Purple Line Extension

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Westside Subway Extension)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
LAMetroLogo.svg Purple Line Extension Purple Line 
PurpleLineComing-(2).jpg
Signage announcing future site of Purple Line in Miracle Mile.
Overview
TypeRapid transit
SystemMetro Rail
StatusUnder construction
LocaleMid-Wilshire, Westwood, Century City, Los Angeles and Beverly Hills
TerminiWilshire/Western (current)
Westwood/VA Hospital (future)
Websitehttps://metro.net/projects/westside
Operation
Planned opening2023 (section 1)[1]
2025–2026 (section 2 and 3)
Operator(s)LAMetroLogo.svg Metro (LACMTA)
Technical
Line length9 mi (14 km)
Number of tracks2
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Route map

Wilshire/Western
Down arrow Opening 2023
Wilshire/La Brea
Wilshire/Fairfax
Wilshire/La Cienega
Down arrow Opening 2025
Wilshire/Rodeo station
Century City Station
Down arrow Opening 2026
Westwood/UCLA
Westwood/VA Hospital

The Purple Line Extension, formerly known as the Westside Subway Extension and the Subway to the Sea, is a new heavy rail subway corridor in Los Angeles County, extending the Metro Purple Line from its current terminus at Wilshire/Western station in Los Angeles to the Westside region. Currently under construction, the corridor will become part of the Los Angeles County Metro rail system.[2]

The project is being planned by Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro). The subway has been given high priority by Metro in its long range plan,[3] and funding for the project is included in Measure R and Measure M.[4]

The draft environmental impact report was completed in September 2010. A locally preferred alternative was selected in October 2010. Metro released the final environmental impact report in 2012. The project was approved between Western Avenue and La Cienega Boulevard at the Metro Board of Directors meeting on April 26, 2012, with the western leg, including the controversial Century City location, deferred until the next board meeting. The location of the Century City station at Constellation Boulevard was approved by the Metro board of directors on May 24, 2012.[5][6]

Currently this projects phase one and phase two are under construction. Combined, the two sections will add nearly 7 miles (11 km) of heavy rail service to the City of Los Angeles. Construction on phase 1, between the existing Wilshire/Western station and the planned Wilshire/La Cienega station, started on November 11, 2014.[7] Phase two pre-construction work between Wilshire/La Cienega station and Century City station began in April 2017 and the official phase two groundbreaking ceremony took place on February 23rd, 2018. [8] Phase 3 advanced utility relocation pre-groundbreaking work began in February 2018 for the future Westwood/UCLA station and Westwood/VA Hospital station. This work will continue for two years.[9] No groundbreaking for phase three has been scheduled. A Phase 4 has been also talked about extending the Purple Line from the Westwood/VA Hospital Station under Wilshire Blvd to Santa Monica beach, connecting with the Expo Line, and the future BRT on Lincoln Blvd.

Overview[edit]

Current plans are to extend the line and necessary infrastructure west to Westwood. The following new subway stations will be built:[10]

Funding is being sought to accelerate the project's timeline as officials prefer to open all stations by the start of the 2028 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games, which Los Angeles will host.[11]

History[edit]

Early concepts[edit]

Early transit planners recognized the importance of Wilshire Boulevard as a spine and key boulevard in Los Angeles. Early plans for regional Metro Rail envisioned a rapid-transit route between Downtown and the Westside, with a branch going north on Fairfax to Hollywood and into the San Fernando Valley.[12] In 1961, the "New Proposed Backbone Route Plan" described a subway along Wilshire Boulevard from Westwood to Downtown (and then elevated to El Monte).[13] This project was never funded. Ballot initiatives in 1968 and 1974 to build a subway to West Los Angeles were rejected by voters, but in 1980 voters passed Proposition A, which created a half-cent county sales tax to fund rail construction. Ultimately, the Southern California Rapid Transit District (one of Metro's predecessors) planned a subway that would extend from Downtown Los Angeles to Fairfax Avenue, then north on Fairfax to Hollywood and the Valley. Due to the "methane zone" (see below), that plan was modified, and Vermont Avenue was chosen for the north-south route instead of Fairfax.[14]

Prior opposition and halt of Wilshire branch[edit]

Several factors led to the eventual halt of plans to extend the subway west along Wilshire Boulevard. For decades, the route was mired in political and socioeconomic debate, with politicians giving vent to anti-subway sentiments and NIMBY isolationism. The City of Beverly Hills also opposed the subway, as did two key legislators from the area: Congressman Henry Waxman and Los Angeles City Councilman Zev Yaroslavsky.

