Mexicans of European descent
||This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, A variety of figures are given for Mexicans of European descent by conflating multiple unrelated sources from World Factbook to DNA studies. A synthesis of sources in order to calculate percentages is misleading. Rather, the article should be broken down into sections distinguishing the methodologies used for defining European descent. (December 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
5.4% of United States population
32.2% of Hispanic and Latino Americans)
Venetian (Chipilo Venetian),
|Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestants), Judaism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other White Latin Americans · Other White Hispanic · Spaniards · Italians · French · Germans|
a Mexican Americans
European Mexicans are Mexican citizens of European descent. While the Mexican government periodically conducts racial censuses for "Indigenous Mexicans" and "Afro-Mexicans" it hasn't conducted a census for European Mexicans for nearly a century. Estimates of this ethnic group as a segment of the country's population range from 9% and 20% according to The World Factbook and Encyclopædia Britannica to as high as 47% according to the ENADIS 2010 (National Survey About Discrimination), conducted by the CONAPRED (National Council to Prevent Discrimination) as a mean to address the problems of racism that Mexicans of mainly Indigenous or African ancestry suffer at hands of a society that favors light skinned, European looking Mexicans. Said survey is the only time the Mexican government has conducted a nationwide census that referenced the Eurodescendant population of Mexico.
Independent field studies have been made in attemp to quantify the number of European Mexicans living in modern Mexico, using blonde hair as reference to classify a Mexican as white, the Metropolitan Autonomous University of Mexico calculated the percentage of said ethnic group at 23%. Another study made by the University College London in collaboration with Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History found that the frequencies of blond hair and light eyes in Mexicans are of 18.5% and 28.5% respectively.
Another group in Mexico, the "mestizos", includes people with varying amounts of European ancestry, with some having a European admixture higher than 90%. However, the criteria for defining mestizo varies from study to study, and in Mexico a large number of white people have been historically classified as mestizos because the Mexican government defines ethnicity on cultural standards as opposed to racial ones.
Europeans began arriving in Mexico during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire; the descendants of the conquistadors and new arrivals from Spain formed an elite but never a majority of the population. Intermixing would produce a mestizo group which would become the majority by the time of Independence, but power remained firmly in the hands of the elite, called "criollo."
While most European migration into Mexico was Spanish during the colonial period, in the 19th and 20th centuries European and European-derived populations from North and South America did immigrate to the country. However, at its height, the total immigrant population in Mexico never exceeded one percent of the total. Many of these immigrants came with skills and money to invest and/or ties to allow them to become prominent in business and other aspects of Mexican society.
Distribution and estimates
While Mexico's government have conducted recent ethnic censuses asking a person if he/she identifies "fully" or "in part" with a given ancestry to calculate the percentage of Indigenous Mexicans and Afro-Mexicans who live in the country, the Mexican government is yet to ask Mexicans if they consider themselves to be "European" or "part European" being nearly a century since the Mexican census included the option for a person to identify as "White". The modern research in regards to Mexicans of European descent focuses on phenotypical traits such as skin color and hair color rather than on asking the perception of ancestry.
Mexico’s northern and western regions have the highest percentages of European population, with the majority of the people not having native admixture or being of predominantly European ancestry, resembling in aspect that of northern Spaniards. In the north and west of Mexico, the indigenous tribes were substantially smaller than those found in central and southern Mexico, and also much less organized, thus they remained isolated from the rest of the population or even in some cases were hostile towards Mexican colonists. The northeast region, in which the indigenous population was eliminated by early European settlers, became the region with the highest proportion of whites during the Spanish colonial period. However, recent immigrants from southern Mexico have been changing, to some degree, it's demographic trends.
In 2010, the CONAPRED (Mexico's National Council for the Prevention of Discrimination) conducted the ENADIS 2010 (National Survey About Discrimination) with the purpose of addressing the problems of racism that Mexicans of mainly Indigenous or African ancestry suffer at hands of a society that favors light skinned, European looking Mexicans. In the press release of said report, the CONAPRED stated that 47% of Mexicans (54% of women and 40% of men) identified with the lightest skin colors used in the census questionary. The council makes the supposition that the high difference reported between males and females is due the "frequently racist publicity in media and due racial prejudices in Mexico's socitey which shuns dark skin in favor of light skin, thus making women think that white is beautiful", it is also stated that men do not suffer this problem and thus have no problem recognizing their real skin color. Nonetheless, a subsequent question in the same survey contradicts said supposition, as it asks Mexicans to evaluate, from 0 to 10 how comfortable they are with their skin color, the average result was 9.4 out of ten. Additionally, scientific research proving that human females tend to have lighter skin than their male counterparts exists.
