David Hicks, a professor of anthropology describes caci, a ritual tournament of whip fighting of the Manggarai people of Indonesia performed on various traditional and religious occasions (although, as the author remarks, the impact of tourism skewed the picture). The origins of caci may lie in ancient training of warriors.
Whip boxing has become an emerging event in Australia, along with whipcracking and other Australian traditional shows and competitions. It was created and promoted by an Australian whipmaker Gayle Nemeth Whipboxing combines the category of targetwork of whipcracking with the person-to-person competition: the points are earned for hitting the face (covered by protective gear).
Nikolai Leskov in his novel The Enchanted Wanderer (1873) describes an old Central Asian bidding custom. In order to avoid unreasonably high prices, the two highest bidders resolve the issue by a whip fight: while holding each other by left hands, they lash each other in turns until one gives up.
Whip fighting also can have use of the riding crop
- "To Nourish With Blood: Whip Fighting on Flores, Indonesia ", by David Hicks (1994)
- "Whip It!" a transcript of an ABC News (Australia) broadcast of 30 April 2004
- "Awards - Aussie Whip Maker", an article about Gayle Nemeth
- Gayle Nemeth interview on ABC News (Australia) (audio)
- "Gayle Nemeth and the Sport of Whipboxing"
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