||This article contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. (May 2016)|
|English||wheel of life,
wheel of cyclic existence,
(Wylie: srid pa'i 'khor lo;
THL: sipé khorlo)
|Glossary of Buddhism|
The bhavacakra (Sanskrit; Pāli: bhavacakka; Tibetan: srid pa'i 'khor lo) is a symbolic representation of saṃsāra (or cyclic existence) found on the outside walls of Tibetan Buddhist temples and monasteries in the Indo-Tibetan region. In the Mahayana Buddhism, it is believed that the drawing was designed by the Buddha himself in order to help ordinary people understand Buddhist teachings.
The bhavacakra is popularly referred to as the wheel of life, and may also be glossed as wheel of cyclic existence or wheel of becoming.
- 1 Origin
- 2 Explanation of the diagram
- 3 Psychological interpretation
- 4 Within the Theravada tradition
- 5 English translations of the term bhavacakra
- 6 Gallery
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Sources
- 11 External links
Legend has it that the historical Buddha himself created the first depiction of the bhavacakra, and the story of how he gave the illustration to King Rudrāyaṇa appears in the anthology of Buddhist narratives called the Divyāvadāna.
One of the reasons why the Wheel of Life was painted outside the monasteries and on the walls (and was really encouraged even by the Buddha himself) was to teach this very profound Buddhist philosophy of life and perception to more simple-minded farmers or cowherds. So these images on the Wheel of Life are just to communicate to the general audience.
Explanation of the diagram
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The meanings of the main parts of the diagram are:
- The images in the hub of the wheel represent the three poisons of ignorance, attachment and aversion.
- The second layer represents karma.
- The third layer represents the six realms of samsara.
- The fourth layer represents the twelve links of dependent origination.
- The fierce figure holding the wheel represents impermanence.
- The moon above the wheel represents liberation from samsara or cyclic existence.
- The Buddha pointing to the moon indicates that liberation is possible.
Symbolically, the three inner circles, moving from the center outward, show that the three poisons of ignorance, attachment, and aversion give rise to positive and negative actions; these actions and their results are called karma. Karma in turn gives rise to the six realms, which represent the different types of suffering within samsara.
The fourth and outer layer of the wheel symbolizes the twelve links of dependent origination; these links indicate how the sources of suffering—the three poisons and karma—produce lives within cyclic existence.
The fierce being holding the wheel represents impermanence; this symbolizes that the entire process of samsara or cyclic existence is impermanent, transient, constantly changing. The moon above the wheel indicates liberation. The Buddha is pointing to the moon, indicating that liberation from samsara is possible.
Hub: the three poisons
In the hub of the wheel are three animals: a pig, a snake, and a bird. They represent the three poisons of ignorance, aversion, and attachment, respectively. The pig stands for ignorance; this comparison is based on the Indian concept of a pig being the most foolish of animals, since it sleeps in the dirtiest places and eats whatever comes to its mouth. The snake represents aversion or anger; this is because it will be aroused and strike at the slightest touch. The bird represents attachment (also translated as desire or clinging). The particular bird used in this diagram represents an Indian bird that is very attached to its partner. These three animals represent the three poisons, which are the core of the bhavacakra. From these three poisons, the whole cycle of existence evolves.
In many drawings of the wheel, the snake and bird are shown as coming out of the mouth of the pig, indicating that aversion and attachment arise from ignorance. The snake and bird are also shown grasping the tail of the pig, indicating that they in turn promote greater ignorance.
Under the influence of the three poisons, beings create karma, as shown in the next layer of the circle.
Second layer: karma
The second layer of the wheel shows two-half circles:
- One half-circle (usually light) shows contented people moving upwards to higher states, possibly to the higher realms.
- The other half-circle (usually dark) shows people in a miserable state being led downwards to lower states, possibly to the lower realms.
These images represent karma, the law of cause and effect. The light half-circle indicates people experiencing the results of positive actions. The dark half-circle indicates people experiencing the results of negative actions.
Ringu Tulku states:
- We create karma in three different ways, through actions that are positive, negative, or neutral. When we feel kindness and love and with this attitude do good things, which are beneficial to both ourselves and others, this is positive action. When we commit harmful deeds out of equally harmful intentions, this is negative action. Finally, when our motivation is indifferent and our deeds are neither harmful or beneficial, this is neutral action. The results we experience will accord with the quality of our actions.
Propelled by their karma, beings take rebirth in the six realms of samsara, as shown in the next layer of the circle.
