Abdul Kalam Island

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Dr. Abdul Kalam Island
Native name: ଡ଼ଃ. ଅବ୍ଦୁଲ କଲାମ ଦ୍ଵୀପ
Dr. Abdul Kalam Island is located in Odisha
Dr. Abdul Kalam Island
Dr. Abdul Kalam Island
Location of Abdul Kalam Island in Odisha, India
Geography
Location Bay of Bengal
Coordinates 20°45′29″N 87°05′08″E / 20.75804°N 87.085533°E / 20.75804; 87.085533Coordinates: 20°45′29″N 87°05′08″E / 20.75804°N 87.085533°E / 20.75804; 87.085533
Area 390 acres (160 ha)
Length 2 km (1.2 mi)
Administration
State Odisha
District Bhadrak district

Dr. Abdul Kalam Island, formerly known as Wheeler Island, is an island off the coast of Odisha, India, approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) from the state capital Bhubaneshwar. The Integrated Test Range missile testing facility is located on the island. The island was originally named after English commandant Lieutenant Wheeler. On 4 September 2015, the island was renamed to honour the late Indian president, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam.[1][2][3]

Geography[edit]

Abdul Kalam Island is located in the Bay of Bengal approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) off the eastern coast of India and about 70 kilometres (43 mi) south of Chandipur in Balasore district, Odisha. The island is about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) in length and 390 acres (1.6 km2) in area.[4] The nearest port is Dhamra Port.

Integrated Test Range[edit]

The Integrated Test Range, sometimes referred to as the Interim Test Range, is a missile testing facility composed of two complexes - Launch Complex-IV (LC-IV) located on Abdul Kalam Island and Launch Complex-III (LC-III) located at Chandipur.[5]

The Indian government began searching for a suitable location to construct a dedicated military missile test range and begin development of the Agni series of missile in the early 1980s. The DRDO constructed an interim facility adjacent to the Proof and Experimental Establishment (PXE) at Chandipur. In 1986, the Union Government announced plans to construct a National Test Range at Baliapal in Balasore district, the same district as Chandipur. This would have required the government to move 130,000 people out of 130 villages located in the area.[5]

The Odisha government allotted Abdul Kalam Island to the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) in 1993, following A.P.J. Abdul Kalam's request for land to build a missile testing facility. Kalam referred to the island as his "Theatre of Action".[6][7] In 1995, the Government abandoned the plan to move the test range from Chandipur to Baliapal, and instead built a new test site known as Launch Complex-IV at Wheeler Island.[5]

Abdul Kalam Island is the missile test facility for most missiles of India; Akash Missiles, Agni Missiles, Astra Missile, BrahMos, Nirbhay, Prahaar Missile, Prithvi Missiles, Shaurya Missile, Advanced Air Defence (AAD), and Prithvi Air Defence. Access to the test facility is by ship, as there is no bridge or airport connecting the island to the mainland. There is a small helipad, but missile airframes and all supplies, construction materials and heavy equipment arrive by ship.[4]

The maiden successful test fire of the Prithvi missile was conducted on Wheeler Island on 30 November 1993. At the time, Wheeler Island was uninhabited.[6][7] Since the construction of the Integrated Test Range, entry to Abdul Kalam Island is restricted for the general public, and only DRDO personnel and Defence Ministry officials are permitted to travel to the island.[8]

Biodiversity[edit]

Abdul Kalam Island is located close to the Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary, the world's largest rookery of the endangered Olive Ridley sea turtles. Abdul Kalam Island's sandy beaches are a favoured nesting location for the turtles. The bright lights installed at the missile testing facility on the island caused some baby turtles to get lost as they were attracted towards the lights. Many baby turtles would fail to find their way to sea, and some died as a result. To protect the turtles, all lights at the facility are dimmed or masked during nesting season, and missile testing is restrained during the turtles' nesting and breeding season.[9][10]

In May 2013, increasing concern has been drawn to the change of the island's topography, owing to sand erosion. Since the island is technically a shoal, seawater frequently causes sand-shifting. The situation is being monitored by geological experts from National Institute of Ocean Technology and the DRDO. [11]

Gallery[edit]

Abdul Kalam Island launches[edit]

