Whites (January Uprising)
The "Whites" (Polish: Biali) were a faction among Polish insurrectionists before and during the January Uprising in early 1860s. They consisted mostly of progressive minded land owners and industrialists, the middle class and some intellectuals of Russian controlled Congress Poland. The faction had its origins in the Towarzystwo Rolnicze (Agricultural Society) started by Count Andrzej Artur Zamoyski in 1858. While the Whites supported ending serfdom, unlike the "Red" faction they advocated for some kind of compensation to be made to the landlords. Also unlike the Reds, the Whites generally opposed the idea of an armed insurrection against Russia, seeing it as doomed to failure, and instead tried to use diplomacy and the support of other European powers to win greater autonomy for Congress Poland, a separate administration and a native Polish army. They also tried to influence the Tsar to engage in the recovery of former Polish lands which had been taken by partitioning powers other than Russia - Austria and Prussia. However, once the January Uprising broke out, most Whites supported it both politically and militarily.
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