Third layer: the six realms of samsara
The third layer of the wheel is divided into six sections that represent the six realms of samsara, or cyclic existence, the process of cycling through one rebirth after another. These six realms are divided into three higher realms and three lower realms. The wheel can also be represented as having five realms, combining the God realm and the Demi-god realm into a single realm.
The three higher realms are shown in the top half of the circle:
- God realm (Deva): the gods lead long and enjoyable lives full of pleasure and abundance, but they spend their lives pursuing meaningless distractions and never think to practice the dharma. When death comes to them, they are completely unprepared; without realizing it, they have completely exhausted their good karma (which was the cause for being reborn in the god realm) and they suffer through being reborn in the lower realms.
- Demi-god realm (Asura): the demi-gods have pleasure and abundance almost as much as the gods, but they spend their time fighting among themselves or making war on the gods. When they make war on the gods, they always lose, since the gods are much more powerful. The demi-gods suffer from constant fighting and jealousy, and from being killed and wounded in their wars with each other and with the gods.
- Human realm (Manuṣya): humans suffer from hunger, thirst, heat, cold, separation from friends, being attacked by enemies, not getting what they want, and getting what they don't want. They also suffer from the general sufferings of birth, old age, sickness and death. Yet the human realm is considered to be the most suitable realm for practicing the dharma, because humans are not completely distracted by pleasure (like the gods or demi-gods) or by pain and suffering (like the beings in the lower realms).
The three lower realms are shown in the bottom half of the circle:
- Animal realm (Tiryagyoni): wild animals suffer from being attacked and eaten by other animals; they generally lead lives of constant fear. Domestic animals suffer from being exploited by humans; for example, they are slaughtered for food, overworked, and so on.
- Hungry ghost realm (Preta): hungry ghosts suffer from extreme hunger and thirst. They wander constantly in search of food and drink, only to be miserably frustrated any time they come close to actually getting what they want. For example, they see a stream of pure, clear water in the distance, but by the time they get there the stream has dried up. Hungry ghosts have huge bellies and long, thin necks. On the rare occasions that they do manage to find something to eat or drink, the food or water burns their neck as it goes down to their belly, causing them intense agony.
- Hell realm (Naraka): hell beings endure unimaginable suffering for eons of time. There are actually eighteen different types of hells, each inflicting a different kind of torment. In the hot hells, beings suffer from unbearable heat and continual torments of various kinds. In the cold hells, beings suffer from unbearable cold and other torments.
Among the six realms, the human realm is considered to offer the best opportunity to practice the dharma. In some representations of the wheel, there is a buddha or bodhisattva depicted within each realm, trying to help sentient beings find their way to nirvana.
The outer rim of the wheel is divided into twelve sections that represent the Twelve Nidānas. As previously stated, the three inner layers of the wheel show that the three poisons lead to karma, which leads to the suffering of the six realms. The twelve links of the outer rim show how this happens—by presenting the process of cause and effect in detail.
These twelve links can be understood to operate on an outer or inner level.
- On the outer level, the twelve links can be seen to operate over several lifetimes; in this case, these links show how our past lives influence our current lifetime, and how our actions in this lifetime influence our future lifetimes.
- On the inner level, the twelve links can be understood to operate in every moment of existence in an interdependent manner. On this level, the twelve links can be applied to show the effects of one particular action.
The twelve causal links, paired with their corresponding symbols, are:
- Avidyā lack of knowledge – a blind person, often walking, or a person peering out
- Saṃskāra constructive volitional activity – a potter shaping a vessel or vessels
- Vijñāna consciousness – a man or a monkey grasping a fruit
- Nāmarūpa name and form (constituent elements of mental and physical existence) – two men afloat in a boat
- Ṣaḍāyatana six senses (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind) – a dwelling with six windows
- Sparśa contact – lovers consorting, kissing, or entwined
- Vedanā pain – an arrow to the eye
- Tṛṣṇa thirst – a drinker receiving drink
- Upādāna grasping – a man or a monkey picking fruit
- Bhava coming to be – a couple engaged in intercourse, a standing, leaping, or reflective person
- Jāti being born – woman giving birth
- Jarāmaraṇa old age and death – corpse being carried
The figure holding the wheel: impermanence
This figure is most commonly depicted as Yama, the lord of death. Regardless of the figure depicted, the inner meaning remains the same–that the entire process of cyclic existence (samsara) is transient; everything within this wheel is constantly changing.
Yama has the following attributes:
- He wears a crown of five skulls that symbolize the impermanence of the five aggregates. (The skulls are also said to symbolize the five poisons.)
