||This article's introduction section may not adequately summarize its contents. (June 2016)|
Sociologists Betty A. Dobratz and Stephanie L. Shanks-Meile identified "White Power! White Pride!" as "a much-used chant of white separatist movement supporters", and sociologist Mitch Berbrier has identified the use of this phrase as part of a "new racist ... frame-transformation and frame-alignment by (a) consciously packaging a 'hate-free' racism, (b) developing strategies of equivalence and reversal–presenting whites as equivalent to ethnic and racial minorities, and (c) deploying ideas about 'love,' 'pride,' and 'heritage-preservation' to evidence both their putative lack of animosity toward others as well as their ethnic credentials." In a social psychology experiment that tested how white participants could be influenced to identify with white pride ideology, social psychologists framed white pride as follows:
[P]eople who openly express White pride seem invariably to be those alienated from the mainstream culture—KKK members, skin-heads, and White supremacists—people trying to grab onto some basis for feeling good about themselves when conventional avenues such as successful careers and relationships are not working well for them. Consequently, the vast majority of people who avow White pride seem also to explicitly avow racism.
Sociologists Monica McDermott and Frank L. Samson documented the rhetorical evolution of white pride movements thusly, "Because white pride has historically been predicated upon a denigration of nonwhites, the articulation of the duties and requirements of whiteness reflects a desire to correlate a conscious white identity with positive attributes."
Use as an identity marker
Political and social scientists commonly argue that the idea of "white pride" is an attempt to provide a clean or more palatable public face for white supremacy or white separatism and that it is an appeal to a larger audience in hopes of inciting more widespread racial violence. According to Joseph T. Roy of the Southern Poverty Law Center, white supremacists often circulate material on the internet and elsewhere that "portrays the groups not as haters, but as simple white pride civic groups concerned with social ills". Philosopher David Ingram argues that "affirming 'black pride' is not equivalent to affirming 'white pride,' since the former—unlike the latter—is a defensive strategy aimed at rectifying a negative stereotype". By contrast, then, "affirmations of white pride—however thinly cloaked as affirmations of ethnic pride—serve to mask and perpetuate white privilege". In the same vein, Professor of Education at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Cris Mayo, characterizes white pride as "a politically distasteful goal, given that whiteness is not a personal or community identity, but has been a strategy to maintain inequities of privilege and power."
Political scientists Carol M. Swain and Russell Nieli, in their text on white nationalism, identify the white pride movement as a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. They argue that over the course of the 1990s, "a new white pride, white protest, and white consciousness movement has developed in America". They identify three contributing factors: an immigrant influx during the 1980s and 1990s, resentment over affirmative action policies, and the growth of the Internet as a tool for the expression and mobilization of grievances. As an alternative, Janet E. Helms, founding director of Boston College’s Institute for the Study and Promotion of Race and Culture was quoted in the book "Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together In The Cafeteria?": And Other Conversations About Race as saying that a white person "must become aware of his or her Whiteness, accept it as personally and socially significant... ... Not in the sense of Klan members’ ‘white pride’ but in the context of a commitment to a just society.” In his article "Does White Pride Lead to Prejudice" Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton, writes about two groups in a study: "One group very much identified with being White, but in a way that allowed them to recognize White privilege.... The other group also identified with being White, but described their experience much more in terms of how proud they were to be a part of the group.", concluding that "just because someone has a strong ethnic identity, we cannot make direct conclusions about their attitudes on other topics. This applies not just to Whites, but to members of other groups as well."
The slogan "White Pride Worldwide" appears in the logo of Stormfront, a website owned and operated by Don Black, who was formerly a Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan. The North Georgia White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan describe themselves as "a patriotic, White Christian revival movement dedicated to preserving the maintenance of White Pride and the rights of the White Race". A 2002 study identified white pride as a motivation for racial hate crimes on a US college campus, while in a different study on internet racism, the slogan was identified as being part of an emerging transnationalist trend in white supremacist movements. The slogan was chanted by neo-Nazis rallying in Manchester, United Kingdom, and in an exposé from The Week, James Poulos warned that "Europe is on track to rediscover what looks to us like a highly unsettling form of white pride."