Following a methane explosion in 1985 at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax and Third Street, Congressman Waxman worked to legally designate a large part of Mid-Wilshire as a "methane zone."[15] This zone stretched on either side of Wilshire Boulevard from Hancock Park to west of Fairfax (through areas of his district where subway opposition was strongest). Waxman was able to pass federal legislation banning all tunneling through this zone. Subsequently, any plans for a subway west of Western Avenue diverted the line south around the methane zone, using Crenshaw, Pico, and San Vicente Boulevards. These plans never came to fruition, and to qualify for federal funding, the SCRTD instead started anew and rerouted the subway north on Vermont Avenue, then traveling west under Hollywood Boulevard and then north toward the Valley. The Red Line was completed in 2000.

The Red Line project (which includes both of the present-day Red Line and Purple Line corridors) began in 1986. Soon after construction began, the project began to draw a considerable amount of bad press. Access to many local businesses was blocked for weeks, causing some small businesses to shut down. Disagreements arose between Metro and Tutor-Saliba (general contractor on the project) over tens of millions of dollars in cost overruns. A sinkhole in Hollywood seemed to symbolize the disastrous nature of the subway project.[16] As a result, in 1998 voters approved a measure sponsored by County Supervisor Yaroslavsky that banned use of Proposition A and Prop C sales tax funds for any subway tunneling in the county. This effectively ended any chance of a Westside Subway in the foreseeable future.[15]

The segment of the Red Line project (since renamed the Purple Line) to Wilshire/Western was completed and began service in 1996. Wilshire/Western is presently the western terminus of the Purple Line.

New support and approval[edit]

In 2000, an urban art group known as Heavy Trash placed signs advertising a fictional "Aqua Line". The signs, with the text "Coming Soon", showed a subway route extending along Wilshire to the ocean, with 10 station stops. Although the campaign was a hoax, it demonstrated newfound support and revealed the frustrations surrounding the lack of a subway connecting Santa Monica and the Westside with Downtown Los Angeles.[17] The name "Aqua Line" was later repurposed as the proposed name for the Expo Line.

During the 2000s, support for the subway began to materialize, largely due to the massive impact of traffic on Wilshire Boulevard and throughout the region. The Metro Rapid bus line that currently operates along Wilshire Blvd. runs at capacity. In 2005, Los Angeles voters elected Antonio Villaraigosa mayor of Los Angeles. In his campaign and after the election, Villaraigosa declared an extension of a subway line to Santa Monica a major priority, offering visionary slogans such as "subway to the sea", "the most utilized subway in the nation, maybe the world," and "the most cost-effective public-transportation project in America." As mayor, Villaraigosa served several one-year-long terms as Metro Board chairman.

In December 2005, Congressman Henry Waxman, who had sponsored the "methane zone" tunneling ban 20 years earlier, championed the reversal of his own legislation, upon a committee's assertion that tunneling through the methane zone was now safe. To make this happen, Waxman introduced new congressional legislation (H.R. 4653) to overturn the ban.

In July 2006, the Metro board approved staff and funding to initiate a Major Investment Study (MIS) to study the corridor west of Western Avenue for a possible subway extension.[18] In the following month, the Metro Board voted to designate the Wilshire branch of the Red Line, between Union Station and Wilshire/Western Station, as the Purple Line.[19]

With a new name and a new study initiated, the Purple Line extension began to receive public support from several organizations. In 2006, the Westside Cities Council of Governments endorsed the extension.[20] In September 2006, both Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and UCLA joined the Council's Mass Transit Committee to advocate for the subway extension.[21] In 2007, the Beverly Hills City Council endorsed a Wilshire alignment that includes one station at the corner of Wilshire and La Cienega boulevards and another on Wilshire Boulevard between Beverly Drive and Rodeo Drive.[22]

On June 28, 2007, the Metro board approved a $3.6 million contract with Parsons Brinckerhoff to provide an Alternatives Analysis (AA), an assessment of tunnel feasibility, and conceptual engineering with options for future preliminary engineering and environmental clearance for this extension.[23]

Congresssmember Henry Waxman's legislation to lift the ban on tunneling through the "methane zone" finally became law in December 2007, as part of the 2008 omnibus spending bill.[24] The passage of this long-awaited legislation allowed, for the first time in two decades, the planning and building of a westward extension of the subway.

