White British

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White British
Total population
White British
Regions with significant populations
 United Kingdom
England England42,279,236 (79.8%) (2011)[1]
Scotland Scotland4,863,000 (91.8%) (2011)[2]
Wales Wales2,855,450 (93.2%) (2011)[1]
Northern Ireland (including all White people reporting at least one of British/Irish/Northern Irish/English/Scottish/Welsh national identities)1,738,604 (98.28%) (2011)[4][5]
Predominantly British English
Also: Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Irish, Scots, Ulster Scots, Cornish, Manx, British Sign Language
Predominantly Christianity (Anglican, Presbyterian, Methodist, Roman Catholic etc.);[1] Non-religious and others

White British is an ethnicity classification used in the 2011 United Kingdom Census. In the 2011 census, the White British population was 51,736,290, 86.1% of the UK total population (NB: This total includes the population estimate for Northern Ireland, where only the term 'White' is used in ethnic classification. National identity is listed separately in NI, where 40% classified themselves as British, making up a significant portion of the population, along with those specifying their national identity as Irish[4]).[1][2][3]

Census classifications[edit]

For the 2011 census, in England and Wales, the British self-classification option included the subcategories of English, Welsh, Scottish and Northern Irish.[6][7] In Scotland, the White British category was broken down into two different categories: White Scottish and Other White British.[8] In Northern Ireland, the White British classification did not appear, the only choice being 'White'.[9]

The 2011 census for England, Wales and Scotland also included additional White ethnic classifications of White Irish, Irish Traveller and White Other. There were calls for the 2011 national census in England and Wales to include an extra subcategory so people could identify their ethnic group as Cornish.[10][11]


Population and distribution[edit]

The White British census classification have their ages more evenly distributed in their population pyramid and have the highest per cent female population of all ethnic-based classifications. The following numbers were based on the 2011 census conducted in each country. In England and Wales, about 64 per cent of the White British classification are between the ages of 16 and 64 while about 18 per cent are under 16 and 19 per cent are over 64. All other census classifications have a higher percentage of their population under 16 and a lower percentage over 64. Of those aged 65 or over, White British are 8 per cent male and 10 per cent female, making them have the lowest per cent male population among all census classifications defined as "ethnic" in the census.[12]

In Scotland, about 65 per cent of the White British classification are between the ages of 16 and 64 while about 17 per cent are under 16 and 18 per cent are over 64. Of those aged 65 or over, White British are 8 per cent male and 10 per cent female, the same percentages as in England and Wales.[13]

In Northern Ireland, about 13 per cent of the White classification are between the ages of 16 and 24 while about 21 per cent are under 16 and 65 per cent are over 24. Of those aged 25 or over, white people are 32 per cent male and 34 per cent female.[14]

According to the 2011 UK Census results, White British people make up the largest percentage of the population in rural areas, such as Allerdale (99.4%) and Copeland (99.3%) in Cumbria, Ryedale (99.4%) in North Yorkshire, North Norfolk (99.2%) and North Devon (99%). Cities across the UK regions with high White British populations include Swansea, Wales (91.5%), Kingston Upon Hull, England (89.7%), Plymouth (92.2%), Darlington, England (93.7%), Belfast (96.4% - NI classification "white"),[15] Norwich, (84.7%), Chelmsford (90.0%) and Lichfield, England (94.6%). Within London, Havering has the highest White British percentage with 83.3%, followed by Bromley with 77.4%, Bexley with 77.3% and Richmond upon Thames with 71.4%.[1]

Since the 2011 UK Census was returned, London contains by far the lowest percentage of English and other White British people of all the UK regions, where they make up less than half of the population in 24 of the 32 boroughs, including: Newham (16.7%), Brent (18.0%), Ealing (30.4%), Harrow (30.9%), Tower Hamlets (31.2%), Westminster (35.2%) and Hackney (36.2%). The city with the lowest White British population as a percentage is Leicester (45.1%). The unitary authority with the lowest White British percentage is Slough (34.5%), followed by Luton (44.6%).[1]

UK Region ‡White British population Percentage of local population Year
Northern Ireland 1,738,604 96.0% 2011[3]
Scotland 4,863,000 91.9% 2011[2]
Wales 2,855,450 93.2% 2011[1]
North East England 2,431,423 93.6% 2011[1]
South West England 4,855,676 91.8% 2011[1]
North West England 6,141,069 87.1% 2011[1]
Yorkshire and the Humber 4,531,137 85.8% 2011[1]
East of England 4,986,170 85.3% 2011[1]
East Midlands 3,871,146 85.4% 2011[1]
South East England 7,358,998 85.2% 2011[1]
West Midlands 4,434,333 79.2% 2011[1]
Greater London 3,669,284 44.9% 2011[1]

(Note: though since 2001 census data for White British and White Irish have not been collected as a combined figure under the category of 'White’, new tables which cross-reference ethnicity with National Identity provide a comparable population estimate).[3]

Economic status and education[edit]

