||It has been suggested that List of wheat diseases be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2012.|
The cereal grain wheat is subject to numerous wheat diseases, including bacterial, viral and fungal diseases, as well as parasitic infestations.
- Barley yellow dwarf virus, BYDV
- Brown rust Puccinia recondita
- Common bunt (aka Covered smut) Tilletia caries
- Ergot Claviceps purpurea
- Eyespot Pseudocercosporella herpitrichoides
- Glume blotch Septoria nodorum
- septoria leaf blotch Mycosphaerella graminicola, synonyms: Septoria tritici, Zymoseptoria tritici
- Mildew Erysiphe graminis
- Seedling blight Fusarium spp., Septoria nodorum
- Sharp eyespot Rhizoctonia cerealis
- Spot blotch Biplolaris sorokiana
- Take-all Gaeumannomyces graminis
- Tan spot Pyrenophora tritici-repentis
- Yellow rust Puccinia striiformis
Cereals are at risk from numerous diseases due to the level of intensification necessary for profitable production since the 1970s. More recently varietal diversification, good plant breeding and the availability of effective fungicides have played a prominent part in cereal disease control. Use of break crops and good rotations are also good cultural control measures. The demise of UK straw burning in the 1980s also increased the importance of good disease control.
Active control measures include use of chemical seed treatments for seed-borne diseases and chemical spray applications for leaf and ear diseases. Development of resistance by diseases to established chemicals has been a problem during the previous 30 years.
In the USA
Wheat is subject to more diseases than other grains, and, in some seasons, especially in wet ones, heavier losses are sustained from those diseases than are in other cereal crops. Wheat may suffer from the attack of insects at the root; from blight, which primarily affects the leaf or straw, and ultimately deprives the grain of sufficient nourishment; from mildew on the ear; and from gum of different shades, which lodges on the chaff or cups in which the grain is deposited.
Fungicides used on wheat, grouped by type, with examples of the active chemical ingredient:
- Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHI)
- "Wheat disease management guide" (PDF). HGCA, Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board. 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 October 2014.
- "Cereals/Seed Treatment Trials: Efficacy of seed treatment fungicides in spring barley and spring wheat" (PDF). MTT Agrifood Research Finland. 23 November 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 October 2014.
- Smith, J.; Grimmer, M.; Waterhouse, S. and Paveley, N. (2013). "Quantifying the non-fungicidal effects of foliar applications of fluxapyroxad (Xemium) on stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and yield in winter wheat". Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences 78 (3): 523–535. Abstract
- Rowell, J. B. (1976). "Controlof Leaf Rust on Spring Wheat by Seed Treatment with 4-N-butyl-1.2.4-triazole" (PDF). Phytopathology 66: 1129–1134. doi:10.1094/phyto-66-1129. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2012.
- Cook, R. James and Veseth, Roger (1991) Wheat Health Management APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, ISBN 978-0-89054-111-1
- Gair, R,; Jenkins, J. E. E.; Lester, E. and Bassett, Peter (1987) Cereal Pests and Diseases (4th edition) Farming Press, Ipswich, England, ISBN 978-0-85236-164-1
- Sharma, Indu (editor) (2012). Disease Resistance in Wheat CABI, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, ISBN 978-1-84593-818-5, Google books
- Wheat Diseases and Pests: A Guide for Field Identification Excellent color guide from CIMMYT
- USDA Cereal Disease Laboratory Many information resources
- Identifying and Managing Wheat Rusts, Kansas State University
- CropMonitor - UK Resource for in-season wheat disease control Excellent tool for agronomists and growers