In 2009, the Wilshire Subway Extension was included in Metro's Long Range Transportation Plan, and environmental studies were begun.[3]

Environmental review process[edit]

A map of current Metro Rail lines and current projects. The planned route of the Purple Line Extension is in dotted purple.

Initial alternatives analysis[edit]

During the alternatives analysis, many alternatives were considered.[25] These included different alignments, as well as several modes of transit (heavy rail, light rail, bus rapid transit and monorail). Most alignments were variations/combinations of two basic alignments: the "Wilshire alignment" and the "West Hollywood alignment".[26]

  • The Wilshire alignment has been suggested as a corridor to the Westside for decades. Wilshire Boulevard has many destinations along its path, including Miracle Mile, Beverly Hills, and Century City. This route heads west from Wilshire/Western primarily along Wilshire Boulevard until it reaches Santa Monica Boulevard. At that point, the route diverts through Century City before returning to Wilshire in Westwood.
  • The West Hollywood alignment (sometimes known as the "Pink Line") was proposed during the public scoping process. This route travels along Santa Monica Boulevard and San Vicente Boulevard, connecting Hollywood/Highland in the north to the Wilshire route in the south.[27] The West Hollywood route generated considerable support from the public, transit advocates, and the City of West Hollywood.

Other alignments studied involved various deviations from Wilshire Boulevard, to allow service to destinations such as Beverly Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, and Farmers Market.

The Alternatives Analysis recommended further study on four alternatives: "No Build", TSM (Transportation Systems Management), the Wilshire Alternative, and a combination Wilshire/West Hollywood Alternative. Both build alternatives use heavy rail (HRT) as its transit mode, primarily because this would allow interconnection to the existing Metro Rail subway system. All proposed alignments involving other transit modes (monorail, LRT, and BRT) were eliminated.

DEIR alternatives[edit]

The five alternatives considered in the Draft Environmental Impact Report are:

DEIR Alternative Description New trips
(daily)[28]
Estimated cost
(billions)[28]
Alternative 1[29] Wilshire route to UCLA 24,142 $4.036
Alternative 2[30] Wilshire route to VA 27,615 $4.358
Alternative 3[31] Wilshire route to Santa Monica 35,235 $6.116
Alternative 4[32] Wilshire route to VA, plus West Hollywood route 31,224 $6.985
Alternative 5[33] Wilshire route to Santa Monica, plus West Hollywood route 40,123 $8.747

Alternatives 3 and 5 are the build alternatives carried over from the alternatives analysis (AA). In addition, three new alternatives (Alternatives 1, 2, and 4) were added. These new alternatives are variations of the two AA-recommended alternatives which all stop short of Santa Monica. They were added to reflect the realities of limited available funds, as well as the priorities in Metro's Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP).

The following table shows all potential metro stations, and the alternatives for which they apply:

Station Alt 1 Alt 2 Alt 3 Alt 4 Alt 5
Wilshire/Crenshaw × - × × ×
Wilshire/La Brea × × × × ×
Wilshire/Fairfax × × × × ×
Wilshire/La Cienega × × × × ×
Wilshire/Rodeo × × × × ×
Century City × × × × ×
Westwood/UCLA × × × × ×
Westwood/VA × × × ×
Wilshire/Bundy × ×
Wilshire/26th St × ×
Wilshire/16th St × ×
Wilshire/4th St × ×
Santa Monica/La Brea × ×
Santa Monica/Fairfax × ×
Santa Monica/San Vicente × ×
Beverly Center × ×

In addition to the five build alternatives, the DEIR identified six sets of options:[34]

Name Issue Options
Option 1 Should a station be built at Wilshire/Crenshaw?
  • Yes
  • No
Option 2 Where should the Wilshire/Fairfax station be located?
  • Slightly west of intersection
  • Under intersection
Option 3 Where should the Wilshire/La Cienega station be located?
  • East of intersection
  • West of intersection
Option 4 Which route should be used between Wilshire/Rodeo and Century City stations?
  • "Santa Monica Blvd" alignment
  • "Constellation North" alignment
  • "Constellation South" alignment
Where should the Century City station be located?
  • Santa Monica Blvd.
  • Constellation Blvd.
Which route should be used between Century City and Westwood/UCLA stations?
  • "East" alignment
  • "Central" alignment
  • "West" alignment
Option 5 Where should the Westwood/UCLA station be located?
  • Wilshire/Gayley
  • Wilshire/Westwood
Option 6 Where should the Westwood/VA Hospital station be located?
  • South of Wilshire
  • North of Wilshire

Route Selection: Alternative 2[edit]

In September 2010, Metro published the draft environmental impact statement for the project. The report made no specific recommendation among the five alternatives.[34] However, Metro staff did signal that only Alternatives 1 and 2 would be serious candidates for the Locally Preferred Alternative, since only those two alternatives match the project scope defined in Measure R and Metro's Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP).

