White House Correspondents' Association
|Formation||February 25, 1914|
|Jeff Mason (Reuters)|
The White House Correspondents' Association (WHCA) is an organization of journalists who cover the White House and the President of the United States. The WHCA was founded on February 25, 1914, by journalists in response to an unfounded rumor that a Congressional committee would select which journalists could attend press conferences of President Woodrow Wilson.
The WHCA operates independently of the White House. Among the more notable issues handled by the WHCA are the credentialing process, access to the President and physical conditions in the White House press briefing rooms. Its most high-profile activity is the annual White House Correspondents' Dinner, which is traditionally attended by the president and covered by the news media.
- 1 Association leadership, 2016-2017
- 2 Table of association presidents
- 3 White House Press Room
- 4 White House Correspondents' Dinner
- 5 Awards
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Association leadership, 2016-2017
The current leadership team of the White House Correspondents' Association includes:
- Board members
- Executive Director
- Julia Whiston
Table of association presidents
|1914–20||William Wallace Price||The Washington Star|
|1921–22||Frank R. Lamb||The Washington Star|
|1922–23||J. Russell Young||The Washington Star|
|1923–24||E. Ross Bartley||Associated Press|
|1924–25||Isaac Gregg||The Sun|
|1925–26||George E. Durno||International News Service|
|1926–27||John Edwin Nevin||The Washington Post|
|1927–28||John T. Lambert||Universal Service|
|1928–29||J. Russell Young||The Washington Star|
|1929–30||Wilbur Forrest||New York Herald Tribune|
|1930–31||Lewis Wood||The New York Times|
|1931–33||Paul R. Mallon||syndicated columnist|
|1933–34||George E. Durno||International News Service|
|1934–35||Francis M. Stephenson||Associated Press|
|1935–36||Albert J. Warner||New York Herald Tribune|
|1936–37||Frederick J. Storm||United Press Associations|
|1937–38||Walter J. Trohan||Chicago Tribune|
|1938–40||Earl Godwin||The Washington Times|
|1940||Felix Belair Jr.||The New York Times|
|1940–41||Thomas F. Reynolds||United Press Associations|
|1941–42||John C. O'Brien||The Philadelphia Inquirer|
|1942||John C. Henry||The Washington Star|
|1942–43||Douglas B. Cornell||Associated Press|
|1943–44||Paul Wooten||The Times-Picayune|
|1944–45||Merriman Smith||United Press Associations|
|1946–47||Edward T. Folliard||The Washington Post|
|1947–48||Felix Belair Jr.||The New York Times|
|1948–49||Ernest B. Vaccaro||Associated Press|
|1949–50||Robert G. Nixon||International News Service|
|1950–53||Carlton Kent||Chicago Sun-Times|
|1953–54||Robert J. Donovan||New York Herald Tribune|
|1954–55||Anthony H. Leviero||The New York Times|
|1955–56||Laurence H. Burd||Chicago Tribune|
|1956–58||Francis M. Stephenson||Daily News|
|1958–59||Marvin Arrowsmith||Associated Press|
|1959–61||Garnett D. Horner||The Washington Star|
|1961–62||William H.Y. Knighton Jr.||The Baltimore Sun|
|1962–63||Robert Roth||Philadelphia Bulletin|
|1963–64||Merriman Smith||United Press International|
|1964–66||Alan L. Otten||The Wall Street Journal|
|1966–67||Robert E. Thompson||Hearst Newspapers|
|1967–68||Frank Cormier||Associated Press|
|1968–69||Carroll Kilpatrick||The Washington Post|
|1969–70||Charles W. Bailey II||Minneapolis Tribune|
|1970–71||Peter Lisagor||Chicago Daily News|
|1971–72||John P. Sutherland||U.S. News & World Report|
|1972–73||Edgar A. Poe||The Times-Picayune|
|1973–74||Ted Knap||Scripps Howard Newspapers|
|1974–75||James Deakin||St. Louis Post-Dispatch|
|1975–76||Helen Thomas||United Press International|
|1976–77||Lawrence M. O'Rourke||Philadelphia Bulletin|
