White British

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White British
White British percentage UK wide 2011.svg
Geographic distribution of the White British in 2011 (in England, Wales and Scotland)
Total population
White British
49,997,686
(Excluding Northern Ireland)[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
 United Kingdom
 England41,540,791 (73.5%) (2021)[1]
 Scotland4,863,000 (91.8%) (2011)[2]
 Wales2,814,427 (90.9%) (2021)[1]
Northern Ireland (including all White people reporting at least one of British/Irish/Northern Irish/English/Scottish/Welsh national identities)1,738,604 (97.7%) (2011)[3][4]
Languages
Predominantly English
Also: Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Irish, Scots, Ulster Scots, Cornish, Manx, British Sign Language
Religion
Predominantly Christianity (mainly Anglican, Presbyterian, Methodist, Roman Catholic, etc.)[1] with smaller Mormon or Latter Day Saint, other Nontrinitarian, Eastern or Oriental Orthodox and nondenominational groups
Also: Minorities adhering to Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Wicca or other Paganism and others; Irreligion

White British is an ethnicity classification used for the native white population identifying as English, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Northern Irish, or British in the United Kingdom Census. In the 2011 census, the White British population was 49,997,686, 81.5% of Great Britain's total population. For the United Kingdom entirely, due to different reporting measures within Northern Ireland which includes all those who identified as British with those who identified as Irish, an amalgamated total of 52,320,080 including those who identified as White Irish in Great Britain is given making up 82.8% of the population.[1][2][3]

Census classifications[edit]

For the 2011 census, in England and Wales, the White self-classification option included a subcategory of "English/Welsh/Scottish/Northern Irish/British".[5][6] In Scotland, the White category included "Scottish" and "Other British" options.[7] In Northern Ireland, the White British classification did not appear, the only choice being 'White'.[8]

The 2011 census for England, Wales and Scotland also included additional White ethnic classifications of White Irish, White Gypsy/Irish Traveller and White Other. There were calls for the 2011 national census in England and Wales to include an extra subcategory so people could identify their ethnic group as Cornish.[9][10]

Demographics[edit]

Population pyramid of the White British in 2021

Population and distribution[edit]

The White British census classification have their ages more evenly distributed in their population pyramid and have the highest per cent female population of all ethnic-based classifications. The following numbers were based on the 2011 census conducted in each country. In England and Wales, about 64 per cent of the White British classification are between the ages of 16 and 64 while about 18 per cent are under 16 and 19 per cent are over 64. All other census classifications have a higher percentage of their population under 16 and a lower percentage over 64. Of those aged 65 or over, White British are 8 per cent male and 10 per cent female, making them have the lowest per cent male population among all census classifications defined as "ethnic" in the census.[11]

In Scotland, about 65 per cent of the White British classification are between the ages of 16 and 64 while about 17 per cent are under 16 and 18 per cent are over 64. Of those aged 65 or over, White British are 8 per cent male and 10 per cent female, the same percentages as in England and Wales.[12]

In Northern Ireland, about 13 per cent of the White classification are between the ages of 16 and 24 while about 21 per cent are under 16 and 65 per cent are over 24. Of those aged 25 or over, white people are 32 per cent male and 34 per cent female.[13]

According to the 2011 UK Census results, White British people make up the largest percentage of the population in rural areas, such as Allerdale (99.4%) and Copeland (99.3%) in Cumbria, Ryedale (99.4%) in North Yorkshire, North Norfolk (99.2%) and North Devon (99%). Cities across the UK regions with high White British populations include Swansea (91.5%), Kingston Upon Hull (89.7%), Plymouth (92.2%), Darlington (93.7%), Belfast (96.4% - NI classification "white"),[14] Norwich (84.7%), Liverpool (84.8%) and Chelmsford (90.0%). The highest unitary authority with a White British proportion is Redcar and Cleveland (97.6%) followed by Northumberland (97.2%), Hartlepool and County Durham (both 96.6%). The highest county is Lincolnshire (93%) followed by Nottinghamshire, Norfolk and Worcestershire, all above 92%. Within the London region, Havering has the highest White British percentage with 83.3%, followed by Bromley with 77.4%, Bexley with 77.3% and Richmond upon Thames with 71.4%.[1]