In October 2010, Metro staff recommended continuing study on Alternative 2. Staff also recommended:[35]

  • Crenshaw Station: delete.
  • Wilshire/Fairfax Station: build east station option.
  • La Cienega Station: build east station option.
  • West Hollywood Connection Structure: delete.
  • Century City Station:
  • continue to study both Santa Monica and Constellation station options.
  • continue to study Constellation North and Santa Monica alignment options between Beverly Hills and Century City.
  • continue to study only the East alignment option between Century City and Westwood.
  • Westwood/UCLA Station: continue to study both Wilshire/Westwood and Wilshire/Gayley station options.
  • Westwood/VA Hospital Station: continue to study both VA Hospital North and VA Hospital South station options.
  • Storage and Maintenance Facility: expand existing Division 20 facility.

In eliminating the West Hollywood Connection Structure, Metro staff eliminated the future possibility of a West Hollywood line as a heavy-rail branch of the Wilshire Subway, as described in Alternatives 4 and 5. Staff cited the $135 million cost, as well as lower than expected performance and cost-effectiveness. Staff left open the possibility of other future alternatives which would not require a connection structure such as light rail, with a possible future extension south of Wilshire on San Vicente Boulevard, connecting to a future Crenshaw Line that would run north of Exposition Boulevard.[35]

Due to protests from Beverly Hills residents and local officials, the Metro Board approved an amendment requesting detailed study and comparison of the two Century City station options in the FEIR. Metro eventually chose the Century City station location of Constellation Blvd and Avenue of the Stars intersection displeasing Beverly Hills and its school district as the route travelled under Beverly Hills High School. They preferred the Santa Monica Blvd and Avenue of the Stars intersection. Metro argued earthquake faults and abutting a golf course made the location undesirable and would be underserved. After legal battles and court hearings Metro prevailed proving the DEIR was correct. At the Metro Board meeting in late October 2010, the Metro Board certified the DEIR and accepted the staff recommendation as the Locally Preferred Alternative (LPA). A Metro presentation dated October 29, 2013, shows the route to the Westwood Veteran's Administration Medical Center being approved, and the Phase I segment to La Cienega had commenced.[36] This presentation also shows construction methods and timeline for all three phases.

New Opposition[edit]

During the planning and environmental review process, the Beverly Hills Unified School District and the city of Beverly Hills objected to the placement of the subway tunnel underneath Beverly Hills High School between the Wilshire/Rodeo and Century City stations. Metro chose a route placing the Century City station at Constellation Boulevard instead of Santa Monica Boulevard, due to lower ridership and an earthquake fault zone in the latter area. The school district claimed that Metro did not properly study the route to the Constellation Boulevard station, which it says could pose a safety risk to students. The school district and city filed a lawsuit in July 2012 against Metro.[37] In April 2014, Los Angeles County Superior Court Judge John A. Torribio ruled that Metro had properly conducted environmental studies under the California Environmental Quality Act and a transit hearing under the requirements of the Public Utilities Code.[38] The school district and city appealed the decision to the California Court of Appeal.[39] Beverly Hills Unified School District and Beverly Hills interest groups after spending $10 million on the lawsuit through August 2017, BHUSD lost the appeal to prevent Metro from contracting with the FTA for the subway project. [40]

On January 26, 2018, BHUSD again submitted a lawsuit against the FTA and Metro for them to conduct another environmental study for health reasons and prohibit the FTA from granting federal funds to the Project until the agencies have fully complied with federal law. [40] BHUSD alleged in June of 2018, purple line construction in Century Park East property is affecting their property. Metro responded they are complying with their compact agreement made prior to construction.