Besides the visual identification of skin color, the same survey included a question on which it asked Mexicans "what would they call their skin color" while the press report by the CONAPRED remarks that six out of ten people considered themselves to be "moreno" (brunette in English) and only one out of ten considered their skin to be "blanco" (white) the actual questionary included as choices other words who are coloquially used to refer to white people in Mexico such as "Güero" (informal for white), "Claro" (clear), "Aperlado" (Pearly) and other words who may or not refer to a white person depending of the case, such as "Quemadito" (Burnt), "Bronceado" (Tanned), "Apiñonado" (Spiced), "Amarillo" (Yellow) and "Canela" (Cinnamon). Further complicating the situation, several words used specifically for brown skin also appear as choices such as "Café" (Brown), "Negro" (Black), "Chocolate" (translation unnecessary), "Oscuro" (Dark), "Prieto" (Very dark) and "Trigueño" (other word for brown). The word "moreno" itself has a very wide definition in Mexico and has no specific racial connotations, being used equally to define light skinned people with dark hair as to define people of African ancestry.
Independent field studies have been made in attemp to quantify the number of European Mexicans living in modern Mexico, using blonde hair as reference to classify a Mexican as white, the Metropolitan Autonomous University of Mexico calculated the percentage of white Mexicans at 23%, the study explicitly states that red-haired people were not classified as white but as "other". An study made by the University College London which included multiple Latin American countries and was made with collaboration of each countries' antrophology and genetics institutes reported that the frequency of blond hair and light eyes in Mexicans was of 18.5% and 28.5% respectively, making Mexico the country with the second highest frequency of blond hair in the study. Despite this, the European ancestry estimated for Mexicans is also the second lowest of all countries included, the reason behind such discrepancy may lie in the fact that the samples used in Mexico's case were highly unproportional, as the northern and western regions of Mexico contain 45% of Mexico's population, but no more than 10% of the samples used in the study came from the states located in these regions. For the most part, the rest of the samples hailed from Mexico City and southern Mexican states.
An study performed in hospitals of Mexico city reported that in average 51.5% of Mexican newborns presented the congenital skin birthmark known as the mongolian spot whilst it was absent in 48.5% of the analized babies. The mongolian spot apperas with high frequency (85-95%) in Asian, Native American and African children while having a very low frequency (5-10%) in Caucasian children.
Genetic research in the Mexican population is numerous and has yielded a myriad of different results, it is not rare that different genetic studies done in the same location vary greatly, clear examples of said variation are the city of Monterrey in the state of Nuevo León, which, depending of the study presents an average European ancestry ranging from 38% to 78%, and Mexico City, whose European admixture ranges from as little as 21% to 70%, reasons behind such variation may include the socioeconomic background of the analyzed samples aswell as the criteria to recruit volunters: some studies only analyze Mexicans who self-identify as Mestizos, others may classify the entire Mexican population as "mestizo", other studies may do both, such as the 2009 genetic study published by the INMEGEN (Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine), which states that 93% of the Mexican population is Mestizo with the remaining being Amerindian, however for it's study the institute only recruited people who explicitly self-identified as mestizos. Finally there are studies who avoid using any racial classification whatsoever, including in them any person that self-identifies as Mexican, this studies are the ones who usually report the highest European admixture for a given location.
Regardless of the criterias used all the autosomal DNA studies made coincide on there being a significant genetic variation depending of the region analyzed, with southern Mexico having prevalent Amerindian and small but higher than average African genetic contributions, the central region of Mexico shows a balance between Amerindian and European components, with the later gradually increasing as one travels northwards and westwards, where European ancestry becomes the majority of the genetic contribution up until cities located in the Mexico-United States border, where studies suggest there is a significant resurgence of Amerindian and African admixture.