Since the 2011 UK Census was returned, London contains by far the lowest percentage of English and other White British people of all the UK regions, where they make up less than half of the population in 24 of the 32 boroughs, including: Newham (16.7%), Brent (18.0%), Ealing (30.4%), Harrow (30.9%), Tower Hamlets (31.2%), Westminster (35.2%) and Hackney (36.2%). Despite this, the White British population in London is still higher in numbers than the entirety of Wales or Northern Ireland, owing to London's high overall population. The city with the lowest White British population as a percentage is Leicester (45.1%) - also the only city below 50% without counting Westminster - while the lowest for unitary authorities is Slough (34.5%), followed by Luton (44.6%).[1] The local ward with the lowest percentage is Southall Broadway in Ealing (3.5%), followed by Southall Green in Ealing; Green Street East, Green Street West, and East Ham North, all in Newham, which are the only wards below five percent.

White British population in regions of the UK
United Kingdom NUTS 1 Region's Year
2001[15][16][17] 2011[1][2][3] 2021[18]
Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
Northern Ireland[t 1] 1,670,988 99.1% 1,738,604 97.7%
 Scotland 4,832,756 95.4% 4,863,000 91.9%
 Wales 2,786,605 96% 2,855,450 93.2% 2,814,427 90.9%
 England 42,747,136 87% 42,279,236 79.8% 41,540,791 73.5%
North East England 2,425,592 96.4% 2,431,423 93.6% 2,397,557 90.6%
South West England 4,701,602 95.3% 4,855,676 91.8% 5,008,149 87.8%
North West England 6,203,043 92.1% 6,141,069 87.1% 6,019,385 81.2%
Yorkshire and the Humber 4,551,394 91.6% 4,531,137 85.8% 4,431,265 80.9%
East of England 4,927,343 91.4% 4,986,170 85.3% 4,972,149 78.5%
East Midlands 3,807,731 91.2% 3,871,146 85.4% 3,882,390 79.6%
South East England 7,304,678 91.3% 7,358,998 85.2% 7,315,058 78.8%
West Midlands 4,537,892 86.1% 4,434,333 79.2% 4,275,557 71.8%
Greater London 4,287,861 59.7% 3,669,284 44.9% 3,239,281 36.8%
Overall in the United Kingdom:[t 2] 52,728,717

(50,366,497[t 3])

89.7%

(88.2%)

52,320,080

(49,997,686[t 4])

82.8%

(81.5%)

  1. ^ Figure includes all those who identified with British/Irish/Welsh/English/Scottish and Northern Irish and is White.
  2. ^ Figure not in bracket includes White Irish figures, to make Great Britain data and Northern Ireland data comparable over time due to different reporting measures.
  3. ^ Excluding Northern Irish figures entirely, only including those for White British in Great Britain
  4. ^ Excluding Northern Irish figures entirely, only including those for White British in Great Britain

Population by local authority[edit]

