Jump to content

White elephant (animal)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A royal white elephant, as depicted in a Thai painting

A white elephant (also albino elephant)[1] is a rare kind of elephant, but not a distinct species. Although often depicted as snow white, their skin is typically a soft reddish-brown, turning a light pink when wet.[2] They have fair eyelashes and toenails. The traditional "white elephant" is commonly misunderstood as being albino, but the Thai term, chang samkhan, actually translates as 'auspicious elephant', being "white" in terms of an aspect of purity.[3]

As of 2023, Myanmar has ten white elephants.[4] The king of Thailand also keeps a number of white elephants, eleven of which are still alive as of 2016.[5]

Religious significance



Indra (alias Sakra) and Sachi riding the five-headed divine elephant Airavata, folio from a Jain text, c. 1670–1680, painting in LACMA museum, originally from Amber, Rajasthan.

In Hindu puranas, the vehicle or mount of god Indra (Sakra in the Buddhist pantheon) is the white elephant named Airāvata, which possesses the ability to fly.[6] Airāvata emerged when the universe was created by the churning of the Ocean of Milk by the demons and the gods.[7] Consequently, Airāvata is depicted as a sacred white elephant, typically with four tusks in India and sometimes with five heads in Southeast Asia.[7] The white elephant is referred to as Shrī Gāja (lit.'elephant of Shrī'), Megha (lit.'cloud'), or Gāja Lakshmī (lit.'Lakshmī of the Elephants') when worshipped as a divine being.[7]

King Bimbisara had a white elephant, which he had captured in a forest when the elephant was in his musth period. He named the bull elephant Sechanaka, which means "watering", as the elephant used to water the plants by himself without any prior training. It is said the cost of this elephant was more the half of Magadha. He later gave it to his son Vihallakumara, which made his other son Ajatashatru jealous. Ajatashatru tried to steal it many times, which resulted in two of the most terrible wars, called the Mahasilakantaka & Ratha-musala.



The white elephant also holds significance in the story of The Buddha's conception and birth.[8] According to the story of the Buddha's conception, on the night Siddhartha was conceived, Queen Maya dreamt that a white elephant with six white tusks entered her right side.[9][10] From this dream, soothsayers predicted that the child would be born a Buddha or a chakravarti (universal ruler).[10]

Historical significance

The Royal Seal of the Kingdom of Laos featured Airavata, the mount of Sakka.

In the Buddhist kingdoms of Southeast Asia, the white elephant was closely linked with Buddhist cosmology, because of the white elephant's close association with Sakka (cf. Śakra), the chief deva of Mount Meru, and the concept of kingship, namely the ideal 'universal monarch' (chakkavatti, cf. chakravarti) and 'righteous king' (dhammaraja; cf. dharmaraja).[11][12] Thus, the possession of a white elephant symbolised kingship in mainland Southeast Asian kingdoms.[13] Competition for white elephants drove royal courts to wage war with each other.[14][13] The most prominent of such wars were the so-called 'elephant wars' between Thai and Burmese kingdoms.[12] Between the 1500s to 1700s, Ayutthaya fought numerous wars with the Taungoo, Restored Taungoo, and Konbaung kingdoms.[12] Arakanese and Burmese monarchs adopted the title 'lord of white elephants.'[11][15] The discovery and receipt of white elephants by royal courts featured prominently in indigenous chronicles.[13]


A white elephant at the Amarapura Palace in 1855

In Myanmar (Burma), white elephants, called hsinphyudaw (Burmese: ဆင်ဖြူတော်, lit.'royal white elephant'), have historically been revered as good omens, and as symbols of power and good fortune.[8] In the pre-colonial era, the discovery of a white elephant was considered a cosmic endorsement of the reigning monarch.[8] They are traditionally graded based on characteristics called kyan-in lekkhana (ကြန်အင်လက္ခဏာ), including their tusks, back, ears, eyes, tail, toenails, skin, and tail.[16]

As of 2023, Myanmar possesses ten captive white elephants, which are in the custody of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation's Forest Department.[9][4] Three white elephants are currently held in a pavilion near the Kyauktawgyi Buddha Temple in Yangon.[17][18][4] The rest are kept at Uppatasanti Pagoda in Naypyidaw, the national capital.[4] The captivity of white elephants has been criticised by observers, including historian Than Tun.[19] Burmese white elephants are kept in inhumane conditions, shackled for 22 hours a day and housed in small open-air pavilions.[9]

A white elephant outside of Yangon in 2013

The ruling military regime has repeatedly announced the discovery of white elephants, to bolster support for their regime, and by extension, their political legitimacy.[20][21][22]

In 2009, the military regime began printing 5000 Myanmar kyat banknotes that feature an image of a white elephant, widely seen as an act of yadaya.[4]

In 2013, Thai prime minister Surapong Tovichakchaikul asked the Burmese government to temporarily lend a white elephant and house it at Chiang Mai Zoo for 6 months, in order to mark 65 years of bilateral relations between the two countries.[23] The Burmese government rejected the request, citing logistical challenges.[23]

On 24 July 2022, a white elephant named Raṭṭhanandaka was born in Taungup Township, Rakhine State.[4][24][25][26] Special postage stamps and gold commemorative coins featuring the elephant were produced to mark the 2023 Independence Day celebrations.[24]

Below is a list of captive white elephants in Myanmar:[16]

  1. Rājāgahasīripaccayagajarājā (ရာဇာဂဟသီရိပစ္စယဂဇရာဇာ) – a male discovered on 20 January 2000; 24 years ago (20 January 2000) in Rathedaung Township, Rakhine State[16]
  2. Siṅgīmālā (သိင်္ဂီမာလာ) – a female discovered on 28 January 2002; 22 years ago (28 January 2002) in Maungdaw Township, Rakhine State[16]
  3. Ratīmālā (ရတီမာလာ) – a female discovered on 18 July 2002; 22 years ago (18 July 2002) in Maungdaw District, Rakhine State[16]
  4. Bhaddavatī (ဘဒ္ဒဝတီ, lit.'endowed with goodness') – a female discovered on 26 June 2010; 14 years ago (26 June 2010) in Maungdaw Township, Rakhine State[16][27]
  5. Nandavatī (နန္ဒဝတီ) – a female discovered on 23 September 2010; 13 years ago (23 September 2010) in Maungdaw Township, Rakhine State[28][16]
  6. Ngwe Saddan (ငွေဆဒ္ဒန်) – a male discovered on 15 October 2011; 12 years ago (15 October 2011) in Maungdaw Township, Rakhine State[16]
  7. Hemavatī (ဟေမဝတီ) – a female discovered on 25 October 2011; 12 years ago (25 October 2011) in Ngwesaung, Ayeyarwady Region[16]
  8. Jātakalyā (ဇာတကလျာ) – a female discovered on 27 November 2011; 12 years ago (27 November 2011) in Naypyidaw[29][16]
  9. Sīrimālā (သီရိမာလာ) – a female discovered on 27 February 2015; 9 years ago (27 February 2015) in Pathein Township, Ayeyarwady Region[30][31]
  10. Raṭṭhanandaka (ရဋ္ဌနန္ဒက, lit.'country's happiness') – a male born on 24 July 2022 (2022-07-25) (aged 2013) in Taungup Township, Rakhine State[25]


Rostam Dragging the Khaqan of China from His White Elephant, Persian miniature from Shahnama

There were white elephants in the army of the Sasanian king Khusrau II. According to al-Tabari, a white elephant killed the commander of the Arab Muslims Abu Ubayd al-Thaqafi in the Battle of the Bridge. White elephants were considered royalty by Arabs and served as mounts for caliphs. Abul-Abbas, a white elephant was gifted to Charlemagne by Harun al-Rashid, the fifth Abbasid caliph.


"The white elephant flag", flag of Siam in 1855–1916

"According to Brahmanic belief, if a monarch possessed one or more 'white' elephants, it was a glorious and happy sign." King Trailok possessed the first. In the Thai language, they are called albino, not white, indicating "pale yellow eyes and white nails", with white hair. The "rough skin was either pink all over or had pink patches on the head, trunk, or forelegs." "They were not worshipped for themselves and were regarded as an appendage to the King's majesty."[32]: 39 

In Thailand, white elephants (ช้างเผือก, chang phueak) are considered sacred and are a symbol of royal power; all those discovered are presented to the king (although this presentation is usually a ceremonial one; the elephants are not taken into captivity). Historically, the status of kings has been evaluated by the number of white elephants in their possession. The late king Bhumibol Adulyadej owned as many as 21 white elephants; considered an unprecedented achievement, making him the monarch who owned the greatest number of chang phueak in Thai history.[5] The first elephant found in King Bhumibol's reign was regarded as the most important elephant in the whole realm; it received a royal title which bears his majesty's own name: Phra Savet Adulyadej Pahol Bhumibol Navanatta-parami (พระเศวตอดุลยเดชพาหล ภูมิพลนวนาถบารมี).[5] However, the King did not bestow royal titles to all of the white elephants in his possession. As of 2016, eleven of these elephants are still alive and only five have royal titles.[5]

A white elephant in Thailand is not necessarily albino, although it must have pale skin. After being discovered, the elephants are assigned to one of four graded categories before being offered to the king, although the lower grades are sometimes refused.

In the past, lower grade white elephants were given as gifts to the king's friends and allies. The animals needed a great deal of care and, being sacred, could not be put to work, so were a great financial burden on the recipient; only the monarch and the very rich could afford them. According to one story, white elephants were sometimes given as a present to some enemy (often a lesser noble with whom the king was displeased). The unfortunate recipient, unable to make any profit from it, and obliged to take care of it, would suffer bankruptcy and ruin.[33]

Thailand has awarded the Order of the White Elephant to civil servants since 1861.


An albino elephant from Kruger National Park, South Africa

Albinos are much rarer among African elephants than in Asia. They are reddish-brown or pink, and may suffer blindness or skin problems from sun exposure.[34]

Western cultural references


In English, the term "white elephant" has come to mean a spectacular and prestigious thing that is more trouble than it is worth, or has outlived its usefulness to the person who has it. While the item may be useful to others, its current owner would usually be glad to be rid of it.