Project budget and planning[edit]

The projects estimated costs have increased since it was first proposed in the 1950's. Metro proposed Measure R in 2008, estimated costs in 2008 exceeded metros funds available so they decided to promote the passage of heavy rail to Westwood and dropped the use of the locally used term "Subway to the Sea". This was done to lower the costs, bring public awareness to help pass measure R and cover central LA and connect Century City to DTLA. The Expo Line was under construction at the time to Santa Monica beach and Metro didn't want to promote two lines to Santa Monica as they needed countywide support for passage.[34]

Metro estimated in the late 2000s the full project would cost $4.2 billion (2008 dollars). After the passage of the Measure R sales tax in 2008, an additional $4.074 billion was added to its construction funds. In 2016, LA County voters passed Measure M, funds were appropriated to accelerate the project.

Metro estimates that the 9 miles, 7 new stations, three phase project will costs a total of $8.2 Billion.[41] Metro has received over half of its funds from New Start grants and low interest loans from the federal government.[30]

According to the accelerated schedule after measure M, the full extension would ultimately be opened in three segments as follows:[1]

  • 2023: open to La Cienega;
  • 2026: open to Century City;
  • 2035: open to Westwood/VA.[1]

Construction[edit]

Phase One[edit]

Signage announcing future site of Purple Line in Miracle Mile

In July 2014, a joint venture by Skanska, Traylor and J.F. Shea Co was selected by the Metro board, in a 9 to 3 vote, as the winner of the $1.6 billion contract for Section 1. Skanska was selected over a competing bid by Dragados that was $192 million lower because of Skanska's experience building other Los Angeles transportation projects, like the Expo Line and the Regional Connector.[42] Groundbreaking occurred for Section 1 of the extension in November 2014. The 3.9-mile (6.3 km) segment will cost $2.8 billion: the federal government will provide a $1.25 billion New Starts grant and an $856 million infrastructure loan, with the remainder of the budget from Measure R funds.[43] When complete, each station will have a ridership of around 62,000 on weekdays.[7] Twin Herrenknecht boring machines began digging the 3.92-mile (6.31 km) section in the fall of 2018.[9]

Phase Two[edit]

In January 2017, phase two of the project, which will extend trackage 2.6 miles (4.2 km) further to Century City, was awarded a $1.6 billion grant from the Federal Transit Administration, covering the majority of the $2.6 billion estimated cost of the project.[44] Federal funding was secured through the last months of the Obama Administration and local funds with the passage of Measure M.[45] On January 27, the Metro board awarded a $1.37 billion construction contract to a joint venture between Tutor Perini and O&G Industries, with construction scheduled to be completed by 2025.[44] Phase two was given notice to proceed in April 2017 by Metro to Tutor/O&G and it began the preconstruction phase. Major work at the planned Wilshire/Rodeo Station in Beverly Hills began at the end of 2018.[8] The official groundbreaking ceremony for phase 2 took place on February 23rd, 2018.[8]

Phase Three[edit]