Local Authority District (England and Wales) 2021[19]
Total %
Allerdale 92,981 96.7
Copeland 64,851 96.7
Staffordshire Moorlands 92,567 96.6
Redcar and Cleveland 131,789 96.5
Isle of Anglesey 66,339 96.3
Caerphilly 169,356 96.2
Northumberland 308,015 96.1
Torridge 65,452 96.1
Barrow-in-Furness 64,485 95.7
North East Derbyshire 97,657 95.7
Wyre 107,171 95.7
East Lindsey 136,036 95.6
North Norfolk 98,403 95.6
Hambleton 86,678 95.6
Blaenau Gwent 63,990 95.6
Derbyshire Dales 68,326 95.5
Torfaen 87,873 95.2
Rhondda Cynon Taf 226,123 95.1
Hartlepool 87,761 95.0
Amber Valley 119,934 95.0
Ryedale 51,963 95.0
Neath Port Talbot 135,111 95.0
Teignbridge 127,937 94.9
West Devon 54,196 94.9
Powys 126,357 94.9
Eden 51,891 94.8
High Peak 86,183 94.8
County Durham 494,638 94.7
Forest of Dean 82,401 94.7
Pembrokeshire 116,816 94.7
Bridgend 137,755 94.7
East Riding of Yorkshire 323,838 94.6
West Lindsey 89,964 94.5
Cannock Chase 95,019 94.5
Denbighshire 90,470 94.4
North Devon 92,944 94.3
North Kesteven 111,304 94.3
Craven 53,690 94.3
East Devon 142,011 94.2
South Hams 83,481 94.2
Monmouthshire 87,566 94.2
Ribble Valley 57,916 94.1
Conwy 107,926 94.1
Maldon 62,268 94.0
Mid Suffolk 96,581 94.0
Carmarthenshire 176,673 94.0
Dorset 356,270 93.9
Selby 86,380 93.9
Isle of Wight 131,697 93.8
South Lakeland 97,960 93.8
Mid Devon 77,699 93.8
Rochford 80,339 93.8
Isles of Scilly 1,926 93.7
Scarborough 101,848 93.7
Halton 120,301 93.6
Cornwall 533,882 93.6
Broadland 123,265 93.6
Babergh 86,418 93.6
St. Helens 171,546 93.6
Tendring 138,604 93.5
Shropshire 301,918 93.3
Bolsover 74,852 93.3
Malvern Hills 74,197 93.3
Gwynedd 109,548 93.3
Merthyr Tydfil 54,916 93.3
Havant 115,732 93.2
New Forest 163,847 93.2
North Warwickshire 60,598 93.2
Flintshire 144,356 93.2
Chesterfield 96,392 93.1
Fylde 75,793 93.1
East Suffolk 229,063 93.1
Chorley 109,449 93.0
South Tyneside 137,429 93.0
Melton 48,064 92.9
Sunderland 254,655 92.9
Fareham 106,212 92.8
South Ribble 103,089 92.8
West Lancashire 108,998 92.8
Carlisle 102,004 92.7
North East Lincolnshire 145,362 92.6
Castle Point 82,997 92.6
Barnsley 226,488 92.6
Erewash 104,400 92.5
Gosport 75,763 92.5
Richmondshire 46,027 92.5
Wyre Forest 93,961 92.5
North Tyneside 193,303 92.5
Stroud 111,896 92.4
Knowsley 142,698 92.4
Wirral 295,967 92.4
South Staffordshire 101,832 92.2
Torbay 128,375 92.1
North West Leicestershire 96,430 92.1
Cotswold 83,545 92.0
Bassetlaw 108,338 92.0
Lichfield 97,952 92.0
Vale of Glamorgan 121,371 92.0
Ceredigion 65,674 91.9
Wealden 146,968 91.8
South Norfolk 130,292 91.8
Ashfield 115,972 91.8
Mendip 106,608 91.8
Wigan 302,482 91.8
Sefton 256,327 91.8
Rother 85,362 91.7
South Somerset 158,325 91.7
Cheshire West and Chester 325,620 91.2
Sedgemoor 114,340 91.2
Herefordshire, County of 170,419 91.1
Rutland 37,372 91.0
Newark and Sherwood 111,939 91.0
Tamworth 71,456 90.9
Hinckley and Bosworth 103,225 90.8
Harrogate 147,479 90.7
Wrexham 122,547 90.7
Wychavon 120,048 90.6
East Hampshire 113,814 90.5
South Kesteven 129,741 90.5
Somerset West and Taunton 142,560 90.5
Blackpool 127,445 90.4
North Somerset 195,915 90.4
Braintree 140,283 90.4
Rossendale 64,073 90.4
Bromsgrove 89,676 90.4
Stockton-on-Tees 177,526 90.3
Darlington 97,320 90.3
Tewkesbury 85,720 90.3
Dover 105,111 90.3
Gateshead 177,131 90.3
Wiltshire 459,594 90.1
South Derbyshire 96,634 90.1
Stratford-on-Avon 121,330 90.1
Chichester 111,822 90.1
Newcastle-under-Lyme 110,947 90.0
Stafford 123,203 90.0
Cheshire East 357,337 89.6
Plymouth 236,802 89.5
West Oxfordshire 101,648 89.0
Lewes 88,830 88.9
Uttlesford 81,245 88.9
Great Yarmouth 88,663 88.9
Adur 57,390 88.9
King's Lynn and West Norfolk 136,966 88.8
North Lincolnshire 150,554 88.7
Breckland 125,516 88.7
Arun 146,178 88.7
Swale 134,385 88.6
Tonbridge and Malling 116,787 88.3
Rotherham 234,613 88.3
Wakefield 311,634 88.2
Warrington 185,940 88.1
Eastleigh 120,242 88.1
Winchester 112,304 88.1
Horsham 129,348 88.1
Test Valley 114,873 88.0
Folkestone and Hythe 96,590 88.0
Lancaster 125,552 87.8
Harborough 85,474 87.6
Swansea 208,703 87.5
York 176,963 87.3
Thanet 122,796 87.3
Mansfield 96,475 87.3
Hart 86,414 86.9
