This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
View of the Bronx-Whitestone Bridge from Queens.
|Carries||6 lanes of I-678|
|Locale||New York City (Throggs Neck, Bronx – Whitestone, Queens)|
|Other name(s)||Whitestone Bridge|
|Maintained by||MTA Bridges and Tunnels|
|Total length||3,770 feet (1,150 m)|
|Longest span||2,300 feet (700 m)|
|Clearance above||14 feet 6 inches (4.4 m)|
|Clearance below||134 feet 10 inches (41.1 m)|
|Construction cost||$19.7 million|
|Opened||April 29, 1939|
|Daily traffic||105,718 (2012)|
|Toll||As of March 19, 2017, $8.50 (Tolls By Mail and non-New York E-ZPass); $5.76 (New York E-ZPass)|
The Bronx–Whitestone Bridge (colloquially referred to as the Whitestone Bridge or simply the Whitestone) is a suspension bridge in New York City that crosses the East River and connects the boroughs of Queens on Long Island, and the Bronx on the United States mainland via Interstate 678. The bridge was designed by Othmar Ammann and opened to traffic with four lanes on April 29, 1939.
The idea for a crossing between the Bronx and Whitestone, Queens had come as early as 1905. At the time, residents around the proposed area of the bridge protested construction in fear of losing the then-rural character of the community. In 1929, however, the Regional Plan Association (RPA) had proposed another bridge from the Bronx to northern Queens to allow motorists from upstate New York and New England to reach Queens and Long Island without traveling through the traffic-ridden communities of western Queens. On February 25, 1930, influential planner Robert Moses proposed a Ferry Point Park-to-Whitestone Bridge as a part of his Belt Parkway system around Brooklyn and Queens.
As the 1930s progressed, Moses found his bridge increasingly necessary to directly link the mainland to the 1939 New York World's Fair and to LaGuardia Airport (then known as North Beach Airport). In addition, the Whitestone Bridge was to provide congestion relief to the Triborough Bridge. It was said that the new bridge would also spur a wave of industrial development in the Bronx. The RPA had also said that the Whitestone Bridge should have rail connections, or at least be able to accommodate them in the future, but the rail connections were not supported by any other group.
In 1936, Governor Herbert H. Lehman signed a bill that authorized the construction of the Bronx–Whitestone Bridge, which would connect Queens and the Bronx. At its north end, the Bronx–Whitestone Bridge would connect to Eastern Boulevard (later known as Bruckner Boulevard) via the Hutchinson River Parkway. At its south end, the bridge would connect to a new Whitestone Parkway, which led southwest off the bridge to Northern Boulevard. Plans for the bridge were completed by February 1937, at which time the state started issuing bonds to fund bridge construction. The Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority was to construct the span. Moses argued that the TBTA and the city should each be responsible for half of the bridge's $17.5 million cost.
The right-of-way for the Whitestone Bridge and Parkway was legally designated in July 1937. Moses raised controversy when he quickly decided to demolish seventeen homes in the Queens community of Malba. He argued that such measures were necessary to complete the bridge on schedule.
Designer Othmar Ammann had several plans for the bridge that would keep construction on its tight schedule. The two 377-foot (115 m) towers were constructed in a short 18 days and were the first to have no diagonal cross bracing. Unlike other suspension bridges, the Whitestone Bridge did not have a stiffening truss system. Instead, 11-foot (3.4 m) I-beam girders gave the bridge an art deco streamlined appearance.
A $1.13 million contract for the construction of the Bronx-Whitestone Bridge's towers was awarded in June 1937 to the Bethlehem Steel Company. The process of spinning the bridge's cables commenced in September 1938. Construction on the bridge and the nearby Triborough Bridge was sped up so that they would be ready in time for the 1939 World's Fair.
The Bronx–Whitestone Bridge opened on April 29, 1939, in festivities led by then-Mayor of New York City Fiorello H. La Guardia. The bridge featured pedestrian walkways as well as four lanes of vehicular traffic, which carried 17,000 vehicles per day during the year 1940. The toll was 25 cents. The new "Whitestone" or Type 41 lamp post was later used in many other projects. The 2,300-foot (700 m) center span was the fourth longest in the world at the opening. However, Ammann's plan to use I-beam girders proved to be a poor one after the collapse of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington (known as Galloping Gertie for the effect wind had on the structure). The Bronx–Whitestone Bridge used the same general design as the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. The Narrows Bridge employed an 8-foot (2.4 m) deep girder system, much like the 11-foot (3.4 m) I-beam girders of the Whitestone Bridge. To mitigate the risk of failure from high winds, eight stay cables (two per tower per side) were installed for added stability in 1940.
