hazel Wing[edit]

Reeves Library was built in 1951 and expanded & renovated in 1981 and again in 1996. This building houses a collection of more than 100,000 volumes readily available in-house for students and faculty. It is a member of the statewide consortium of 50 academic libraries. The Hazel Wing was dedicated in October 1996 and serves as the technological center on the campus, housing four computer labs, video editing equipment, a multimedia classroom, a language lab, small group meeting, and study rooms as well as offices for the Department of Information Technology. Also located in this building is the writing/math lab.

Hunter Activity Center[edit]

Otherwise known as the "HAC" for short, this building is a common area for both faculty and students. Downstairs is the Johnson College Inn (known to students as "JCI") grill/snack bar which is surrounded by ping-pong tables, pool tables, campus mailboxes, and the TV lounge. Upstairs houses meeting rooms and the HAC Gym. Westminster's HAC Gym includes a racquetball court, indoor track, weight equipment and workout room and is the site for most intramural sports.

Coulter Science Center[edit]

This building was renovated in 2004 with an $18 million gift from the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation. Otherwise known as "CSC," this is where science classes and labs such as chemistry, biology, physics, psychology, environmental science, computer science, and math are held. This building is complete with computer labs on every floor. Westminster faculty were asked to provide their input before architects were hired to draw up the plans. The focus is totally on students and how to create a better learning atmosphere and to offer rooms for student research on a large scale.

Champ Auditorium[edit]

This large building was built in 1966 and seats 1,400 people for concerts, lectures, music productions, and other college events such as Commencement and Freshmen Convocation.


Breakthrough is a sculpture consisting of eight sections of the Berlin Wall. It commemorates the collapse of the Iron Curtain and the end of the Cold War. The sculpture is the work of artist Edwina Sandys, granddaughter of Winston Churchill.[30] It was dedicated to Westminster College in 1990 by former President Ronald Reagan. It is the longest contiguous section of the Berlin Wall in North America.

Christopher Wren designed Church of St Mary Aldermanbury, rebuilt at Westminster College, Missouri

Church of St. Mary, Aldermanbury[edit]

This predecessor of this church building was originally constructed in the City of London during the 12th century, but burned down in the Great Fire of London in 1666. This church was erected as its replacement by Christopher Wren in the 17th century. During World War II, the Wren church was gutted by German bombs and in the mid-1960s, it was dismantled and shipped stone-by-stone to Fulton and reconstructed on Westminster's campus. Today, the church serves as the College's chapel. While it is occasionally claimed that St. Mary's is the oldest church in North America, the statement is not accurate. The transported Wren building is not the original 12th Century building of the St. Mary Aldermanbury parish of London. It is instead the replacement that was built under Wren's direction between 1672 and 1677, and contains no details of the original, being a new construction made largely of Portland stone that Wren had quarried in Dorset. This would make it considerably newer than such ancient North American buildings as the church of San Francisco in Tlaxcala, Mexico, whose construction began in 1521.

People visiting a World War II exhibit at the National Churchill Museum, located on the Westminster College Campus

National Churchill Museum[edit]

Located below the Church of St. Mary, Aldermanbury, this state-of-the-art museum is devoted to Sir Winston Churchill. In 2005, the building underwent a $4 million renovation and reopened in March 2006, marking the 60th anniversary of Churchill's speech at Westminster. This museum features interactive exhibits about Churchill, World War II, Sir Christopher Wren and the Church of St. Mary, Aldermanbury. The Museum also showcases traveling and temporary exhibits, archival resources for scholarly research and a gift shop with unique “Churchillian” merchandise.[31]

Residential life[edit]

Westminster College manages and maintains nine residence halls as well as a limited number of residential homes for student occupancy. In addition, the five national fraternities for men operate their own independent living units. New students are generally assigned to Gage, Marquess, Rice, Scott and Sloss Halls, which compose the Churchill Quadrangle. Westminster's upper-class students live either in one of the four upperclass residence halls (Emerson, Wetterau, Weigle, Sweazey), Westminster Apartments, an on-campus residential house, Westminster Townhouses or a national fraternity house.