Waverley 111,321 86.8
Doncaster 266,879 86.6
East Cambridgeshire 75,897 86.5
Rushcliffe 102,479 86.1
Fenland 88,028 85.9
South Gloucestershire 249,160 85.8
South Oxfordshire 127,890 85.8
Mole Valley 74,983 85.8
Mid Sussex 130,971 85.8
Bath and North East Somerset 165,478 85.6
West Berkshire 138,253 85.6
Sevenoaks 103,116 85.6
Gedling 100,367 85.6
Huntingdonshire 154,089 85.2
Hastings 77,418 85.1
Worthing 94,680 85.0
East Hertfordshire 127,245 84.7
Broxtowe 93,718 84.5
South Holland 80,244 84.4
Tunbridge Wells 97,049 84.2
Kingston upon Hull, City of 223,962 83.9
Central Bedfordshire 245,769 83.5
Tandridge 73,343 83.5
Stockport 245,831 83.4
Cheltenham 98,932 83.3
Vale of White Horse 115,517 83.2
Chelmsford 150,758 83.1
Telford and Wrekin 153,936 83.0
Exeter 108,095 82.7
Brentwood 63,696 82.7
Lincoln 85,891 82.7
Worcester 85,868 82.7
Calderdale 170,983 82.7
Ashford 109,673 82.6
Canterbury 129,887 82.5
Bournemouth, Christchurch and Poole 329,609 82.4
Redditch 71,742 82.4
Tameside 190,305 82.4
Dudley 266,564 82.4
Blaby 84,746 82.3
West Suffolk 147,935 82.2
Eastbourne 83,465 82.1
Basildon 154,045 82.1
Maidstone 144,114 82.0
Basingstoke and Deane 151,572 81.9
Nuneaton and Bedworth 109,807 81.8
Southend-on-Sea 147,442 81.6
North Hertfordshire 108,298 81.3
Colchester 155,488 80.7
North Northamptonshire 289,274 80.5
Newport 128,245 80.4
South Cambridgeshire 128,985 79.6
Hyndburn 65,471 79.6
Middlesbrough 114,421 79.5
Dacorum 122,107 78.7
Stoke-on-Trent 202,906 78.5
Medway 218,953 78.3
East Staffordshire 97,019 78.2
Bury 151,528 78.2
Gloucester 103,317 78.0
Burnley 73,752 77.9
Charnwood 143,345 77.9
Cherwell 125,422 77.9
Surrey Heath 70,473 77.9
Solihull 168,398 77.9
Bracknell Forest 96,950 77.8
Portsmouth 161,664 77.7
Norwich 111,623 77.6
Guildford 111,076 77.3
Liverpool 375,785 77.3
Reigate and Banstead 115,949 76.9
Warwick 112,650 75.9
Epping Forest 101,994 75.6
Stevenage 67,394 75.3
West Northamptonshire 319,509 75.1
Rugby 85,684 74.9
Ipswich 104,208 74.6
Boston 52,540 74.5
Sheffield 414,698 74.5
Newcastle upon Tyne 223,567 74.5
Swindon 173,231 74.2
Elmbridge 102,867 74.1
Salford 199,614 74.0
Brighton and Hove 204,831 73.9
Cardiff 266,533 73.6
St Albans 108,962 73.5
Leeds 595,737 73.4
Harlow 67,993 72.9
Wokingham 129,087 72.7
Buckinghamshire 401,489 72.6
Runnymede 63,965 72.6
Trafford 169,550 72.1
Bristol, City of 338,452 71.6
Rushmoor 70,917 71.1
Kirklees 305,579 70.5
Rochdale 156,669 70.0
Epsom and Ewell 56,136 69.4
Spelthorne 71,261 69.2
Windsor and Maidenhead 105,991 69.1
Bolton 203,486 68.8
Broxbourne 67,891 68.6
Gravesham 73,030 68.3
Southampton 169,481 68.1
Three Rivers 63,706 67.9
Walsall 191,529 67.4
Dartford 78,557 67.3
Woking 69,911 67.3
Welwyn Hatfield 80,551 67.2
Bromley 219,493 66.5
Havering 174,232 66.5
Derby 173,077 66.2
Thurrock 116,430 66.2
Pendle 63,320 66.1
Preston 97,715 66.1
Oldham 157,914 65.2
Bexley 158,842 64.4
Bedford 118,779 64.1
Hertsmere 68,032 63.1
Richmond upon Thames 123,093 63.0
Milton Keynes 178,568 62.2
Crawley 73,178 61.8
Oadby and Wigston 34,512 59.8
Peterborough 128,353 59.5
Nottingham 185,580 57.3
Sutton 120,014 57.2
Blackburn with Darwen 87,997 56.9
Bradford 309,912 56.7
Coventry 190,889 55.3
Wolverhampton 144,303 54.7
Kingston upon Thames 90,288 53.7
Reading 93,167 53.5
Oxford 86,672 53.5
Cambridge 77,195 53.0
Sandwell 177,929 52.1
Manchester 268,572 48.7
Wandsworth 157,048 48.0
Watford 46,820 45.8
Birmingham 491,211 42.9
City of London 3,649 42.5
Greenwich 119,665 41.4
Merton 88,673 41.2
Islington 86,092 39.7
Hammersmith and Fulham 70,105 38.3
Lambeth 119,395 37.6
Croydon 146,268 37.4
Lewisham 111,726 37.2
Hillingdon 113,377 37.1
Barnet 140,777 36.2
Southwark 109,253 35.5
Camden 74,348 35.4
Waltham Forest 94,766 34.0
Hackney 87,927 33.9
Leicester 122,395 33.2
Kensington and Chelsea 46,883 32.7
Haringey 84,298 31.9
Luton 71,532 31.8
Enfield 103,140 31.3
Barking and Dagenham 67,550 30.9
Hounslow 81,933 28.4
Westminster 57,162 28.0
Ealing 89,265 24.3
Slough 38,101 24.0
Redbridge 71,844 23.2
Tower Hamlets 71,177 22.9
Harrow 53,567 20.5
Brent 51,611 15.2
Newham 51,819 14.8
Total
44,355,218 74.4%