|1977–78||Paul F. Healy||Daily News|
|1978–79||Aldo Beckman||Chicago Tribune|
|1980–81||Robert C. Pierpoint||CBS News|
|1981–82||Clifford Evans||RKO General Broadcasting|
|1982–83||Thomas M. DeFrank||Newsweek|
|1983–84||James R. Gerstenzang||Associated Press|
|1984–85||Sara Fritz||Los Angeles Times|
|1985–86||Gary F. Schuster||CBS News|
|1986–87||Bill Plante||CBS News|
|1987–88||Norman D. Sandler||United Press International|
|1988–89||Jeremiah O'Leary||The Washington Times|
|1989–90||Johanna Neuman||USA Today|
|1990–91||Robert M. Ellison||Sheridan Broadcasting|
|1992–93||Karen Hosler||The Baltimore Sun|
|1993–94||George E. Condon Jr.||Copley News Service|
|1994–95||Kenneth T. Walsh||U.S. News & World Report|
|1995–96||Carl P. Leubsdorf||The Dallas Morning News|
|1996–97||Terence Hunt||Associated Press|
|1998–99||Stewart Powell||Hearst Newspapers|
|1999–2000||Susan Page||USA Today|
|2000–01||Arlene Dillon||CBS News|
|2002–03||Bob Deans||Cox Newspapers|
|2003–04||Carl Cannon||National Journal|
|2004–05||Ron Hutcheson||Knight Ridder|
|2005–06||Mark Smith||Associated Press TV and Radio|
|2007–08||Ann Compton||ABC News|
|2008–09||Jennifer Loven||Associated Press|
|2010–11||David Jackson||USA Today|
|2012–13||Ed Henry||Fox News|
|2014–15||Christi Parsons||Tribune Media|
|2015–16||Carol Lee||Wall Street Journal|
White House Press Room
||This article needs to be updated. (March 2017)|
White House Correspondents' Dinner
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to White House Correspondents' Association dinner.|
The WHCA's annual dinner, begun in 1921, has become a Washington, D.C. tradition and is traditionally attended by the president and vice president. Fifteen presidents have attended at least one WHCA dinner, beginning with Calvin Coolidge in 1924. The dinner is traditionally held on the evening of the last Saturday in April at the Washington Hilton.
Until 1962, the dinner was open only to men, even though WHCA's membership included women. At the urging of Helen Thomas, President John F. Kennedy refused to attend the dinner unless the ban on women was dropped.
Prior to World War II, the annual dinner featured singing between courses, a homemade movie and an hour-long, post-dinner show with big-name performers. Since 1983, however, the featured speaker has usually been a comedian, with the dinner taking on the form of a roast of the president and his administration.
Many annual dinners were cancelled or downsized due to deaths or political crises. The dinner was cancelled in 1930 due to the death of former president William Howard Taft; in 1942, following the United States' entry into World War II; and in 1951, over what President Harry S. Truman called the "uncertainty of the world situation." In 1981, Ronald Reagan did not attend because he was recuperating after the attempted assassination on his life the previous month.
The WHCD has been increasingly criticized as an example of the coziness between the White House press corps and the administration. The dinner typically includes a skit, either live or videotaped, by the sitting president in which he mocks himself, for the amusement of the press corps. The press corps, in turn, hobnobs with administration officials, even those who are unpopular and are not regularly cooperative with the press. Increasing scrutiny by bloggers has contributed to added public focus on this friendliness.
After the 2007 dinner, New York Times columnist Frank Rich implied that the Times will no longer participate in the dinners. Rich said that the event is "a crystallization of the press's failures in the post-9/11 era" because it "illustrates how easily a propaganda-driven White House can enlist the Washington news media in its shows."
