White Flower

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The White Flower[1][2] (Italian: Biancofiore) was an informal name given to the electoral alliance of two Christian democratic Italian political parties for the 2001 general election,[3] namely:

The parties aligned themselves with the House of Freedoms centre-right coalition. It was led by Pier Ferdinando Casini. The list gained only 3.2% of the vote,[1][4] short of the 4% threshold however, thanks to its alliance with the House of Freedoms, it gained 40 Deputies and 29 Senators.

In December 2002 both constituent parties merged with European Democracy to form the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC).[1]


  1. ^ a b c Tom Lansford, ed. (2013). "Italy". Political Handbook of the World 2013. CQ Press. p. 713. 
  2. ^ Martin J. Bull; James L. Newell (2005). Italian Politics: Adjustment Under Duress. Polity Press. p. 54. 
  3. ^ Nicolò Conti (2014). "European Citizenship in Party Euro-Manifestos: Southern Europe in Comparative Perspectives". In Nicolò Conti; Maurizio Cotta; Maurizio Cotta; et al. Perspectives of National Elites on European Citizenship: A South European View. Routledge. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-317-99576-0. 
  4. ^ Hine, David; Hanretty, Chris (2006). Games Advanced Democracies Play: The Coalition Crisis of April 2005. The End of the Berlusconi Era?. Italian Politics: A Review. 21. Berghahn Books. p. 115.