Population in counties[edit]

Population in city districts[edit]

Population in school children[edit]

White British school children within England for the school year of 2021/2022
Proportion of White British school children in England
Ethnic group School year[20]
2021/2022
Number %
White: Total 6,011,045 71.4%
White: British 5,379,748 63.9%

Population in births[edit]

Proportion of White British births in England and Wales[21]
Ethnic Group Year
2005[22] 2011 2015 2019
Number % Number % Number % Number %
White: Total 451,514 69.5%

(80.3%)

536,021 74.49% 507,829 72.29% 452,248 70.67%
White: British 418,052 64.4%

(75.2%[fn 1])

476,328 66.19% 432,114 62.05% 374,056 58.45%
Not Stated 70,303 10.8% 22,848 3.17% 22,041 3.16% 25,578 4.00%

Economic status and education[edit]

According to official UK Government figures from 2016, the employment rate for White British people stood at 75%, with the overall employment rate in the UK standing at 74%.[23] UK Government figures also demonstrate that 31% of White British people work in professional and managerial occupations, higher than the Mixed (30%), Pakistani/Bangladeshi (27%) and Black (25%) groups, but lower than the Indian ethnic group (43%).[24]

At GCSE level, official UK Government statistics state that 63% of White British pupils attained A* to C grades in English and Mathematics in the 2015–16 academic year, higher than Black Caribbean (51%) and Pakistani (58%) pupils, but lower than Bangladeshi (67%), Indian (77%) and Chinese (83%) pupils.[25] According to a report by the Sutton Trust, "White working class pupils achieve the lowest grades at GCSE of any main ethnic group, with just a quarter of boys and a third of girls achieving 5 good GCSEs."[26]

At A-Level, in the 2015–16 academic year, 11% of White British pupils achieved at least 3 'A' grades at A-Level; the only major ethnic groups to achieve the same benchmark at a higher rate were Indian (14%) and Chinese (24%) pupils.[27]

Religion[edit]

Statistically, White British are more likely to be Christian than other ethnic-based classifications. According to the 2011 UK Census, White British are 64% Christian in England and Wales, mostly Anglican in England, while the percentage for all groups is about 59%. The percentage of White British who are Christians is lower in Scotland, at 55% (mainly Presbyterian there), whereas at least 54% of all Scots are Christian. The British country with the highest percentage is Northern Ireland, where white people are 94% Christian, while 93% of all usual residents are. About 27% of the White British population in England and Wales, and 36% in Scotland reported having "no religion". In Northern Ireland, the lowest percentage of white people who reported "no religion" in the census is about 5%. The 27% and 36% per cent figures for "no religion" are about the same for all groups. About 7% of the White British in England and Wales, and Scotland declined to state any religion.[28][29][30]