In recent years, the dinners have drawn increasing public attention, and the guest list grows "more Hollywood". The attention given to the guest list and entertainers often overshadows the intended purpose of the dinner, which is to "acknowledge award-winners, present scholarships, and give the press and the president an evening of friendly appreciation." This has led to an atmosphere of coming to the event only to "see and be seen." This usually takes place at pre-dinner receptions and post-dinner parties hosted by various media organizations, which are often a bigger draw and can be more exclusive than the dinners themselves.
|1944||Bob Hope, Fritz Kreisler, Gracie Fields, tenor Pedro Bargas, Fred Waring, Elsie Janis, Ed Gardiner, Nan Merriman, Robert Merrill, and NBC musical director Frank Black with a 40-piece orchestra.|
|1945||Frank Sinatra, Danny Thomas, Jimmy Durante, Fanny Brice, Danny Kaye, and Garry Moore shared hosting duties.|
|1954||Milton Berle, The Four Step Brothers, Jaye P. Morgan, The McGuire Sisters, and Irving Berlin performed.||Berlin performed an original song, "I Still Like Ike," to honor President Eisenhower.|
|1956||James Cagney emceed; Nat King Cole, Patti Page, and Dizzy Gillespie performed.|
|1961||The Peiro Brothers (jugglers), Julie London, Dorothy Provine, violinist Mischa Elman, opera singer Jerome Hines|
|1962||Peter Sellers, Gwen Verdon, Richard Goodman, and Benny Goodman shared hosting duties.|
|1963||Merv Griffin emceed; Barbra Streisand performed.|
|1964||Duke Ellington, the Smothers Brothers|
|1969||The Disneyland Golden Horseshoe Revue|
|1976||Bob Hope emceed and Chevy Chase performed.||When President Ford rose to speak, he pretended to fumble, and began his speech with "Good evening. I'm Gerald Ford and you're not"—a reference to Chase's catchphrase from Saturday Night Live's Weekend Update.|
|1989||Jim Morris (Bush impersonator)||Garry Shandling made a surprise appearance.|
|1992||Paula Poundstone||Poundstone was the first solo female host.|
|1993||Elayne Boosler||This was the first year that the dinner was televised on C-SPAN.|
|1995||Conan O'Brien, Bill Maher|
|1997||Jon Stewart||Norm MacDonald delivered a Weekend Update parody.|
|1999||Aretha Franklin||NBC's Brian Williams performed a skit.|
|2000||Jay Leno||President Bill Clinton also mocked himself in the short film President Clinton: The Final Days, which depicted him as a lonely man closing down a nearly deserted White House, riding a bicycle, and learning about the Internet with the help of actor Mike Maronna.|
|2003||Ray Charles||President George W. Bush decided to eschew a comedian that year, given the recent invasion of Iraq.|
|2005||Cedric the Entertainer||First Lady Laura Bush also performed some jokes.|
|2007||Rich Little||David Letterman appeared by video with a Top 10 list of "favorite George W. Bush moments."|
|2008||Craig Ferguson||Like his Late Late Show monologues, Ferguson appeared to go off script and started improvising new jokes. It was noted that President Bush had difficulty understanding Ferguson's Scottish accent.|
|2010||Jay Leno||Leno hosted for the fourth time, more than any other individual in the dinner's history. Leno had been chosen several weeks before his controversial Tonight Show conflict, and his use of recycled jokes was noted by critics.|
|2011||Seth Meyers||Both President Barack Obama and then-Secretary of Defense Robert Gates were seen laughing at Meyers' jokes about the government's apparent inability to track down Osama Bin Laden, even though they were a day away from the operation to assassinate him.
President Obama and Meyers also mocked then-Celebrity Apprentice host Donald Trump's role as the face of the birther movement. Trump would go on to be elected President of the United States five years later in the 2016 United States presidential election. Journalists that were present at the dinner say that being mocked by President Obama and Meyers led him to decide to run for President of the United States, but Trump would later deny this, saying that he had been considering running for President for many years prior to the dinner.
|2015||Cecily Strong||Keegan-Michael Key made a guest appearance as President Obama's "anger translator", Luther, a recurring character from the Comedy Central show Key & Peele.|
|2016||Larry Wilmore||Wilmore delivered a controversial, searing routine targeting the president, the media, press, and Hollywood. At the end of the speech, Wilmore ended his set by thanking President Obama for having been the country’s first black President and finished his speech by calling him "my nigga" on live television. This remark sparked controversy among the media, calling it disrespectful.|
|2017||TBA||President Donald Trump announced that he will not be attending the dinner.|
The Merriman Smith Memorial Award
- See footnote.