Starting in 1943, the pedestrian walkways were removed from the bridge allowing for vehicular traffic expansion by the creation of two more vehicular lanes. The project's primary goal was to reinforce the bridge with trusses after the Tacoma Narrows Bridge disaster. The four lanes of roadway traffic were widened to six lanes and 14-foot (4.3 m) high steel trusses were installed on both sides of the deck to weigh down and stiffen the bridge in an effort to reduce oscillation. These trusses detracted from the former streamlined looking span. In 2003, the Metropolitan Transit Authority restored the classic lines of the bridge by removing the stiffening trusses and installing fiberglass fairing along both sides of the road deck. The lightweight fiberglass fairing is triangular in shape giving it an aerodynamic profile "that slices the wind as it passes over the bridge". The removal of the trusses and other changes to the decking cut the bridge's weight by 6,000 tons, some 25% of the mass suspended by the cables.
Originally built to connect the Hutchinson River Parkway in the Bronx to the Whitestone Parkway in Queens, the Bronx–Whitestone Bridge was redesignated as an interstate highway, Interstate 678, in the late 1950s. The approaches to the bridge were soon after converted to Interstate Highway standards. The Whitestone Parkway became the Whitestone Expressway, and the portion of the Hutchinson between the bridge and the Bruckner Interchange became the Hutchinson River Expressway. They now share the I-678 designation with the bridge itself.
The Metropolitan Transportation Authority planned to spend $286 million in bridge renovations, which started in August 2001. These renovations, which are still in progress, include removing the cable stays installed in the 1940s in response to the Tacoma Bridge collapse, removing the 14-foot (4.3 m) trusses (which proved to be too heavy for the bridge's suspension cables, which were not designed to hold such weight), adding mass dampers to stabilize the bridge deck, repainting the two towers and the deck of the bridge, upgrading the lighting systems (including the beacons of the bridge and bulbs), and installing variable message signs. Replacing the deck of the bridge and assisting in lightening the deck by 6,000 tons was projected to be done by 2008. The bridge remains in service during overhaul, but a reduced number of lanes lead to traffic backups and signs suggesting use of the Throgs Neck Bridge. Trucks over 40 tons have been prohibited from using the span since 2005.
Construction has been ongoing as of 2009 to upgrade the bridge. Changes including a third supporting pier, the removal of the median barrier, the removal and replacement of the old roadway with a new superstructure, and demolition of the old supporting piers are being undertaken at a cost of $192.8 million.
Starting on March 19, 2017, drivers will pay $8.50 per car or $3.50 per motorcycle for tolls by mail. E‑ZPass users with transponders issued by the New York E‑ZPass Customer Service Center pay $5.76 per car or $2.51 per motorcycle. All E-ZPass users with transponders not issued by the New York E-ZPass CSC will be required to pay Toll-by-mail rates.
Open-road cashless tolling began on September 30, 2017. The tollbooths have been gradually dismantled, and drivers are no longer able to pay cash at the bridge. Instead, there are cameras mounted onto new overhead gantries near where the booths are currently located. Drivers without E-ZPass will have a picture of their license plate taken, and the toll will be mailed to them. For E-ZPass users, sensors will detect their transponders wirelessly.
After the removal of the sidewalks starting in 1943, bicyclists were able to use QBx1 buses of the Queens Surface Corporation, which could carry bicycles on the front-mounted bike racks. However, since the Metropolitan Transportation Authority absorbed the bus routes formerly operated by Queens Surface, the bike racks have been eliminated, though the MTA will reintroduce bike racks on Q50 Limited (the successor route to the QBx1) buses in spring 2018. For the time being, bicyclists are now forced to detour to the Triborough Bridge. Whether a new bikeway or walkway will be reconstructed on the bridge in the future is uncertain.
The Bronx–Whitestone Bridge assists I-678 in crossing the East River. From the Queens side, the Whitestone Expressway carries I-678 to the bridgehead. The Cross Island Parkway meets up with the Whitestone Expressway 1/2 mile before the bridge.
On the Bronx side, the bridge leads directly into the Bruckner Interchange, which serves as the northern terminus of I-678, which is where the Cross Bronx Expressway (I-95), Bruckner Expressway (I-278 & I-95), Hutchinson River Parkway, and the Cross Bronx Expressway extension (I-295) meet. The segment of I-678 between the bridge and the Bruckner Interchange is a depressed freeway.