Student life[edit]

2017 student demographics[32]
Approx. 1,000 degree-seeking students
56% male
44% female
10% of student body composed of international students

Clubs and organizations[edit]

Westminster students can pick from over 50 clubs and organizations to become involved in on campus.[18] Honorary societies include: Alpha Chi, Alpha Mu Gamma, Beta Beta Beta, FMA National Honor Society, Gamma Theta Upsilon, Kappa Delta Pi, Omicron Delta Kappa, Phi Alpha Delta, Phi Alpha Theta, Pi Mu Epsilon, Psi Chi, Phi Sigma Alpha, Phi Sigma Tau, Sigma Tau Delta, and Theta Alpha Kappa.[33]

Greek life[edit]

Westminster College has a well-established history of Greek Life, dating to 1868. 43% of students are members of Greek organizations. Participation in this heritage has afforded students opportunities in leadership and involvement, both on-campus and within the greater Fulton community. Greek life consists of 5 national fraternities and 3 national sororities. Fraternities and sororities receive national recognition for the successful organizations that have been formed and maintained over the last 150 years.[34]



Global experience[edit]

Study abroad[edit]

Students who are enrolled full-time at Westminster College and who wish to study off-campus may choose from Westminster's 150+ approved foreign and/or domestic programs. Westminster can provide assistance with advising, potential credit transfer and financial assistance.[35]

Take a Friend Home Program[edit]

The Take a Friend Home Program is a global outreach and cultural immersion program through the Churchill Institute for Global Engagement. International students select a friend with whom they would like to travel and share their family experience. Likewise, American students may select an international friend with whom they might like to share their American family experience. Upon return, participating students agree to share their experiences with the Westminster community.

The Hancock Symposium[edit]

The Hancock Symposium is a premier annual lecture series that encourages the study of topics which have a profound global significance. Notable past speakers have included General David Petraeus, Robert Kennedy, Eugene Washington, among others.

Churchill Institute[edit]

The Churchill Institute incorporates the life and work of Churchill into the whole Westminster curriculum and across the range of activities and events that underpin the whole Westminster experience, enhancing the College's mission and elevating its profile. Signature programs of The Churchill Institute include the Westminster Symposium, the Fulbright-Robertson lecture and a new program, Profiles in Leadership.

Model United Nations[edit]

The Model United Nations (Model UN) program that provides students interested in international diplomacy the knowledge and skills relating to the United Nations and global issues. Model UN students participate in two conferences each year: the American Model United Nations Conference in Chicago, Illinois, and the Midwest Model United Nations Conference in St. Louis, Missouri. The conferences enable students to experience a United Nations simulation by being delegates of different countries and representing their country's interests in conference committees.[36]

Projects for Peace[edit]

Since 2007, teams of Westminster students have completed international service projects through the Projects for Peace grant program, associated with the Davis United World College scholarship program. Students design a public service project and apply for the Projects for Peace grant. Through this program, Westminster students have performed service projects in Rwanda, Ethiopia, Nepal, and other countries. Past projects have included health needs assessment, greenhouse construction, arts programs, and water purification.[37]


Graduating Seniors passing through the Columns at Westminster College

The Columns Ceremony[edit]

Six columns remain from the original college building which burned down in 1909. All students pass through the Columns as a new student and again as graduates. The first ceremony serves as a symbol of a students’ entrance into college life and the Westminster community. The other symbolizes entering the world prepared with knowledge and experience gained at Westminster.

The Skulls of Seven[edit]

The Skulls of Seven is an honor society, founded in 1898, that prides itself on its commitment to seven virtues: tradition, history, scholarship, loyalty and friendship, citizenship, service, and honor. The Skulls of Seven are defenders of college tradition and are chosen for their adherence to the seven virtues with the duty of upholding these values. These six seniors and one junior are selected based on their proven devotion to the college and their positive representation of Westminster. This society has existed for over 100 years. The continuing purpose of the Skulls is always and ever the welfare of the college.


Westminster College Athletics logo

Westminster College is a NCAA Division III school and belongs to the St. Louis Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SLIAC). Westminster sports include baseball, basketball (M&W), cheerleading, cross country (M&W), dance, football, golf (M&W), soccer (M&W), softball, tennis (M&W), track and field (M&W), volleyball, lacrosse, and wrestling (M&W).[38]

Service and leadership[edit]

The Emerson Center for Leadership & Service is named in honor of William "Bill" Emerson, a 1959 Westminster College graduate, who served eight terms on behalf of Missouri's Eighth District in the U.S. House of Representatives, beginning in 1980. The Center helps enhance Westminster's student involvement, multicultural student development, spiritual life, international student services, leadership development & education, and community involvement. Westminster College encourages its students to participate in service activities. Some projects and organizations students work with every year include: MLK Day of Service, American Red Cross, United Way, Habitat for Humanity, the Food Bank, the Humane Society, Coalition Against Rape and Domestic Violence (CARD-V), the Davis Foundation Projects for Peace, and charity: water.