According to official UK Government figures from 2016, the employment rate for White British people stood at 75%, with the overall employment rate in the UK standing at 74%.[16] UK Government figures also demonstrate that 31% of White British people work in professional and managerial occupations, higher than the Mixed (30%), Pakistani/Bangladeshi (27%) and Black (25%) groups, but lower than the Indian ethnic group (43%).[17]

At GCSE level, official UK Government statistics state that 63% of White British pupils attained A* to C grades in English and Mathematics in the 2015–16 academic year, higher than Black Caribbean (51%) and Pakistani (58%) pupils, but lower than Bangladeshi (67%), Indian (77%) and Chinese (83%) pupils.[18] According to a report by the Sutton Trust, "White working class pupils achieve the lowest grades at GCSE of any main ethnic group, with just a quarter of boys and a third of girls achieving 5 good GCSEs."[19]

At A-Level, in the 2015–16 academic year, 11% of White British pupils achieved at least 3 'A' grades at A-Level; the only major ethnic groups to achieve the same benchmark at a higher rate were Indian (14%) and Chinese (24%) pupils.[20]


Statistically, White British are more likely to be Christian than other ethnic-based classifications. According to the 2011 UK Census, White British are 64% Christian in England and Wales, mostly Anglican in England, while the percentage for all groups is about 59%. The percentage of White British who are Christians is lower in Scotland, at 55% (mainly Presbyterian there), whereas at least 54% of all Scots are Christian. The British country with the highest percentage is Northern Ireland, where white people are 94% Christian, while 93% of all usual residents are. About 27% of the White British population in England and Wales, and 36% in Scotland reported having "no religion". In Northern Ireland, the lowest percentage of white people who reported "no religion" in the census is about 5%. The 27% and 36% per cent figures for "no religion" are about the same for all groups. About 7% of the White British in England and Wales, and Scotland declined to state any religion.[21][22][23]

Religion Percentage of White population in England and Wales[21] Scotland[22] Northern Ireland[23]
Gold Christian Cross no Red.svg Christianity 63.93% 55.08% 94.23%
No religion 27.30% 36.12% 5.27%
Star of David.svg Judaism 0.50% 0.11% Counted under
"Other religion"
Star and Crescent.svg Islam 0.44% 0.12%
Dharma Wheel.svg Buddhism 0.17% 0.12%
Om.svg Hinduism 0.02% 0.01%
Khanda.svg Sikhism 0.02% 0.01%
Not Stated 7.24% 7.00% Not available
Other religions 0.38% 0.27% 0.50%
Total 100%

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 13 June 2014
  2. ^ a b c d Table 2 - Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011 Scotlands Census published 30 September 2013, Accessed 13 June 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d National Identity (Classification 1) by Ethnic Group DC2206NI (administrative geographies), Accessed 13 June 2014
  4. ^ a b "2011 Census - Key Statistics for Northern Ireland". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 11 January 2017.
  5. ^ "Table DC2206NI: National identity (classification 1) by ethnic group". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  6. ^ 2011-2001 Census questionnaire comparability, Office for National Statistics, Accessed 28 December 2012
  7. ^ Census 2011 Wales Household Questionnaire 2011, Accessed 28 December 2012
  8. ^ Scotland's Census 2011 Household Questionnaire 2011 Archived 19 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Accessed 28 December 2012
  9. ^ NISRA 2011 census Questionnaire, Accessed 28 December 2012
  10. ^ "People urged to say they are 'Cornish' on census". BBC News. 21 March 2011.
  11. ^ "2006 local govt abstracts". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  12. ^ "CT0476_2011 Census - Sex by age by country of birth by ethnic group - England and Wales" (Spreadsheet). Office of National Statistics. 27 August 2015. Size: 148.5 Kb.
  13. ^ Scotland's Census 2011. "Table DC2101SC - Ethnic group by sex by age" (Spreadsheet). National Archives of Scotland. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. ^ "Country of birth by ethnic group by age by sex: CT0392NI" (Spreadsheet). Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ Table DC2201NI: Country of Birth by ethnic Group 2011 Census NISRA, Retrieved 8 October 2013
  16. ^ UK Government, "Ethnicity Facts and Figures: Work, pay and benefits: Employment" Archived 21 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ UK Government, "Ethnicity Facts and Figures: Work, pay and benefits: Employment by Occupation" Archived 20 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ UK Government, "Ethnicity Facts and Figures: Education, skills and training: A* to C in English and Maths GCSE attainment for children aged 14 to 16 (Key Stage 4)" Archived 21 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Accessed 17 July 2018.
  19. ^ The Sutton Trust, "White working class boys have lowest GCSE Grades as disadvantaged Bangladeshi, African and Chinese pupils show dramatically improved results", 10 November 2016. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  20. ^ UK Government, "Ethnicity Facts and Figures: Education, skills and training: Students aged 16 to 18 achieving 3 A grades or better at A Level" Archived 21 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  21. ^ a b "DC2201EW - Ethnic group and religion" (Spreadsheet). ONS. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2016. Size: 21 Kb.
  22. ^ a b Scotland's Census 2011. "Table DC2201SC - Ethnic group by religion" (Spreadsheet). National Records of Scotland. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  23. ^ a b "Ethnicity and religion or religion brought up in: DC2248NI" (Spreadsheet). Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)