- Bridges portal
- New York portal
- New York City portal
- Lists of crossings of the East River
- List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in New York
- "NYC MTA - M15 SelectBusService - Park It! Guides".
- "2012 New York City Bridge Traffic Volumes" (PDF). Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "WHITESTONE SPAN OPENED BY MAYOR; New Bronx-Long Island Link Hailed as Symbol of City's Never-Ending Progress". The New York Times. April 30, 1939. Retrieved November 4, 2007.
- "Highway Loop in Plan Skirts Busy Centers". The New York Times. May 30, 1929. p. 12. Retrieved May 29, 2010.
- "ASKS NEW CITY PARKS TO COST $20,000,000; Metropolitan Conference Urges Prompt Purchases, Chiefly in Queens and Richmond. BERRY GETS HONOR SCROLL Calls for a 'Normal' Pace in Public Projects and Predicts Agency to Coordinate Them". The New York Times. 1930-02-26. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
- "NEW BRONX BRIDGE WILL AID INDUSTRY; Benefits of Whitestone Span to Borough Are Outlined by Roderick Stevens". The New York Times. 1937-03-21. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
- "LEHMAN SIGNS BILL FOR RELIEF BONDS; Measure Authorizing Referendum on $30,000,000 Issue Is One of Many Approved. HE MAKES PLEA TO VOTERS Whitestone Bridge Plan Ratified -- Increased Fees for City Marshals Is Vetoed". The New York Times. 1936-05-21. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
- New York (Map). Cartography by General Drafting. Esso. 1940.
- New York with Pictorial Guide (Map). Cartography by General Drafting. Esso. 1942.
- "WHITESTONE BRIDGE AT FINANCING STAGE; Authority Scans Two Plans for a Bond Issue to Build Bronx-Queens Span". The New York Times. 1937-02-15. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
- "LEHMAN -SIGNS BRIDGE BILL; Triborough and Whitestone Spans Put Under Joint Authority". The New York Times. 1937. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
- "WHITESTONE BRIDGE PLAN; Moses Tells How He Thinks the $17,500,000 Cost Should Be Split". The New York Times. 1937-04-23. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
- "CITY GETS QUEENS LAND; 2 1/2-Mile Strip Being Taken for Link to Whitestone Bridge". The New York Times. 1937-07-22. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
- "TOWER CONTRACT LET FOR WHITESTONE SPAN; Triborough Authority Awards Work to American Bridge Company at $1,128,800". The New York Times. 1937-06-24. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
- "SPINNING OF CABLES ON NEW SPAN BEGUN.; Moses, Leading Inspection Party, Gives Signal to Start Wire-Twisting Process TASK TO TAKE 3 MONTHS Crews of 100 at Each End of Bronx-Whitestone Bridge to Create Huge Ropes Spinner Carries First Wire $13,000,000 for Highways". The New York Times. 1938-09-15. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
- "NEW BRIDGES TIED IN; Work Is Speeded on Traffic Links With Whitestone and Triborough Spans". The New York Times. 1939-02-26. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
- Walsh, Kevin (August 1, 2013). "Whitestone Lamps". Greater Astoria Historic Society. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- "A New Look for a Classic Bridge". MTA Newsroom, Bridges & Tunnels. Archived from the original on March 5, 2009. Retrieved November 2, 2007.
- Roth, Alisa (October 12, 2003). "A Onetime Thing of Beauty Gets a Little Prettying Up". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Chan, Sewell (February 18, 2005). "A Bridge Too Fat". The New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
- Preliminary Capital Program for 2005–2009[permanent dead link], Metropolitan Transportation Authority, dated July 29, 2004.
- , MTA Bridges and Tunnels Construction Improvements
- "2017 Toll Information". MTA Bridges & Tunnels. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
- Siff, Andrew (October 5, 2016). "Automatic Tolls to Replace Gates at 9 NYC Spans: Cuomo". NBC New York. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
- WABC (December 21, 2016). "MTA rolls out cashless toll schedule for bridges, tunnels". ABC7 New York. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
- "Bronx-Whitestone Bridge (I-678)". Transportation Alternatives. Section 4-04(e)(2). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 19, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- "New York City Department of Transportation Traffic Rules" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. December 17, 2009. Section 4-04(e)(2). Retrieved April 4, 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bronx-Whitestone Bridge.|