Percentages of White population (as of 2011)

Religion England and Wales[28] Scotland[29] Northern Ireland[30]
Gold Christian Cross no Red.svg Christianity 63.93% 55.08% 94.23%
No religion 27.30% 36.12% 5.27%
Star of David.svg Judaism 0.50% 0.11% Counted under
"Other religion"
Star and Crescent.svg Islam 0.44% 0.12%
Dharma Wheel.svg Buddhism 0.17% 0.12%
Om.svg Hinduism 0.02% 0.01%
Khanda.svg Sikhism 0.02% 0.01%
Not Stated 7.24% 7.00% Not available
Other religions 0.38% 0.27% 0.50%
Total 100%

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Report states that births in which no ethnicity was stated were usually White British. If assumptions about all non-stated births are actually White British, the percentage of the group rises to 75.2% of births in 2005 and 80.3% White overall.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h United Kingdom census (2021). "Table KS201EW - Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d United Kingdom census (2011). "Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011 Scotlands Census published 30 September 2013" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  3. ^ a b c United Kingdom census (2011). "Table DC2206NI - National Identity (Classification 1) by Ethnic Group". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  4. ^ "2011 Census - Key Statistics for Northern Ireland". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 11 January 2017.
  5. ^ 2011-2001 Census questionnaire comparability, Office for National Statistics, Accessed 28 December 2012
  6. ^ Census 2011 Wales Household Questionnaire 2011, Accessed 28 December 2012
  7. ^ Scotland's Census 2011 Household Questionnaire 2011 Archived 19 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Accessed 28 December 2012
  8. ^ NISRA 2011 census Questionnaire Archived 14 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Accessed 28 December 2012
  9. ^ "People urged to say they are 'Cornish' on census". BBC News. 21 March 2011.
  10. ^ "2006 local govt abstracts". Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  11. ^ United Kingdom census (2011). "Table CT0476 - Sex by age by country of birth by ethnic group - England and Wales". Office of National Statistics.
  12. ^ United Kingdom census (2011). "Table DC2101SC - Ethnic group by sex by age". National Records of Scotland.
  13. ^ United Kingdom census (2011). "Table CT0392NI - Country of birth by ethnic group by age by sex". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency.
  14. ^ United Kingdom census (2011). "Table DC2201NI - Country of birth by ethnic group". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  15. ^ "Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report". www.gov.scot. 2001. Retrieved 7 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. ^ "Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service". 2001.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. ^ "Key Statistics in England and Wales". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. 2001. Retrieved 7 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. ^ "Ethnic group - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  19. ^ https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/culturalidentity/ethnicity/bulletins/ethnicgroupenglandandwales/census2021
  20. ^ "Schools, pupils and their characteristics, Academic Year 2021/22". explore-education-statistics.service.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 September 2022.
  21. ^ "Births and infant mortality by ethnicity, England and Wales". Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  22. ^ "Birthweight and gestational age by ethnic group, England and Wales 2005: introducing new data on births" (PDF). 15 February 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  23. ^ UK Government, "Ethnicity Facts and Figures: Work, pay and benefits: Employment" Archived 21 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ UK Government, "Ethnicity Facts and Figures: Work, pay and benefits: Employment by Occupation" Archived 20 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ UK Government, "Ethnicity Facts and Figures: Education, skills and training: A* to C in English and Maths GCSE attainment for children aged 14 to 16 (Key Stage 4)" Archived 21 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Accessed 17 July 2018.
  26. ^ The Sutton Trust, "White working class boys have lowest GCSE Grades as disadvantaged Bangladeshi, African and Chinese pupils show dramatically improved results", 10 November 2016. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  27. ^ UK Government, "Ethnicity Facts and Figures: Education, skills and training: Students aged 16 to 18 achieving 3 A grades or better at A Level" Archived 21 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  28. ^ a b United Kingdom census (2011). "Table DC2201EW - Ethnic group and religion". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 14 January 2016. Size: 21 Kb.
  29. ^ a b United Kingdom census (2011). "Table DC2201SC - Ethnic group by religion". National Records of Scotland.
  30. ^ a b United Kingdom census (2011). "Table DC2248NI - Ethnicity and religion or religion brought up in". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency.