White jazz

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"The Father of White Jazz" — Papa Jack Laine and his Reliance band in New Orleans in 1910.[1]

White jazz is jazz played by white musicians.[2][3] This developed at the end of the 19th century in New Orleans with Papa Jack Laine's Reliance Brass Band being formed in 1888.[4] Bix Beiderbecke was a later pioneer of the genre in the Mid-West.[5][6] Subsequent "white jazz legends" were later identified by music critic Robert Christgau as the guitarists Barney Kessel, Kenny Burrell, and Jim Hall.[7]


  1. ^ Bob Yurochko (1993), A Short History of Jazz, Rowman & Littlefield, p. 10, ISBN 9780830415953, He is known as 'The Father of White Jazz'... 
  2. ^ "white jazz", Oxford English Dictionary, 2013, jazz as played by white musicians 
  3. ^ Imamu Amiri Baraka (2000). The LeRoi Jones/Amiri Baraka Reader (2 ed.). Basic Books. p. 42. ISBN 1560252383. 
  4. ^ The Rough Guide to Jazz, 2004, p. xcix, ISBN 1843532565, George Vital Laine - called "Papa Jack" because he was a father figure to dozens of young white New Orleans jazzmen — formed his own ragtime band in 1888... 
  5. ^ Andrew R. L. Cayton, Richard Sisson, Chris Zacher, eds. (2006). The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. p. 569. ISBN 0253003490. 
  6. ^ Philip Larkin (2004). Jazz Writings. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 94. ISBN 0826476996. 
  7. ^ Christgau, Robert (April 21, 1975). "What Kind of a Best Rock and Roll Band in the World Is This?". The Village Voice. Retrieved February 15, 2017.