Awarded for outstanding examples of deadline reporting.
|Year||Recipient||Distinction||Employer||Notes & Ref|
|2000||Gary Nurenberg||Broadcast||KTLA-Tribune Broadcasting|||
|Jodi Enda||Knight-Ridder Newspapers|||
|2001||Jim Angle||Broadcast||Fox News Channel|||
|Sandra Sobieraj||Associated Press|||
|2002||Peter Maer||Broadcast||CBS News|||
|Ron Fournier||Associated Press|||
|2003||Jim Angle||Broadcast||Fox News Channel|||
|David Sanger||The New York Times|||
|2004||Mike Allen||The Washington Post|||
|2005||Ron Fournier||Associated Press|||
|Jackie Calmes||The Wall Street Journal||Honorable Mention|
|2006||Terry Moran||Broadcast||ABC News|||
|Deb Riechmann||Associated Press|||
|2007||Martha Raddatz||Broadcast||ABC News|||
|David Sanger||The New York Times|||
|Deb Riechmann||Associated Press|||
|Sandra Sobieraj Westfall||People magazine|||
|2010||Jake Tapper||Broadcast||ABC News|||
|Ben Feller||Associated Press|||
|2011||Jake Tapper||Broadcast||ABC News|||
|Dan Balz||The Washington Post|||
|2012||Jake Tapper||Broadcast||ABC News|||
|Glenn Thrush, Carrie Budoff Brown, Manu Raju and John Bresnahan||Politico|||
The Aldo Beckman Memorial Award
- See footnote.
Awarded for journalistic excellence.
|2000||Jeanne Cummings||The Wall Street Journal|||
|2001||Steve Thomma||Knight Ridder|||
|2002||Anne E. Kornblut||The Boston Globe|||
|2003||Dana Milbank||The Washington Post|||
|2004||David Sanger||The New York Times|||
|2005||Susan Page||USA Today|||
|2006||Carl Cannon||National Journal|||
|2007||Kenneth T. Walsh||U.S. News & World Report|||
|2008||Alexis Simendinger||National Journal|||
|2009||Michael Abramowitz||The Washington Post|||
|2010||Mark Knoller||CBS News|||
|2011||Peter Baker||The New York Times|||
|2012||Scott Wilson||The Washington Post|||
The Edgar A. Poe Memorial Award
- See footnote.
Awarded for excellence on a story of national or regional significance.
|Year||Recipient||Employer||Notes & Ref|
|2000||Sam Roe||The Toledo Blade|||
|2001||Elizabeth Marchak, Dave Davis, and Joan Mazzolini||The Plain Dealer|||
|John Barry and Evan Thomas||Newsweek||Honorable Mention|
|David Pace||Associated Press||Honorable Mention|
|2002||Evan Thomas, Mark Hosenball, Martha Brant, and Roy Gutman||Newsweek|||
|Staff||The Seattle Times||Honorable Mention|
|Staff||The Dayton Daily News||Honorable Mention|
|2003||Sean Naylor||Army Times|||
|Staff||South Florida Sun-Sentinel||Honorable Mention|
|Michael Berens||Chicago Tribune||Honorable Mention|
|2004||Russell Corollo and Mei-ling Hopgood||Dayton Daily News|||
|Christopher H. Schmitt and Edward T. Pound||U.S. News & World Report||Honorable Mention|
|Michael Hudson||Southern Exposure magazine||Honorable Mention|
|Warren P. Strobel and Jonathan S. Landy||Knight Ridder||Honorable Mention|
|Rod Nordland and Michael Hirsh||Newsweek||Honorable Mention|
|Sami Yousafzai, Ron Moreau, and Michael Hirsh||Newsweek||Honorable Mention|
|Fareed Zakaria||Newsweek||Honorable Mention|
|2005||Mark Fainaru-Wada and Lance Williams||The San Francisco Chronicle|||
|Donald Barlett and James Steele||Time magazine||Honorable Mention|
|2006||Marcus Stern and Jerry Kammer||Copley News Service|||
|Staff||Time magazine||Honorable Mention|
|Russell Carollo and Larry Kaplow||Dayton Daily News||Honorable Mention|
|2007||Joan Ryan||The San Francisco Chronicle|||
|2008||Paul Shukovsky, Tracy Johnson, and Daniel Lathrop||Seattle Post-Intelligencer|||
|2009||Michael J. Berens and Ken Armstrong||The Seattle Times|||
|2010||Suzanne Bohan and Sandy Kleffman||Contra Costa Times, California|||