To date, no genetic research focusing on Mexicans of complete or predominant European ancestry has been made.
A 2014 publication summarizing population genetics research in Mexico, including three nationwide surveys and several region-specific surveys, found that in the studies done to date, counting only studies that looked at the ancestry of both parents (autosomal ancestry): "Amerindian ancestry is most prevalent (51% to 56%) in the three general estimates, followed by European ancestry (40% to 45%); the African share represents only 2% to 5%. In Mexico City, the European contribution was estimated as 21% to 32% in six of the seven reports, with the anomalous value of 57% obtained in a single sample of 19 subjects. European ancestry is most prevalent in the north (Chihuahua, 50%; Sonora, 62%; Nuevo León, 55%), but in a recent sample from Nuevo León and elsewhere in the country, Amerindian ancestry is dominant."
A 2006 nationwide autosomal study, the first ever conducted by Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN), which included the states of Guerrero, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas and Sonora reported that self-identified Mestizo Mexicans are 58.96% European, 35.05% "Asian" (primarily Amerindian), and 5.03% Other.
An autosomal ancestry study performed on Mexico city reported that the European ancestry of Mexicans was 52% with the rest being Amerindian and a small African contribution, additionally maternal ancestry was analyzed, with 47% being of European origin. The only criteria for sample selection was that the volunters self-identified as Mexicans.
Establishment of a European elite
The main reason for the presence of European-descended people in Mexico is the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in the early 16th century. by Hernán Cortés, his troops and the Tlaxcaltecs. There are stories about Moctezuma taking Cortés to be the return of the God Quetzalcoatl due to his light skin and light-colored hair and eyes, which had never been seen before by the people of Mesoamerica. However, this has been disputed. After years of war Cortés finally managed to conquer the Aztecs through a series of alliances with enemy tribes which in the end made the Spanish dominant politically (It must be noted that the Tlaxcalan people still were regarded as being of higher status and received better treatment compared to the other indigenous peoples of New Spain), although a very small minority numerically.
Further migration into Mexico from Spain supplemented the numbers of ethnic Europeans during the colonial period. The conquest and subsequent domination by Europeans was justified by the Spanish as the indigenous were uncivilized and needed to be converted to Christianity. The Spanish language and culture was imposed with indigenous ones suppressed.
The Mexican experience mirrors much of that of the rest of Latin America, as attitudes towards race, including identification, were set by the conquistadors and Spanish who came soon after. Through the colonial period, the Spanish and their descendants, called "criollos" remained outnumbered by the indigenous and "mestizos" or those of mixed Spanish and indigenous parents. To keep power, the Spanish and criollo elite perpetuated the idea of "Spanish" being equivalent to "civilized." The population of Mexico (or New Spain) was organized into a hierarchical class system with those from Spain being the most privileged, followed by criollos, then mestizos than the indigenous. Classification of this system was mostly by race, which was determined mostly by whom one descended from. The system was not completely rigid and elements such as social class and social relations did figure into it. However, the notion of "Spanishness" would remain at the top and "Indianness" would be at the bottom, with those mixed being somewhere in the middle. This idea remained officially in force through the rest of the colonial period. The Spanish racial class system known as casta, defined a person as "criollo" who was born outside Spain of at least seven-eighths European ancestry. This system was well documented in historical New Spain in particular.
Criollo resentment to the privileges afforded the Spain-born or peninsulares was part of the reason behind the Mexican War of Independence. When the war ended in 1821, the new Mexican government expelled the peninsulares in the 1820s and 1830s. However, Independence did not do away with economic and social privilege based on race as the Criollos took over those of Spanish birth. A division between "Spanish" and "indigenous" remained despite a majority mestizo or mixed-race population. However, biological features were often not enough to distinguish between the two in many cases and some mixing occurred even in the upper classes. The main distinction between criollos and mestizos became money and social class and less about biological differences. The Criollos distinguished themselves from the rest of society as the guardians of Spanish culture as well as the Catholic religion.