See also



  1. ^ Why do we say 'white elephant'? History Extra. Retrieved 5 October 2021
  2. ^ Men ride albino elephants, Reuters via The Atlantic, 1 March 2012.
  3. ^ "Royal Elephant Stable". Thai Elephant Conservation Center. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Status-Obsessed Myanmar Junta Chief's Reverence for White Elephants Draws Ridicule". The Irrawaddy. 2022-08-04. Retrieved 2023-03-26.
  5. ^ a b c d "งดงามยิ่งนัก !! ชมประวัติช้างเผือกคู่พระบารมีพระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัวในพระบรมโกศ (รายละเอียด)". www.tnews.co.th. 16 October 2016.
  6. ^ Johnson, W. J. (2009). A dictionary of Hinduism (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861025-0. OCLC 244416793.
  7. ^ a b c Andaya, Leonard Yuzon (2016-01-01). "The Social Value of Elephant Tusks and Bronze Drums among Certain Societies in Eastern Indonesia". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia. 172 (1): 66–89. doi:10.1163/22134379-17201001. ISSN 0006-2294. S2CID 130076221.
  8. ^ a b c Min Zin (December 2001). "The power of Hpoun". The Irrawaddy.
  9. ^ a b c Hirschi, Eva (2019-01-19). "Improving life for Yangon's white elephants". Frontier Myanmar. Retrieved 2023-03-26.
  10. ^ a b Keown, Damien (2003). A dictionary of Buddhism. Stephen Hodge, Charles Brewer Jones, Paola Tinti. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860560-9. OCLC 59361180.
  11. ^ a b Leider, Jacques P. (2011). "A Kingship by Merit and Cosmic Investiture: An Investigation into King Alaungmintaya's Self-Representation". Journal of Burma Studies. 15 (2): 165–187. doi:10.1353/jbs.2011.0012. ISSN 2010-314X. S2CID 153995925.
  12. ^ a b c Goh, Geok Yian (2021-02-23), "Commercial Networks and Economic Structures of Theravada Buddhist Southeast Asia (Thailand and Myanmar)", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.546, ISBN 978-0-19-027772-7, retrieved 2023-03-27
  13. ^ a b c Charney, Michael W. (2018-04-26), "Warfare in Premodern Southeast Asia", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.238, ISBN 978-0-19-027772-7, retrieved 2023-03-27
  14. ^ Charney, Michael W. (2004). Southeast Asian warfare, 1300-1900. Leiden: Brill. pp. 136–137. ISBN 978-1-4294-5269-4. OCLC 191929011.
  15. ^ d’Hubert, Thibaut (2015). "The Lord of the Elephant: Interpreting the Islamicate Epigraphic, Numismatic, and Literary Material from the Mrauk U Period of Arakan (ca. 1430−1784)". Journal of Burma Studies. 19 (2): 341–370. doi:10.1353/jbs.2015.0015. ISSN 2010-314X. S2CID 155871452.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "ဆင်ဖြူတော်များ ကြန်အင်လက္ခဏာများ" (PDF) (in Burmese). 2015-04-15.
  17. ^ Wine, Aung Thet (8 May 2010). "White elephants snubbed by junta". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
  18. ^ "နေပြည်တော် ဥပ္ပါတသန္တိစေတီတော် အရှေ့ဘက်ဝတ္ထုကံမြေအတွင်းရှိ ဆင်ဖြူတော်ဆောင်(အသစ်)သို့ ရတနာဆင်ဖြူတော်များအား ကြိုဆိုခြင်းမင်္ဂလာအခမ်းအနားသို့" (PDF). ကြေးမုံ (in Burmese). 2010-11-21.
  19. ^ "White elephant's capture was omen for ceasefire agreement: State media". The Irrawaddy. 2015-04-06. Retrieved 2023-03-26.
  20. ^ "Why Burma believes in white elephants (the real ones)". Toronto Star. 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2023-03-26 – via thestar.com.
  21. ^ "Second white elephant found". The Irrawaddy. 25 May 2002. Archived from the original on June 23, 2002. Retrieved 2007-03-11.
  22. ^ "'Lucky' white elephant for Burma". BBC News. 9 November 2001.
  23. ^ a b "Loaner white elephant to Thailand a no-go: President's office". The Irrawaddy. 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2023-03-26.
  24. ^ a b "Myanmar military trumpets white elephant as sign of right to rule". France 24. 2023-01-04. Retrieved 2023-03-26.
  25. ^ a b "၂၀၂၂ ခုနှစ်တွင် ပေါ်ထွန်းလာသော ဆင်ဖြူတော်ကလေး ရဋ္ဌနန္ဒက မိခင်ဆင်မကြီးနှင့်အတူ ကျန်းမာ ပျော်ရွှင်လျက်ရှိ". မြဝတီ (in Burmese). 2023-03-23.
  26. ^ "Myanmar junta chief names 'prestigious' white elephant". The Irrawaddy. 2022-11-01. Retrieved 2023-03-26.
  27. ^ Ko Htwe (2010-08-10). "Than Shwe misses party for his white elephant". The Irrawaddy.
  28. ^ "နေပြည်တော်သို့ ပဉ္စမမြောက် ဆင်ဖြူတော်ရတနာရောက်ရှိ" (PDF). မြန်မာ့အလင်း. 2010-10-22. p. 8.
  29. ^ "ဒုတိယသမ္မတ ဒေါက်တာစိုင်းမောက်ခမ်း ရတနာဆင်ဖြူတော် စာတကလျာ၏ ဘွဲ့ နာမံတော် အမည်ပေးကင်ပွန်းတပ်နှင့်အဆောင်တော်တက်မင်္ဂလာအခမ်းအနားသို့ တက်ရောက်ချီးမြှင့်၍ ပရိတ်နံ့သာရည်များ ပက်ဖျန်းပေ" (PDF). ကြေးမုံ (in Burmese). 2012-03-15.
  30. ^ "ရတနာဆင်ဖြူတော် ပေါ်ထွန်းလာခြင်းသတင်း (၂၈-၂-၂၀၁၅၊ နေပြည်တော်)". သယံဇာတနှင့်သဘာဝပတ်ဝန်းကျင်ထိန်းသိမ်းရေးဝန်ကြီးဌာန သစ်တောဦးစီးဌာန (in Burmese). 2015-02-28. p. 5.
  31. ^ "ပြည်တွင်းရေးရာ" (PDF) (in Burmese). 2015-04-07.
  32. ^ Chakrabongse, C., 1960, Lords of Life, London: Alvin Redman Limited
  33. ^ "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". Oed.com. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
  34. ^ Rebecca Morelle (20 March 2009). "Pink elephant is caught on camera". BBC News.