|2011||Michael Berens||The Seattle Times|||
|2012||Matt Apuzzo, Adam Goldman, Eileen Sullivan and Chris Hawley||Associated Press|||
- Gridiron Club
- National Press Club
- Parliamentary Press Gallery
- Radio and Television Correspondents' Association
- Alfred E. Smith Memorial Foundation Dinner
- "Unfounded Leak Leads to Modern WHCA by George Condon, former president of the WHCA". White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- "White House Correspondents' Association Officers and Board". WHCA. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- Joe Strupp, "Incoming WHCA Prez: Next Year's Dinner Will Not Be 'Politically Correct", Editor and Publisher, April 25, 2007
- Go to History of the WHCA (WHCA official website. Retrieved 2017-02-25.) and scroll down to "The Early Years (1914 - 1921)".
- Helen Thomas Fast Facts, CNN
- "White House Correspondence Dinner: 25 Memorable Moments," National Journal, by Julia Edwards, April 27, 2011
- "Trump Will Be First President In 36 Years To Skip White House Correspondents Dinner". New York Times. February 25, 2017.
- Joe Strupp, "WHCA Prez Defends Dinner Amid Criticism Of 'Coziness' and Rich Little", Editor and Publisher, April 24, 2007
- Rich, Frank. All the President’s Press, The New York Times, April 29, 2007.
- Libby Copeland and Dana Milbank, The In-Crowd Steps Out: After the Correspondents' Dinner, Parties Are Icing on the Cake, The Washington Post, April 23, 2007.
- Taking Names, The Washington Times, April 23, 2007
- Ashley Parker, Celeb-Watching at the Correspondents Dinner, The Caucus blog, The New York Times, April 22, 2007
- "Big Names Abound at Press Banquet", The Charlotte Observer, March 6, 1944
- "White House Correspondents' Dinner Hosts Through the Years". National Journal.
- Library of Congress Eisenhower Archives, retrieved October 29, 2012
- "Colored People in Majority," Baltimore Afro-American, March 2, 1954; [Jet Magazine], March 25, 1954
- "White House Correspondents Dinner Hosts to President," The Toledo Blade, May 25, 1956
- Julie London Archives, retrieved October 28, 2012
- Barbra Streisand Archives, retrieved October 29, 2012
- Progressland. "Disneyland Nomenclature".
- Humor played big role in Ford's persona, a December 2006 Deseret News article via findarticles.com
- Jennie Cohen. "History of the White House Correspondents' Dinner". HISTORY.com.
- At the start of his 2007 dinner speech, Little stated that he had previously hosted in 1984, but "had to wait until everybody died" before he was invited back.
- "Leno to Host White House Correspondents Dinner".
- "Remarks at the Annual White House Correspondents Association Dinner".
- "Impressionist Jim Morris began his Bush bit in silence – just moving his head, sort of stammering, trying to get some words out. The president [Bush], watching Morris do his inarticulate-thing, started laughing hard, and finally held his big white dinner napkin over his face." The Washington Post – also Coverage By the Seattle Post-Intelligencer's Joel Connelly http://www.seattlepi.com/archives/1989/8901120012.asp
- C-Span Video Clip from April 25, 1989 (replayed at the 2002 dinner)
- Comedian Bush-Whacks All the President's Mien, The Los Angeles Times, by Frank Rizzo, October 15, 1990
- "The comic genius brought in to entertain at the association's 77th annual black-tie dinner by Sheridan Broadcasting Company's Robert Ellison, the first and only Black president of the elite organization, brought down the house with hilarious quips and jokes about Bush's less than impressive fishing skills." Jet Magazine, May 20, 1991.
