Earlswood

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Earlswood
Royal Earlswood Park TQ2848 474.JPG
Victoria Court, Royal Earlswood Park
Earlswood is located in Surrey
Earlswood
Earlswood
Location within Surrey
Population5,049 [1]
OS grid referenceTQ280495
District
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townRedhill
Postcode districtRH1
Dialling code01737
PoliceSurrey
FireSurrey
AmbulanceSouth East Coast
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Surrey
51°13′41″N 0°10′16″W / 51.228°N 0.171°W / 51.228; -0.171Coordinates: 51°13′41″N 0°10′16″W / 51.228°N 0.171°W / 51.228; -0.171

Earlswood is a suburb of Redhill in Surrey, England, which lies on the A23 between Redhill (in the direction of London) and Horley (next to Gatwick Airport). Earlswood Common is a Local Nature Reserve that separates the suburb from the southern outskirts of Reigate, and has two lakes and picnic areas. Earlswood station is on the Brighton Main Line, and to the west of the line are Royal Earlswood Park, the East Surrey Hospital and Whitebushes.

History[edit]

When the straight turnpike from London to Brighton between Earlswood Common and the London to Brighton railway was cut there was a claim that traces of a Roman villa[2] were discovered. No evidence has since been located. The area south of the common loosely known as Whitebushes was formally a wilderness; it contained many clay pits that may be linked to the reputed Roman remains. Most trees of the Weald that covered Earlswood Common were cut down in the 17th century by order of local noble, Lord Monson and the land was inclosed in 1886.[2] Brickworks were a considerable employer in the Victorian period and in 1911.[2]

In 1863 Earlswood joined Meadvale, Redhill and Reigate to become part of the newly formed municipal borough of Reigate when it was granted this status by royal charter.[citation needed]

Earlswood was home to the Royal Earlswood psychiatric hospital, founded as a 'national home' and opened by Albert, Prince Consort[2] functioned until 1997. Equally here was the Royal Philanthropic Society's reform school from 1849[2] until 1988. This has been redeveloped into Royal Earlswood Park, chiefly into apartments but also into houses.

The suburb is served by railway station with trains running from London Bridge/London Victoria to Horsham, which previously had a third platform which gave access to the Royal Earlswood Hospital.

Earlswood common was from late Victorian times no longer used as open pasture and for foraging and was a pleasure ground until World War II. Its lower lake has a concrete bottom and was used in World War I to test the ability of primitive tanks to cross flooded landscapes, having previously had a diving platform, a paddling pool and was used for summer swimming. Members of the Christian Science Church used the lake for all year swimming and broke the ice in winter.[citation needed] Its upper lake had a kiosk and boats for rent.[citation needed]

Demography[edit]

At the 2001 census area, the ward named Earlswood and Whitebushes had a population of 8,234; Earlswood is identifiable as Reigate and Banstead 14A, 14D and 14E (Lower Layer Super Output Areas) with a population of 5,049.[1]

Geography[edit]

Earlswood Common is a Local Nature Reserve.[3][4] It contains two artificial landscaped lakes, which are used for recreational purposes. The upper lake has ducks and wildfowl. Until 2019, for 130 years, much of Earlswood Common had formed Earlswood Common golf course. The golf course was forced to close in March 2019 due to the closure of the Redhill & Reigate Golf Club, which maintained it.[5]

To the north of this common is part of Reigate and the St John's compact conservation area or Old Town of which has to its north a smaller but steep and triangular common, Redhill Common. St John's is included in the article on Redhill.

Localities[edit]

Earlswood[edit]

This is the area of predominantly Victorian housing, much of it terraced and semi-detached, immediately south of Redhill town centre bordered to the north by Hooley lane, to the west by the A23 Brighton Road, to the south by the Royal Earlswood Park housing development and to the east by fields. Redhill Brook runs north-south through the middle of Earlswood but is not visible in most of it. Two train lines run through Earlswood. The Redhill and Quarry Lines, both part of the Brighton Line, merge just north of Earlswood and run through Earlswood Station although there is no Quarry Line Platform. The Redhill to Tonbridge line passes through north Earlswood in between Redhill and Nutfield stations.

There are a nursery, primary and junior school over two sites in north Earlswood combined under the umbrella of the Earlswood Schools Federation. The schools are very popular and, along with the plentiful green space and good transport links, have attracted many young families to the area.

South Earlswood[edit]

One sub-area of Earlswood, South Earlswood is a separate neighbourhood containing approximately half of the housing, which constitutes the main land use in Earlswood.[6][7] Separating it from the north are Earlswood Common and the Greensand Way, which follows the Greensand Ridge from Haslemere to Kent. Immediately adjoining South Earlswood is the village or neighbourhood of Whitebushes, which is contiguous therefore, apart from councillors, is difficult to separate artificially.[8]

Whitebushes[edit]

A mixed housing estate built in the 1970s and early 1980s, surrounded by pre-existing farmland, South Earlswood and the railway line. East Surrey Hospital opened in 1979 to its north. A small portion of farmland remains common land where (traditionally) gypsy horses, used for riding lessons and transport, have grazed since the 1950s.

The area has been occupied since medieval times and probably before that, as evidenced by archaeological finds nearby of an axe[9] and flint flakes.[10] The surrounding farms date back to the 13th and 14th centuries, notably Hazelhurst Farm from 1203 and Dean Farm from 1316.[11] There is evidence of a medieval farmstead in Woodlands Field, off Green Lane. This consists mainly of soil marks in a square of about 350m and an adjoining L-shaped mark. The pottery has been dated to 1250–1350.[12]

In the 19th century a number of brick works sprung up in the area. The Reigate Isolation Hospital was established in 1884 and later renamed to the Reigate Rural District Infectious Diseases Hospital.[13] In 1900 a second establishment, the Reigate Borough Isolation Hospital, was opened. Around 1927 the two establishments were combined into a single Isolation Hospital run by the Reigate Joint Hospital Board as part of the Redhill County Hospital.[14] In 1960 the site was acquired by University College Hospital and renamed Jordan's Hospital[15] for the treatment of Tropical Diseases, especially leprosy. The site was sold for development in 1970 and the estate between Green Lane and the railway, including Jordans Close, was built.

The Brighton Main Line passes the west of Whitebushes and was opened in 1841. An ancient trackway[16] along what is now Green Lane, The Brow and the western leg of Bushfield Drive, links Whitebushes to Earlswood station to the north and Salfords station to the south. Somewhat circuitous routes under the railway link to the parking areas by these stations for those unwilling to walk.

Local governance[edit]

Surrey County Council Following boundary changes in response to the new communities built at The Watercolour and Park 25 developments East of Redhill, Earlswood is now split between two divisions at Surrey County Council level. Earlswood North falls with the Redhill East division and Earlswood South falls within the Earlswood and Reigate South division. This does cause some confusion as there is also a Redhill East ward at borough council level which Earlswood is not part of. Both are elected every four years. They are currently represented by:

Redhill East: Mr Jonathan Essex of the Green Party (UK) who, in being elected, became the first member of his party to sit on Surrey County Council.

Earlswood and Reigate South: *Ms Barbara Thomson (Con), returned by the electorate in 2013, on the Adult Social Care Select Committee, Communities Select Committee and the relevant Local Committee.[17] The second party was UKIP gaining 899 votes versus the winning candidate's 955.[18]

Reigate and Banstead At Borough council Earlswood North and South are combined to form one division, simply Earlswood. Three Earlswood councillors sit on Reigate and Banstead borough council, who are:

Election Member[19]

Ward

2012 James Durrant Earlswood and Whitebushes
2011 Barbara Thomson Earlswood and Whitebushes
2014 Rita Renson Earlswood and Whitebushes

Amenities[edit]

Earlswood Common, an 89-hectare (220-acre) local nature reserve, is managed by Reigate and Banstead Borough Council.

Football club Redhill F.C. has its ground, Kiln Brow, on a site in Earlswood on the east side of the A23, immediately north of East Surrey Hospital.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Local statistics - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk.
  2. ^ a b c d e Malden, H.E., ed. (1911). "Parishes: Reigate". A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  3. ^ "Earlswood Common". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  4. ^ "Map of Earlswood Common". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  5. ^ Seymour, Jenny (29 January 2019). "130-year-old Redhill and Reigate Golf Club to close because it is 'financially unviable'". SurreyLive. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  6. ^ "Ordnance Survey map, courtesy of English Heritage". Archived from the original on 24 April 2012.
  7. ^ Grid square map Ordnance survey website
  8. ^ Office for National Statistics website. Census area: as to South Earlswood 014A refers exactly.
  9. ^ "Search results". Exploring Surrey's Past.
  10. ^ "Search results". Exploring Surrey's Past.
  11. ^ Medieval Settlement Patterns in NE Horley by R Ellaby, 1982
  12. ^ "Search results". Exploring Surrey's Past.
  13. ^ "19th Century – A History of Whitebushes, Surrey".
  14. ^ "20th Century and Present – A History of Whitebushes, Surrey".
  15. ^ "Lost_Hospitals_of_London". www.ezitis.myzen.co.uk.
  16. ^ Earlswood-Salfords-Horley ancient trackway; Roger Ellaby 2000
  17. ^ Surrey County Council, County Hall (1 July 2019). "Councillor details - Ms Barbara Thomson". mycouncil.surreycc.gov.uk.
  18. ^ Surrey County Council, County Hall (2 May 2013). "Election results for Earlswood and Reigate South, 2 May 2013". mycouncil.surreycc.gov.uk.
  19. ^ "Reigate and Banstead councillors". Archived from the original on 23 September 2013.

External links[edit]

Media related to Earlswood at Wikimedia Commons