Launch Date Origin Missile Type Operator Range
Akash
24 May 2012
26 May 2012
6 June 2012
21 February 2014
24 February 2014
26 February 2014
2 May 2014
19 June 2014
18 November 2014
India India Akash Surface to Air Missile (SAM) Indian Army
Indian Air Force
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
25 – 50 km
Agni
28 March 2010
25 November 2010
1 December 2011
13 July 2012
12 December 2012
8 November 2013
11 April 2014
11 September 2014
India India Agni-I Medium Range Ballistic Missile (MRBM) Indian Army
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
700 – 1,250 km
23 November 2009
17 May 2010
10 December 2010
15 November 2011
30 September 2011
9 August 2012
7 April 2013
9 November 2014
India India Agni-II Medium Range Ballistic Missile (MRBM) Indian Army
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
2,000 – 3,000 km
12 April 2007
7 February 2010
23 July 2011
19 August 2012
21 September 2012
23 December 2013
16 April 2015
India India Agni-III Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) Strategic Forces Command
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
3,500 – 5,000 km
19 September 2012
20 January 2014
2 December 2014
India India Agni-IV Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) Indian Army
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
3,000 – 4,000 km
19 April 2012
15 September 2013
31 January 2015
26 December 2016
India India Agni-V Inter Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Strategic Forces Command
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
5,000 – 8,000 km
Astra
6 July 2010
21 May 2011
21 December 2012
19 March 2015
India India Astra Beyond Visual Range Air to Air Missile (BVRAAM) Indian Air Force
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
50 – 100 km
BrahMos
30 March 2012
29 July 2012
8 July 2014
India India
Russia Russia
BrahMos Supersonic Cruise Missile Indian Army
Indian Navy
Indian Air Force
NPO Mashinostroeyenia
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
300 – 500 km
Nirbhay
12 March 2013
17 October 2014
India India Nirbhay Long Range All Weather Subsonic Cruise Missile Indian Army
Indian Navy
Indian Air Force
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
1,000 – 1,500 km
Prahar
21 July 2011 India India Prahaar Tactical Ballistic Missile Indian Army
Indian Air Force
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
150 – 200 km
Prithvi
15 March 2010
6 March 2011
India India Prithvi I Short Range Ballistic Missile (SRBM) Indian Army
Indian Navy
Indian Air Force
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
150 – 200 km
12 October 2009
13 December 2009
27 March 2010
18 June 2010
24 September 2010
10 February 2011
26 September 2011
4 October 2012
5 October 2012
20 December 2012
12 August 2013
7 October 2013
3 December 2013
7 January 2014
14 November 2014
19 February 2015
India India Prithvi II/Dhanush Short Range Ballistic Missile (SRBM) Indian Army
Indian Navy
Indian Air Force
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
250 – 350 km
Shaurya
12 November 2008
24 September 2011
India India Shaurya Tactical Ballistic Missile Indian Army
Indian Navy
Indian Air Force
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
700 – 2,000 km
Advanced Air Defence
15 March 2010
26 July 2010
6 December 2007
6 March 2011
23 November 2012
India India Advanced Air Defence (AAD)
Ashwin Ballistic Missile Interceptor
Endo-Atmospheric Anti Ballistic Missile Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 150 – 200 km
Prithvi Air Defence
27 April 2014 India India Prithvi Air Defence (PAD)
Pradyumna Ballistic Missile Interceptor
Exo-Atmospheric Anti Ballistic Missile Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 2000 km

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "In tribute to India's 'Missile Man' Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam, Wheeler Island named after him". Zee News. 
  2. ^ "Dr. Kalam Island inspires youth in india. All India youth were proud to be a person lived in this generation for only india". TNP. Hyderabad, India. 5 September 2015. 
  3. ^ "Wheeler Island renamed after Missile Man". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 September 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "Wheeler Island". Global Security. Retrieved 2014-12-18. 
  5. ^ a b c "Integrated Test Range". www.nti.org. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  6. ^ a b "Odisha's Wheeler Island to be renamed after APJ Abdul Kalam". Hindustan Times. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  7. ^ a b "Odisha government renames Wheeler Island as Abdul Kalam Island". India Today. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  8. ^ "Two remote cameras stolen from Wheeler Island missile base". Rediff.com. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  9. ^ "How Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam helped save Odishas Olive Ridley turtles". India Today. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  10. ^ "'Kalam Island' should be the new name of Wheeler Island". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  11. ^ "India's lone missile test-firing range Wheeler Island face sand erosion". The Times Of India. 11 May 2013. 

External links[edit]