Those considered to be white/criollo/European were never the majority of the country’s population, reaching a peak at around 18% during the early 19th century, according to census records. By 1921, the last time the official census took race into account, about ten percent were considered to be "white." This is one reason why many of the political struggles of the latter 19th and early 20th centuries would be between these elite and the majority mestizos.
In today's society
While the concept of race is relatively fluid, with large variation in skin color among mestizos, white or European looks are still strongly preferred in Mexican society, with lighter skin receiving more positive attention and foreign cultures such as European ones receiving deference. The concept of white, called güero or blanco in Mexican Spanish, still exists with it basically referring to those of full or predominantly European heritage. However, those with the lightest skin in Mexico are generally associated with the well-educated and upper income social classes. Racial and social distinctions are strongest in Mexico City, where the most powerful of the country's elite are located.
Complicating the situation is the relationship between the European, and the mestizo population. Racial and ethnic identification is strongly associated with Mexico's history, with descent more of a determining factor than biological traits. Since the Mexican Revolution, the official identity promoted has been mestizo or a mix of European and indigenous, which has affected social and political policy in the country. However, these policies contradict internally and between theory and reality, with European characteristics remaining in favor to this day. Since 1930, the Mexican government has not included race as part of its census due to an ideology designed to stop making designations among "Mexicans". Today, there are no official counts, but unofficial estimates put the white population ranging from just under one-tenth of the total to between one-fifth and one-tenth of the total. In one survey based on self-identification, percentages of whites varied from six to 20 percent depending on when one considered biology, customs and/or origins. However, due the emphasis put in the mestizo identity and culture (which was installed to eliminate divisions and create a unified identity that would allow Mexico to modernize and integrate into the international community) a large part of persons biologically white are classified as mestizos by the specialists in the subject, for living in a country with dominant mestizo culture.
The lack of a clear defining line between white and mixed race is further blurred by the fact that there is little homogeneity among mestizos, with the lighter skinned being favored, as associated with higher social class, power, money and modernity. Being a moreno (meaning "dark-skinned" in Spanish) is associated with Native American (Indian/Amerindian) origin with its inferior social class and implying submission. There is some correlation between skin color/ethnicity and wealth, with those who mostly identified as white having higher socioeconomic indices such as ownership of durable goods and education levels. Although on the surface, most Mexicans identify as a mixed-race, the European side is still considered to be superior, with efforts to promote European culture and values over indigenous ones.
A more recent variation on this cultural and biological preference is malinchismo which means to identify or favor a North American or European culture over the native one. It derives from La Malinche, the native interpreter who allied with Hernán Cortés during the Conquest. The story has strong domination and servitude elements and is still an important social imagery for Mexicans, with a strong preference to those with power. Today, it has morphed into a preference for English given names due to the influence of the United States.
Idioms of race serve a mediating terms between social groups. "Güero" or "güerito" is used by street vendors to call out to potential customers, sometimes even when the person is not light-skinned. It is used in this instance to initiate a kind of familiarity, but in cases where social/racial tensions are relatively high, it can have the opposite effect.
European immigration to Mexico
Mexicans of European descent are strongly associated with the history of the Spanish in the country as Mexico has not had the history of mass immigration that other New World countries such as the United States, Brazil and Argentina have had. The criollos began as the descendants of the conquistadors, which was the supplemented by further immigration from Spain in the colonial era and then from various parts of Europe and European descended peoples from other places in the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century. (The term "criollo" to refer to very light-skinned people remained until the 20th century.) After Independence, the Criollos took over politics and economic areas formerly banned to them such as mining. They have remained dominant since, especially in Mexico City. The expulsion of the Spanish between 1826 and 1833 kept the European ethnicity from growing as a percentage; however, this expulsion did not lead to any permanent ban on European immigrants, even from Spain.
Immigration to Mexico in the 19th and 20th century mostly came from Europe and other countries with European descended populations such as Argentina and the United States. However, at its height, the total immigrant population in Mexico never exceeded twenty percent. One reason for this was that Mexico lacked large expansions of cultivable land on its mountainous terrain, and what existed was firmly in the hands of the criollo elite. Another was that European immigration after the Mexican War of Independence was both welcomed and feared, a combination of xenophilia and xenophobia, especially to Europeans existing to this day.
