Whistleblower Protection Act
|Long title||An Act to amend title 5, United States Code, to strengthen the protections available to Federal employees against prohibited personnel practices, and for other purposes.|
|Nicknames||Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989|
|Enacted by||the 101st United States Congress|
|Effective||April 10, 1989|
|Statutes at Large||103 Stat. 16|
|Titles amended||5 U.S.C.: Government Organization and Employees|
|U.S.C. sections amended||5 U.S.C. ch. 12 § 1201 et seq.|
The Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989, Pub.L. 101-12 as amended, is a United States federal law that protects federal whistleblowers who work for the government and report agency misconduct. A federal agency violates the Whistleblower Protection Act if agency authorities take (or threaten to take) retaliatory personnel action against any employee or applicant because of disclosure of information by that employee or applicant. Whistleblowers may file complaints that they believe reasonably evidences a violation of a law, rule or regulation; gross mismanagement; gross waste of funds; an abuse of authority; or a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety.
Authorized Federal Agencies
- The Office of Special Counsel investigates federal whistleblower complaints. In October 2008, then-special counsel Scott Bloch resigned amid an FBI investigation into whether he obstructed justice by illegally deleting computer files following complaints that he himself had retaliated against employees who disagreed with his policies. Then-Senator Barack Obama made a campaign vow to appoint a special counsel committed to whistleblower rights. It was not until April 2011 that President Obama's appointee Carolyn Lerner was confirmed by the Senate.
- The Merit Systems Protection Board, a quasi-judicial agency that adjudicates whistleblower complaints, uses appointed administrative law judges who often back the government. Since 2000, the board has ruled for whistleblowers just three times in 56 cases decided on their merits, according to a Government Accountability Project analysis. Obama appointed a new chairperson and vice chairperson with backgrounds as federal worker advocates, but Tom Devine of GAP says, "It's likely to take years for them to turn things around."
- The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, only court empowered to hear appeals of whistleblower cases decided by the merit board, has been criticized by Senator Grassley (R-Iowa) and others in Congress for misinterpreting whistleblower laws and setting precedent that is hostile to claimants. Between 1994 and 2010, the court had ruled for whistleblowers in only three of 203 cases decided on their merits, GAP's analysis found.
The U.S. Supreme Court, in the case of Garcetti v. Ceballos, 04-473, ruled in 2006 that government employees do not have protection from retaliation by their employers under the First Amendment of the Constitution when they speak pursuant to their official job duties. The U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) uses agency lawyers in the place of "administrative law judges” to decide federal employees’ whistleblower appeals. These lawyers, dubbed “attorney examiners,” deny 98% of whistleblower appeals; the Board and the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals give great deference to their initial decisions, resulting in affirmance rates of 97% and 98%, respectively.
Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act and Presidential Policy Directive 19
The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 ("WPEA"), Pub.L. 112-199, made many revisions to the Whistleblower Protection Act. According to the legislative history for S. 743, which was ultimately became Pub.L. 112-199 (S.Rep. 112-155), "federal whistleblowers have seen their protections diminish in recent years, largely as a result of a series of decisions by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which has exclusive jurisdiction over many cases brought under the Whistleblower Protection Act (WPA). Specifically, the Federal Circuit has wrongly accorded a narrow definition to the type of disclosure that qualifies for whistleblower protection. Additionally, the lack of remedies under current law for most whistleblowers in the intelligence community and for whistleblowers who face retaliation in the form of withdrawal of the employee’s security clearance leaves unprotected those who are in a position to disclose wrongdoing that directly affects our national security."
On July 14, 2014, the United States House of Representatives voted to pass the All Circuit Review Extension Act (H.R. 4197; 113th Congress), a bill that would extend from two to five years after the effective date of the Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 (i.e., December 27, 2012), the period allowed for: (1) filing a petition for judicial review of Merit Systems Protection Board decisions in whistleblower cases, and (2) any review of such a decision by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM).
- Whistleblower protection in United States
- False Claims Act
- Federal crime
- Immunity from prosecution
- List of whistleblowers
- Qui tam
- Telephone tapping
- Turn state's evidence
- White collar crime
- Witness intimidation
- United States Federal Witness Protection Program
- United States Marshals Service
- Peter Eisler (2010-03-15). "Whistleblowers". USA TODAY.
- High Court Trims Whistleblower Rights
- McCarthy, Robert J."Blowing in the Wind: Answers for Federal Whistleblowers". William & Mary Policy Review 3:184 (2012).
- "H.R. 4197 - Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
- "H.R. 4197 - All Actions". United States Congress. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
- "Whistleblower Protection Act Information." U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. January 30, 2004. Retrieved May 3, 2007
- OSC Form 11 for filing a whistleblower retaliation complaint.