- "Neo-Nazi group and anti-racism protesters clash in Calgary". The Star (Toronto). March 21, 2009.
- Gandia, Renato (March 23, 2009). "Violence erupts at 'White Power' march". Sun Media. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
- Van McVey, Sarah (2008). Race, Gender, and the Contemporary White Supremacy Movement: The Intersection of "isms" and Organized Racist Groups. ProQuest.
- John Gabriel (4 January 2002). Whitewash: Racialized Politics and the Media. Routledge. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-1-134-75016-0.
- Dobratz & Shanks-Meile 2001, p. vii
- Berbrier, Mitch (1998-11-01). "“Half the Battle”: Cultural Resonance, Framing Processes, and Ethnic Affectations in Contemporary White Separatist Rhetoric". Social Problems 45 (4): 431–450. doi:10.2307/3097206. ISSN 0037-7791.
- Greenberg, Jeff; Schimel, Jeff; Martens, Andy; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszcznyski, Tom (2001-06-01). "Sympathy for the Devil: Evidence That Reminding Whites of Their Mortality Promotes More Favorable Reactions to White Racists". Motivation and Emotion 25 (2): 113–133. doi:10.1023/A:1010613909207. ISSN 0146-7239.
- McDermott, Monica; Samson, Frank L. (2005-01-01). "White Racial and Ethnic Identity in the United States". Annual Review of Sociology 31: 245–261.
- Swain, Carol M. (2002), The New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 16, ISBN 0-521-80886-3
- Roy, Joseph T. (September 14, 1999), Statement of Joseph T. Roy, Sr. before the Senate Judiciary Committee, U.S. Senate Committee on The Judiciary, archived from the original on 2008-05-20, retrieved 2015-01-21
- Ingram 2004, p. 55.
- "Certain Privilege: Rethinking White Agency | Mayo | Philosophy of Education Archive". ojs.ed.uiuc.edu. p. 311. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
- *Swain, Carol M.; Nieli, Russell (2003), Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism in America, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 5, ISBN 0-521-01693-2.
- Tatum, Beverly Daniel (2003-01-01). "Why are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?": And Other Conversations about Race. Basic Books. ISBN 0465083617.
- "Does White Pride Lead to Prejudice?". Greater Good. Retrieved 2016-05-30.
- Faulk 1997
- Hilliard & Keith 1999, p. 63
- Jackson, Ronald L.; Heckman, Susan M. (2002-06-01). "Perceptions of White Identity and White Liability: An Analysis of White Student Responses to a College Campus Racial Hate Crime". Journal of Communication 52 (2): 434–450. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2002.tb02554.x. ISSN 1460-2466.
- Back, Les; Keith, Michael; Solomos, John (1998). "Racism on the Internet: Mapping Neo-Fascist Subcultures in Cyberspace". In Kaplan, Jeffrey; Bjørgo, Tore. Nation and race : the developing Euro-American racist subculture. Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press. ISBN 1-55553-332-9.
- O'Leary, Abigail (28 March 2015). "Arrests at White Pride rally in Manchester city centre's Piccadilly Gardens". Manchester Evening News (MEN Media). Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- Poulos, James (13 April 2015). "Europe's shocking and unsettling future: White pride". The Week (Michael Wolfe). Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- Dobratz, Betty A.; Shanks-Meile, Stephanie L. (2001), The White Separatist Movement in the United States: White Power, White Pride, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-6537-9.
- Faulk, Kent (October 19, 1997), "White Supremacist Spreads Views over the Internet", The Birmingham News.
- Hilliard, Robert L.; Keith, Michael C. (1999), Waves of Rancor: Tuning in the Radical Right, Amonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 978-0-7656-0131-5.
- Ingram, David (2004), Rights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity Politics: Principled Compromises in a Compromised World, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-3348-4.
- Swain, Carol M.; Nieli, Russell (2003), Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism in America, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-01693-2.