The xenophilia toward European and European derived immigrants comes from the country’s association of civilization with European characteristics. After Independence, Liberals among Mexico’s elite blamed the country’s indigenous heritage for its inability to keep up with the economic development of the rest of the world. However, embracing only Mexico’s European heritage was not possible. This led to an effort to encourage European immigrants. One of these efforts was the dispossession of large tracts of land from the Catholic Church with the aim of selling them to immigrants and others who would develop them. However, this did not have the desired effect mostly because of political instability. The Porfirio Díaz regime of the decades before the Mexican Revolution tried again, and expressly desired European immigration to promote modernization, instill Protestant work ethics and buttress what remained of Mexico’s North from further U.S. expansionism. Díaz also expressed a desire to "whiten" Mexico’s heavily racially mixed population, although this had more to do with culture than with biological traits. However, the Díaz regime had more success luring investors than permanent residents, even in rural areas despite government programs. No more than forty foreign farming colonies were ever formed during this time and of these only a few Italian and German ones survived.
From the 19th to the early 20th century, most European foreigners in Mexico were in urban areas, especially Mexico City, living in enclaves and involved in business. These European immigrants would quickly adapt to the Mexican attitude that "whiter was better" and keep themselves separate from the host country. This and their status as foreigners offered them considerable social and economic advantages, blunting any inclination to assimilate. There was little incentive to integrate with the general Mexican population and when they did, it was limited to the criollo upper class. For this reason, one can find non–Spanish surnames among Mexico’s elite, especially in Mexico City, to this day.
However, even when generalized mixing did occur, such as with the Cornish miners in Hidalgo state around Pachuca and Real de Monte, their cultural influence remains strong. In these areas, English style houses can be found, the signature dish is the "paste" a variation of the Cornish pasty and they ended up introducing football (soccer) to Mexico. In the early 20th century, a group of about 100 Russian immigrants, mostly Pryguny and some Molokane and Cossacks came to live in area near Ensenada, Baja California. The main colony is in the Valle de Guadalupe and locally known as the Colonia Rusa near the town of Francisco Zarco. Other smaller colonies include San Antonio, Mision del Orno and Punta Banda. There are an estimated 1,000 descendants of these immigrants in Mexico, nearly all of whom have intermarried. The original settlements are now under the preservation of the Mexican government and have become tourist attractions.
By the end of the Porfirian era, Americans, British, French, Germans and Spanish were the most conspicuous Europeans in Mexico but they were limited to Mexico City in enclaves, failing to produce the "whitening" effect desired. This history would mean that Mexico would never become a nation of immigrants, but rather one where a few well-connected newcomers could make a great impact. Despite Diaz’s early efforts at attracting foreign immigration, he reversed course near the end of his government, nationalizing industries dominated by foreigners such as trains. Foreigners were blamed for much of the country’s economic problems leading to restriction. This would cause many foreigners to leave.
One reason for the Mexico’s xenophobia was that Europeans and Americans often quickly dominated various industries and commerce in Mexico. By the mid-19th century, there were only 30,000 to 40,000 Caucasian immigrants compared to an overall population of over eight million, but their impact was strongly felt. For example, the Spanish and French came to dominate the textile industry and various areas of commerce, pioneering the industrialization of the country. Various Europeans and Americans also dominated mining, oil and cash crop agriculture. Many of these immigrants were not really immigrants at all, but rather "trade conquistadors" who remained in Mexico only long enough to make their fortunes to return to their home countries to retire. Large numbers of Americans in Texas, would eventually lead to the secession of that territory. These two experiences would strongly affect Mexico’s immigration policy to this day, even though Mexico’s total foreign population at its height in the 1930s never exceeded one percent of the total.
Legal vestiges of attempts to "whiten" the population ended with the 1947 "Ley General de Población" along with the blurring of the lines between most of Mexico immigrant colonies and the general population. This blurring was hastened by the rise of a Mexican middle class, who enrolled their children in schools for foreigners and foreign organizations such as the German Club having a majority of Mexican members. However, this assimilation still has been mostly limited to Mexico’s lighter skinned peoples. Mass culture promoted the Spanish language and most other European languages have declined and almost disappeared. Restrictive immigration policies since the 1970s have further pushed the assimilation process. Despite all of the aforementioned pressure, as of 2013 Mexico is the country with most international immigrants in the world.