Advance utility relocation began in February 2018 for the future Westwood/UCLA station and will continue for two years. The $410-million contract with Frontier-Kemper/Tutor Perini JV was approved to excavate the 2.59 miles of twin tunnels for the third section of the Purple Line. Metro is working on applying and receiving a total of $1.3-billion federal "New Starts" grants necessary for section three to start tunnel construction. The money will be paired with local funds approved by LA county voters through measures R and M.[9][46] While federal funding for Phase 3 had already been approved by Congress, there was some delay from the Trump Administration[47] in issuing funds. Metro needed a "Letter of No-Prejudice" from the USDOT before October 2018, as it would have had to re-issue the tunneling contract, delaying the project. USDOT finally issued the letter and $491 Million in starting grants in September.[48] and another $100 Million in November of 2018 allowing Metro and Frontier-Kemper/Tutor Perini JV to proceed on expedited schedule.[49] Metro is currently working to secure more matching federal grant funds for Section 3.[50]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Los Angeles Metro. "Purple Line Extension". Retrieved 2018-05-02.
  2. ^ "Purple Line Extension (project website)". Metro (LACMTA). April 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
  3. ^ a b "2009 Final Long Range Transportation Plan" (PDF). Metro (LACMTA). 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  4. ^ "Measure R". Metro (LACMTA). June 26, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
  5. ^ "Westside Subway Extension Final EIR/EIS". Metro (LACMTA). February 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
  6. ^ Steve Hymon (April 26, 2012). "Metro Board approves final environmental study for Westside Subway Extension". The Source. Metro. Retrieved 2012-04-26.
  7. ^ a b Dave Sotero (November 10, 2014). "Long wait over: groundbreaking held for Wilshire Boulevard subway extension". The Source. Metro. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
  8. ^ a b c "Purple Line phase 2 groundbreaking!". 23 February 2018.
  9. ^ a b c "Update on construction progress for the Purple Line Extension". Thesource.metro.net. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  10. ^ "MAYOR PLANS TO ACCELERATE PUBLIC TRANSIT PROJECTS". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 8 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Stage 2 : GOVERNANCE, LEGAL and VENUE FUNDING" (PDF). La24-prod.s3.amazonaws.com. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  12. ^ "Monorail routes, 1960". The Metro Library archives. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  13. ^ "1961 New Proposed Backbone Fallout Shelter Detail". Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  14. ^ "Years of planning and implementation: Two major urban tunneling projects in Los Angeles, CA, USA" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  15. ^ a b Berkowitz, Eric (August 18, 2005). "The Subway Mayor". LA Weekly. Archived from the original on August 30, 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  16. ^ "Economic Studies: Hollywood Sinkhole". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  17. ^ "Heavy Trash: Aqua Line". Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  18. ^ "Minutes - Special Board Meeting" (PDF). Metro (LACMTA). 2006-06-29. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  19. ^ "Minutes - August 24, 2006 Regular Board Meeting (Item 37)" (PDF). Metro (LACMTA). August 24, 2006. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
  20. ^ "Meeting Notes". October 23, 2006.
  21. ^ "Meeting Notes" Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine. Westside Cities Transportation Committee. September 21, 2006.
  22. ^ City of Beverly Hills Mass Transit Committee, "Final Recommendations-Press Release", January 10, 2007
  23. ^ LACMTA June 28, 2007 Board Meeting Recap of Proceedings
  24. ^ Library of Congress THOMAS Legislative record for H.R. 2764
  25. ^ Task 3.4, Final Initial Alternatives, Screening Report (20c)
  26. ^ Alternatives Analysis Study (Jan 2009)
  27. ^ LACMTA Westside Extension Transit Corridor Study (January 2008)
  28. ^ a b Environmental Impact Report (Sep 2010)
  29. ^ "Westside Subway Extension Alternative 1" (PDF). Metro.net. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  30. ^ a b "Westside Subway Extension Alternative 2" (PDF). Metro.net. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  31. ^ "Westside Subway Extension Alternative 3" (PDF). Metro.net. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  32. ^ "Westside Subway Extension Alternative 4" (PDF). Metro.net. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  33. ^ "Westside Subway Extension Alternative 5" (PDF). Metro.net. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  34. ^ a b c "Draft EIS/EIR - September 2010". Metro.net. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  35. ^ a b "Is there a Pink Line in the way off future?". Thesource.metro.net. 14 October 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  36. ^ "Purple Line Extension Section 1 Advisory Group". L.A. Metro. October 29, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
  37. ^ Nagourney, Adam (July 15, 2012). "Subway Line Meets an Obstruction: Beverly Hills High School". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  38. ^ Nelson, Laura J. (April 3, 2014). "Judge backs subway route". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  39. ^ Groves, Martha (May 29, 2014). "Beverly Hills appeals ruling that lets Metro tunnel under high school". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  40. ^ a b "Beverly Hills School District Files New Lawsuit Against Purple Line Subway". La.streetsblog.org. 29 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  41. ^ http://media.metro.net/projects_studies/westside/images/factsheet_ple_2018.pdf
  42. ^ Nelson, Laura J. (July 24, 2014). "Metro picks Skanska venture to build first phase of Westside subway". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  43. ^ Wiekel, Dan (November 7, 2014). "L.A.'s not-quite 'subway to the sea' finally breaks ground". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  44. ^ a b "Tutor Perini/O&G JV lands LACMTA Purple Line contract". Railway Age. January 27, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
  45. ^ "Notice to proceed issued for section 2 of Purple Line Extension!". Thesource.metro.net. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  46. ^ "Actions taken at June meeting of Metro Board of Directors". 29 June 2018.
  47. ^ "Trump Administration Withholding $1.4 Billion in Transit Funds Authorized by Congress". 13 August 2018.
  48. ^ "Metro Receives Key Federal Approval for Westside Purple Line Extension Section 3". 20 September 2018.
  49. ^ "$100 million federal grant secured for Purple Line section three". 28 November 2018.
  50. ^ "FAQ". www.metro.net.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]