- He has a third eye that symbolizes the wisdom of understanding impermanence.
- He is sometimes shown adorned with a tiger skin, which symbolizes fearfulness. (The tiger skin is typically seen hanging beneath the wheel.)
- His four limbs (that are clutching the wheel) symbolize the sufferings of birth, old age, sickness, and death.
The moon: liberation
Thubten Chodron states:
The moon is nirvana [i.e. liberation]. Nirvana is the cessation of all the unsatisfactory experiences and their causes in such a way that they can no longer occur again. It's the removal, the final absence, the cessation of those things, their non-arising. The Buddha is pointing us to that.
Chögyam Trungpa states:
The truth of cessation is a personal discovery. It is not mystical and does not have any connotations of religion or psychology. It is simply your experience ... Likewise, cessation is not just a theoretical discovery, but an experience that is very real to you–a sudden gain. It is like experiencing instantaneous good health: you have no cold, no flu, no aches, and no pains in your body. You feel perfectly well, absolutely refreshed and wakeful! Such an experience is possible.
Some drawings may show an image of a "pure land" to indicate liberation, rather than a moon.
The Buddha pointing to the moon: the path to liberation
Thubten Chodron states:
So the Buddha's gesture is like the path to enlightenment. It's not that the Buddha is the cause of nirvana. The Buddha is a cooperative condition of our nirvana. He indicates the path to us, he points out to us what to practice and what to abandon in order to be liberated. When we follow the path, we get the result, which is nirvana.
Chögyam Trungpa states:
The nature of the path is more like an exploration or an expedition than following a path that has already been built. When people hear that they should follow the path, they might think that a ready-make system exists, and that individual expressions are not required. They may think that one does not have to surrender or give or open. But when you actually begin to tread on the path, you realize that you have to clear out the jungle and all the trees, underbrush, and obstacles growing in front of you. You have to bypass tigers and elephants and poisonous snakes.
Mark Epstein states:
The entire Wheel of Life is but a representation of the possibility of transforming suffering by changing the way we relate to it. As the Buddha taught in his final exhortation to his faithful attendant Ananda, it is only through becoming a "lamp unto yourself" that enlightenment can be won. Liberation from the Wheel of Life does not mean escape, the Buddha implied. It means clear perception of oneself, of the entire range of the human experience ...
According to the Buddhist tradition, the Buddha told his followers:
I have shown you the path that leads to liberation
But you should know that liberation depends upon yourself.
Drawings of the Bhavacakra usually contain an inscription consisting of a few lines of text that explain the process that keeps us in samara and how to reverse that process.
From a psychological point of view, different karmic actions contribute to one's metaphorical existence in different realms, or rather, different actions reinforce personal characteristics described by the realms.
Mark Epstein states:
The core question of Buddhist practice, after all, is the psychological one of "Who am I?" Investigating this question requires exploration of the entire wheel. Each realm becomes not so much a specific place but rather a metaphor for a different psychological state, with the entire wheel becoming a representation of neurotic suffering.
Within the Theravada tradition
T. B. Karunaratne states:
Though in Theravāda literature there is no mention of an actual pictorial execution of a "Wheel of Life," yet the concept of comparing Dependent Origination to a wheel is not unknown. In the Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga), the famous commentator Buddhaghosa Acariya says:
- "It is the beginningless round of rebirths that is called the 'Wheel of the round of rebirths' (saṃsāracakka). Ignorance (avijjā) is its hub (or nave) because it is its root. Ageing-and-death (jarā-maraṇa) is its rim (or felly) because it terminates it. The remaining ten links (of the Dependent Origination) are its spokes (i.e. karma formations [saṅkhāra] up to process of becoming [bhava])."
English translations of the term bhavacakra
The term bhavacakra has been translated into English as:
- Wheel of becoming
- Wheel of cyclic existence
- Wheel of existence
- Wheel of life
- Wheel of rebirth
- Wheel of saṃsāra
- Wheel of suffering
- Wheel of transformation
A painting of the bhavacakra from Bhutan.
- Buddhism and psychology
- Buddhist cosmology
- Buddhist symbolism
- Dependent origination
- Karma in Buddhism
- Kleshas (Buddhism)
- Rota Fortunae
- The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things, by Hieronymous Bosch
- Three poisons (Buddhism)
- Dalai Lama (1992), p. 1
- Dzongsar Khyentse (2004), p. 3.
- Dalai Lama (1992), p. 42–43.
- Dalai Lama (1992), p. 41-43.
- Sonam Rinchen (2006), p. 8-9.
- Ringu Tulku (2005), p. 30.