Since 2000, Mexico's economic growth has increased international migration to the country, including people of European descent who leave their countries (particularly France and Spain) in the search of better work opportunities. People from the United States have moved too, now making up more than three-quarters of Mexico's roughly one million documented foreigners, up from around two-thirds in 2000. Nowadays, more people originally from United States have been added to the population of Mexico than Mexicans have been added to the population of the United States, according to government data in both nations.
Example of ethnic European groups in Mexico
One of the few Porfirian era European settlements to survive to this day is centered on the small town of Chipilo in the state of Puebla. They are the descendants of about 500 Italian immigrants which came over in the 1880s, keeping their Venetian-derived dialect and distinct ethnic identity, even though many have intermarried with other Mexicans. Many still farm and raise livestock but economic changes have pushed many into industry.
During the Mexican Revolution, Álvaro Obregón invited a group of German-speaking Mennonites in Canada to resettle in Chihuahua state. By the late 1920s, almost 10,000 had arrived from both Canada and Europe. Today, Mexico accounts for about 42% of all Mennonites in Latin America. Mennonites in the country stand out because of their light skin, hair and eyes. They are a largely insular community that speaks Plautdietsch and wear traditional clothing. They own their own businesses in various communities in Chihuahua, and account for about half of the state’s farm economy, standing out in cheese production.
Immigration was restricted by governments after Diaz’s but never stopped entirely during the 20th century. Between 1937 and 1948, more than 18,000 Spanish Republicans arrived as refugees from the Francisco Franco dictatorship. Their reception by the Mexican criollo elite was mixed but they manage to experience success as most of these newcomers were educated as scholars and artists. This group founded the Colegio de Mexico, one of the country’s top academic institutions. Another, smaller group from this time period were Jewish immigrants fleeing Hitler. Despite attempts to assimilate these immigrant groups, especially the country’s already existing German population during World War II, they remain mostly separate to this day.
Due to the 2008 Financial Crisis and the resulting economic decline and high unemployment in Spain, many Spaniards have been emigrating to Mexico to seek new opportunities. For example, during the last quarter of 2012, a number of 7,630 work permits were granted to Spaniards.
Sixty-seven percent of Latin America’s English-speaking population lives in Mexico. Most of these are American nationals, with in influx of people from the U.S. coming to live in Mexico since the 1930s, becoming the largest group of foreigners in the country since then. However, most Americans in Mexico are not immigrants in the traditional sense, as they are there living as retirees or otherwise do not consider themselves permanent residents.
The following is a table with data of the 1808, 1885, 1921, and 2000 censuses. The 1808, 1885, and 1921 censuses divided the population into three racial groups: indigenous (Spanish: indígena), mestizo (Spanish: mestizo), and European (Spanish: europeo). In the 2000 census the government just asked whether the person felt cultural affiliation to an indigenous community.
|Indigenous||Mestizo||European||TOTAL||% Ind.||% Mestizo||% Euro.|
This census was conducted during the Viceroyalty of New Spain period. "Españoles" (Spaniards) and "Criollos" (Mexicans maintaining at least 7/8ths Spanish ancestry) comprised the largest group in percentage in the New Spain's northern territories of Provincias Internas. However this area was sparsely populated in contrast with central areas of the viceroyalty, thus nominal numbers of Spaniards and Criollos were higher in the intendencies of Mexico and Guadalajara.
The Mexican Government asked Mexicans about their perception of their own racial heritage. In the 1921 census, residents of the Mexican Republic were asked if they fell into one of the following categories:
The results were:
|Cualquiera otra raza o que se ignora
(Either other or chose to ignore the race)
|Extranjeros, sin distinción de razas
(Foreigners without racial distinction)
This was the last Mexican Census which asked people to self-identify with European heritage. However, the census had the particularity that, unlike racial/ethnic census in other countries, it was focussed in the perception of cultural heritage rather than in a racial perception, leading to a good number of white people to identify with "Mixed heritage" due cultural influence.