- "About". PaulaPoundstone.com.
- The Inescapable Squareness of Washington’s ‘Nerd Prom’, by Walter Shapiro, The New Republic, April 28, 2012
- 1997 White House Correspondents' Dinner – C-SPAN Video Library
- "2003 — Ray Charles - White House Correspondents' Dinner - TIME". TIME.com. April 24, 2008.
- 2006 White House Correspondents dinner at Google Videos Archived September 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Inside Washington: Skewering comedy skit angers Bush and aides U.S. News & World Report
- "Steve Bridges Obituary - Steve Bridges Funeral - Legacy.com". Legacy.com.
- "Bush Doesn't Joke at WHCA Dinner Due to Virginia Tech Killings—But Rich Little Says 'Nuts'", an Editor & Publisher article
- "Craig Ferguson at the Annual White House Correspondents' Din". YouTube. Retrieved 2016-02-02.
- Horowitz, Jason (May 2, 2010). "'Healthy' relations on display at White House Correspondents' Association Dinner". The Washington Post.
- de Moraes, Lisa (January 22, 2010). "Jay Leno will headline the White House Correspondents Dinner". The Washington Post.
- Leno Whcd Jokes Recycled – Hillary Frey & Alexander Trowbridge | Politico Click
- White House Correspondents' Association DinnerC-SPAN
- "WATCH: Obama Holds His Poker Face as He Reacts to bin Laden Joke at Correspondents' Dinner - TIME.com". TIME.com.
- "Donald Trump's Presidential Run Began in an Effort to Gain Stature". The New York Times. March 12, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- Jimmy Kimmel's Speech at the White House Correspondents' Dinner, C-SPAN (April 28, 2012).
- "Jimmy Kimmel Plays It Safe With White House Correspondents' Dinner Speech (Video)". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Conan O'Brien's Speech to the White House Correspondents' Dinner, C-SPAN (April 27, 2013).
- Transcript of event (from CNN).
- Strecker, Erin (February 14, 2014). "Joel McHale to headline 100th White House Correspondents' Dinner". Entertainment Weekly. CNN. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Itzkoff, Dave. "Cecily Strong's Trial by Fire at the White House Correspondents Dinner". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Coggan, Devan (August 16, 2015). "Keegan-Michael Key talks rehearsing for the White House Correspondents' Dinner with Obama". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- Maya Rhodan (2015-12-16). "Larry Wilmore to Host White House Correspondents' Dinner". Time.com. Retrieved 2016-02-02.
- "Larry Wilmore's n-word 'joke' was an insult to black journalists". The Washington Post. May 1, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
- Palmeri, Tara (February 25, 2017). "Trump bails on White House Correspondents' Dinner". Politico. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- White House Correspondents' Association Journalism Awards. WHCA official website. Retrieved 2017-02-25.
- "The 2000 WHCA Awards" (PDF). White House Correspondents' Association.
- Smith, Mark. "WHCA Names 2001 Award Winners" (PDF). White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Smith, Mark. "WHCA Names 2002 Award Winners" (PDF). White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Smith, Mark. "WHCA Names 2003 Award Winners" (PDF). White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Smith, Mike. "WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENTS' ASSOCIATION NAMES 2004 AWARD WINNERS" (PDF). White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Mills, Doug. "WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENTS' ASSOCIATION NAMES 2005 AWARD WINNERS" (PDF). White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Compton, Ann. "WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENTS' ASSOCIATION NAMES 2006 AWARD WINNERS" (PDF). White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Whiston, Julia. "White House Correspondents' Association Names 2007 Award Winners" (PDF). White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- WHCA. "WHCA 2008 JOURNALISM AWARDS". White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- WHCA. "WHCA 2009 JOURNALISM AWARDS". White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- WHCA. "WHCA 2010 JOURNALISM AWARDS". White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- "White House Correspondents' Association Announces Recipients of the 2011 Awards". White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- "2012 WHCA Journalism Awards". White House Correspondents' Association. Retrieved April 28, 2012.