The Price Leadership Program was established at Westminster in 2017 by Westminster graduate Robert Price, Jr., Class of 1965, and his sons, Robert Price III, Class of 1989, and Ryan Price, Class of 1993. The program seeks to prepare all Westminster students for leadership in their communities and future careers through campus activities and the establishment of a leadership major program. The Price Leadership Program incorporates technology, alumni mentoring, and character-based education to help students prepare for their futures as leaders in a global community. The Cherry-Price Leadership Lecture was established in early 2017 as a part of this program, funded by Robert Price, Jr., and Howdy Cherry, Class of 1965, with the inaugural lecture delivered by Arnold Donald, CEO of the Carnival Corporation. The lectureship is intended to provide insight into the character traits of successful leaders.[39]

Other lecture series have been established to bring prominent leaders to campus for the benefit of students. The IBM Lecture in Business and Finance was established by the IBM corporation to bring world leaders in business and finance to campus.[40] The Harrod-C.S. Lewis Legacy Lecture explores topics and issues that were important to the writings of noted Christian theologian and novelist C.S. Lewis.[41]

Notable alumni[edit]


  1. ^ As of June 30, 2015. "Westminster College". Regional Universities Miswest. US News & World Report. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  2. ^ "Faculty & Staff Directory". Westminster. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  3. ^ Westminster College Graphic Identity Standards Manual (PDF). Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  4. ^ a b "Westminster College – Other Notable Speakers". www.westminster-mo.edu. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  5. ^ a b Parrish, William E. Westminster College: An Informal History, 1851–1999. Fulton, Mo: Westminster College, 2000. Print. OCLC Number 45495552
  6. ^ "Campus Facilities/Campus Buildings".
  7. ^ "50th Anniversary of Winston Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech," Margaret Thatcher. C-SPAN. March 6, 1996, Fulton, MO.
  8. ^ "River of Time and Imperative of Action," Mikhail Gorbachev. C-SPAN. May 6, 1992, Fulton, MO.
  9. ^ "Bush Rally at Westminster College," George H.W. Bush. C-SPAN. October 18, 1988, Fulton, MO.
  10. ^ Westminster College Campus Catalog, 2002 – 2003.
  11. ^ "Endowment". Archived from the original on 2014-02-19.
  12. ^ "Hancock Symposium".
  13. ^ "Take a Friend Home".
  14. ^ "Undergraduate Scholars Forum".
  15. ^ "First Online Classes".
  16. ^ "Washington University Partnership".
  17. ^ a b "Westminster College - College Presidents". westminster-mo.edu. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  18. ^ a b "Facts About Westminster". Westminster. 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  19. ^ "Westminster College - Dual-Degree Engineering". www.westminster-mo.edu. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  20. ^ "Westminster College - Dual-Degree Nursing". www.westminster-mo.edu. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  21. ^ "Westminster College - Dual-Degree Chiropractic". www.westminster-mo.edu. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  22. ^ "Best Colleges" Rankings and Reviews. U.S. News & World Report.
  23. ^ "Most International Students: National Liberal Arts Colleges." U.S. News & World Report.
  24. ^ McMullen, Laura. "10 Colleges With Most Students in Fraternities" 2011. U.S. News & World Report.
  25. ^ ""Best Midwestern Colleges" Princeton Review College Ranking. ''The Princeton Review''". Princetonreview.com. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  26. ^ ""#113 Westminster College" America's Best Colleges. ''Forbes''". Forbes.com. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  27. ^ ""2012 Liberal Arts Colleges Rankings. Washington Monthly". Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  28. ^ a b National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  29. ^ Warren Hollrah, Ann Stimble, Eve Saunders, and Karen Grace (August 1980). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Westminster College Historic District" (PDF). Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  30. ^ edwinasandys.com
  31. ^ "Winston Churchill Museum in Fulton, MO". National Churchill Museum. November 13, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  32. ^ "Westminster College - Facts about Westminster". www.westminster-mo.edu. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  34. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 30, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 4, 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  36. ^ http://www.westminster-mo.edu/churchillinstitute/ModelUn/default.html
  37. ^ "Westminster College - Projects for Peace". www.westminster-mo.edu. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  38. ^ "St. Louis Intercollegiate Athletic Conference". Sliac.org. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  39. ^ "Carnival Cruise Line CEO to Lecture at Westminster, March 1". News at Westminster College. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  40. ^ "Westminster College - IBM Lectureship in Business and Finance". www.westminster-mo.edu. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  41. ^ "Westminster College - C.S. Lewis Lecture". www.westminster-mo.edu. Retrieved January 4, 2018.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°50′54″N 91°57′22″W / 38.8483°N 91.956°W / 38.8483; -91.956