- White people
- White Latin Americans
- White Argentines
- White Colombians
- White Brazilians
- White Americans
- Indigenous Mexicans
- Criollo people
Notes and references
- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). "North America: Mexico". The World Factbook. Ethnic groups:. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%
- "Encyclopædia Britannica: Mexico Ethnic groups". January 15, 2015.
- "21 de Marzo Día Internacional de la Eliminación de la Discriminación Racial" pag.7, CONAPRED, Mexico, 21 March. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "Encuesta Nacional Sobre Discriminación en Mexico”, “CONAPRED”, Mexico DF, June 2011. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- Sharon R. Ennis, Merarys Ríos-Vargas, Nora G. Albert (May 2011). http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-04.pdf U.S. Census Bureau, p. 14 (Table 6). Retrieved 2011-07-11.
- "Plautdietsch in Mexico" (PDF). europeanpeoples.imb.org. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
- Includes Poles: Wojciech Tyciński, Krzysztof Sawicki, Departament Współpracy z Polonią MSZ (Warsaw, 2009). "Raport o sytuacji Polonii i Polaków za granicą (The official report on the situation of Poles and Polonia abroad)" (PDF file, direct download 1.44 MB). Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland), pp. 1–466. Retrieved June 14, 2013 (Internet Archive).
- "Resultados definitivos de la encuesta intercensal", INEGI, Aguascalientes, 08 December 2015. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "21 de Marzo Día Internacional de la Eliminación de la Discriminación Racial" In the page 7 of the press release, the council reported that 47% of Mexicans (54% of women and 40% of men) identified with the lightest skin colors used in the census questionary, CONAPRED, Mexico, 21 March. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "DOCUMENTO INFORMATIVO SOBRE DISCRIMINACIÓN RACIAL EN MÉXICO", CONAPRED, Mexico, 21 March 2011, retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "Racismo y salud mental en estudiantes universitarios en la Ciudad de México", Scielo, Cuernavaca, April–March 2011. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals" table 1, Plosgenetics, 25 September 2014. Retrieved on 9 May 2017.
- Sijia Wang; Nicolas Ray; Winston Rojas; Maria V. Parra; Gabriel Bedoya; Carla Gallo; et al. (March 21, 2008). "Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos". PLOS Genetics. 4: e1000037. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037. PMC . PMID 18369456. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
Large differences in the variation of individual admixture estimates were seen across populations, with the variance in Native American ancestry between individuals ranging from 0.005 in Quetalmahue to 0.07 in Mexico City (Figure 4, Figure S1, and Table S2), an observation consistent with previous studies...
- "Al respecto no debe olvidarse que en estos países buena parte de las personas consideradas biológicamente blancas son mestizas en el aspecto cultural, el que aquí nos interesa (p. 196)" (PDF). Redalyc.org. 2005-03-16. Retrieved 2013-06-27.
- "Encuesta Intercensal 2015", “INEGI”, Mexico, December 2015. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- Howard F. Cline (1963). THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO. Harvard University Press. p. 104. ISBN 9780674497061. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Encuesta Nacional Sobre Discriminación en Mexico” pag. 42, “CONAPRED”, Mexico DF, June 2011. Retrieved on 28 April 2011.
- "The evolution of human skin coloration", Pubmed, Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "21 de Marzo Día Internacional de la Eliminación de la Discriminación Racial" pag. 2, CONAPRED, Mexico, 21 March. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "Encuesta Nacional Sobre Discriminación en Mexico” pag. 42, “CONAPRED”, Mexico DF, June 2011. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "moreno - Definición”, “Wordreference”, Retrieved on 29 April 2017.
- "Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals" figure 1, Plosgenetics, 25 September 2014. Retrieved on 9 May 2017.
- "Alteraciones cutáneas del neonato en dos grupos de población de México", Scielo, March/April 2005. Retrieved on 18 May 2017.
- Miller (1999). Nursing Care of Older Adults: Theory and Practice (3, illustrated ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 90. ISBN 0781720761. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- "About Mongolian Spot". tokyo-med.ac.jp. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "The Hispanic Population: 2010 Census Brief" (PDF). Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "Ancestry informative markers and admixture proportions in northeastern Mexico", Pubmed, Retrieved on 15 May 2017.
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