- Dalai Lama (1992), p. 4, 42.
- Ringu Tulku (2005), p. 31.
- Khandro Rinpoche (2003), p. 65-90.
- Chögyam Trungpa (1999), p. 25-50.
- Dalai Lama (1992), p. 5-8.
- Dzongsar Khyentse (2005), p. 2-3.
- Patrul Rinpoche (1998), p. 61-99.
- Gampopa (1998), p. 95-108
- Dalai Lama (1992), p. 8 (from the Introduction by Jeffrey Hopkins)
- Sonam Rinchen (2006), p. 9.
- Thrangu Rinpoche (2001), pp. 3, 32
- Simmer-Brown (1987), p. 24
- Goodman, Location 1492 (Kindel edition)
- Simmer-Brown (1987), p. 28
- Dalai Lama (1992), p. 42–43.
- Birmingham Museum of Art (2010). Birmingham Museum of Art: Guide to the Collection. London, UK: GILES. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-904832-77-5. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
- Khantipalo (1995-2011)
- Thubten Chodron (1993), Part 1 of 5, p. 1
- Dalai Lama (1992), p. 43.
- Thubten Chodron (1993), Part 2 of 5, p. 5
- Chögyam Trungpa (2009), p. 64
- Chögyam Trungpa (2009), p. 91
- Epstein, Mark (2004), p. 40.
- Epstein, Mark (2004), p. 17.
- Karunaratne, T. B. (2008), p. 14.
- Gethin (1998), pp. 158-9.
- Bhikkhu Khantipalo (1995-2011). The Wheel of Birth and Death. Access to Insight. 
- Chögyam Trungpa (1999). The Myth of Freedom and the Way of Meditation. Shambhala
- Chögyam Trungpa (2000). The Tibetan Book of the Dead: The Great Liberation through Hearing in the Bardo. Shambhala
- Chögyam Trungpa (2009). The Truth of Suffering and the Path of Liberation. Shambhala
- Dalai Lama (1992). The Meaning of Life, translated and edited by Jeffrey Hopkins. Wisdom.
- Donath, Dorothy C. (1971). Buddhism for the West: Theravāda, Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna; a comprehensive review of Buddhist history, philosophy, and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Julian Press. ISBN 0-07-017533-0.
- Dzongsar Khyentse (2004). Gentle Voice #22, September 2004 Issue. 
- Dzongsar Khyentse (2005). Gentle Voice #23, April 2005 Issue. 
- Epstein, Mark (2004). Thoughts Without A Thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist Perspective. Basic Books. Kindle Edition.
- Gampopa (1998). The Jewel Ornament of Liberation: The Wish-Fulfilling Gem of the Noble Teachings, by Gampopa, translated by Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen Rinpoche. Snow Lion.
- Goodman, Steven D. (1992). "Situational Patterning: Pratītyasamutpāda." Footsteps on the Diamond Path, Crystal Mirror Series I-III. Dharma Publishing.
- Geshe Sonam Rinchen (2006). How Karma Works: The Twelve Links of Dependent Arising. Snow Lion
- Gethin, Rupert (1998). Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-289223-1.
- Karunaratne, T. B. (2008). The Buddhist Wheel Symbol. Buddhist Publication Society. (http://www.bps.lk/olib/wh/wh137.pdf)
- Khandro Rinpoche (2003). This Precious Life. Shambala
- Patrul Rinpoche (1998). The Words of My Perfect Teacher, translated by the Padmakara Translation Group. Altamira.
- Ringu Tulku (2005). Daring Steps Toward Fearlessness: The Three Vehicles of Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion.
- Simmer-Brown, Judith (1987). "Seeing the Dependent Origination of Suffering as the Key to Liberation." Journal of Contemplative Psychotherapy, VOLUME IV. The Naropa Institute. (ISSN 0894-8577)
- Thrangu Rinpoche (2001). The Twelve Links of Interdependent Origination. Nama Buddha Publications.
- Thubten Chodron. Articles & Transcripts of Teachings on Lamrim: The Gradual Path to Enlightenment. Dharma Friendship Foundation.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bhavacakra.|
- Interactive Tour of the Wheel of Life, buddhanet.net
- Wheel of Life index page, Himalayan Art Resources – allows visitors to view a gallery of images from various public and private collections
- The Wheel of Birth and Death by Bhikkhu Khantipalo, The Wheel Publication No. 147/148/149, Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society 1970
- The Wheel of Suffering, quietmountain.org – brief description focusing on the six realms
- Wheel of Life on Khandro.net