Recording began in August 2009, finishing two months later. The mixing and mastering of the album finished in February 2010, and it was released June 8. The initial pressing of the record included four bonus tracks.
On March 17, 2010 their first video from the album, "Rapid Decompression," was released online via AOL. A four-track digital EP for "I Was a Teenage Anarchist" was released as the first single from the album, on April 6, 2010.
The two B-sides from White Crosses are "David Johansen's Soul", of which an acoustic version was released on Black Crosses, and "Dead Generations" – which remains unreleased.
White Crosses received generally favourable critical acclaim, despite being leaked three months before its retail release date. The album was mainly praised for its success in merging Against Me!'s long-time punk rock style with, according to critics, a newfound ethos of "arena-" or "radio rock", through its melody and "big" sound.
In 2011 Against Me! launched their own record label, Total Treble Music, reissuing White Crosses with an added disc titled Black Crosses consisting of demos from 2009 (referred to as the Goldentone Studio versions) and acoustic sessions from 2010. The reissue features original artwork by Steak Mtn and a 32-page booklet with lyrics and additional artwork. The reissue was released July 26, 2011 on compact disc and as a music download, and August 9 as a triple LP.