Whitewashing is the act of glossing over or covering up vices, crimes or scandals or exonerating by means of a perfunctory investigation or biased presentation of data.
The first known use of the term is from 1591 in England. Whitewash is a cheap white paint or coating of chalked lime that was used to quickly give a uniform clean appearance to a wide variety of surfaces, such as the interior of a barn.
In 1800, in the United States, the word was used in a political context, when a Philadelphia Aurora editorial said that "if you do not whitewash President Adams speedily, the Democrats, like swarms of flies, will bespatter him all over, and make you both as speckled as a dirty wall, and as black as the devil."
In the 20th century, many dictatorships, authoritarian and totalitarian states used whitewashing in order to glorify the results of war. For instance, during the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia following the Prague Spring of 1968, the Press Group of Soviet Journalists released a collection of "facts, documents, press reports and eye-witness accounts." Western journalists promptly nicknamed it as "The White Book", both for its white cover and its attempts to whitewash the invasion by creating the impression that the Warsaw Pact countries had the right and duty to invade.
In the study of reputation systems by means of algorithmic game theory, whitewashing refers to the abandonment of a tarnished identity and creation of a blank one,: 682 which is more widely known in internet slang as sockpuppeting.
Some critics have accused Michelle Alexander's The New Jim Crow of being whitewashed due to the bias of its conceptual framework. It omits pertinent African American people and history, as well as politically radical ideas in favor of a more conventional and mainstream perspective.
According to the Eastern Europe and Central Asia desk director for the International Federation for Human Rights, Ilya Nuzov, Russia is trying to whitewash the country's repressive Stalinist past. On August 30, 2021, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said that the "attacks" on the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin are part of attacks on Russia's past and the results of World War II. Russian politician and former deputy of the State Duma Alexei Melnikov said that Lavrov "made an attempt to whitewash Stalin, which clearly, during the period of repressive measures carried out by the authorities, showed the kinship of the authorities with the Communist Party of the Russian Federation – the same Stalin admirers." Russian literary critic and culturologist Nikolai Podosokorsky noted that "the whitewashing of domestic ghouls only indicates that the current rulers feel a spiritual kinship with them."
According to Cambridge professor Robert Tombs, attempts to remove the link between "ideology and killing" are "ideologically motivated – to whitewash Communism," and compared such efforts to Holocaust denial.
Representation in other media
Novels by George Orwell have dealt with the subject of whitewash as well. In Animal Farm, the pig Napoleon tries to whitewash history by deleting a few characters from the minds of the other animals. This was perceived as a direct reference to the USSR under Stalin. The protagonist of his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, set in a totalitarian dictatorship, is employed as a routine falsifier of the historical record to ensure that it is always in keeping with the party line.
Czech writer Milan Kundera, in his novel The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, described histories being revised with both text and photos being changed to take out unpopular dissidents or people on the wrong side of the government.
- Pinkwashing (breast cancer)
- Setting up to fail
- The Commissar Vanishes
- "Whitewash", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2003 DVD Ultimate reference suite.
- "whitewash". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Philadelphia Aurora (July 21, 1800), cited in the New World Encyclopedia
- Vazirani, Vijay V.; Nisan, Noam; Roughgarden, Tim; Tardos, Éva (2007). Algorithmic Game Theory (PDF). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-87282-0.
- Joseph D. Osel (2012-04-07). "Black Out: Michelle Alexander's Operational Whitewash" (PDF). International Journal of Radical Critique. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
- Thomas, G. "Why Some Like The New Jim Crow So Much", Vox Union, 2012
- Nuzov, Ilya (2019-08-30). "The Kremlin Is Trying to Whitewash Russia's Stalinist Past". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2021-09-17.
- ""Нападки на Сталина" и другие громкие заявления Сергея Лаврова" ["Attacks on Stalin" and other loud statements by Sergey Lavrov]. BBC News Russian (in Russian). 2021-08-30. Retrieved 2021-09-17.
- "Sergey Lavrov calls criticism of Stalin's personality a threat to Russia". Caucasian Knot. 2021-08-30. Retrieved 2021-09-17.
- Belyaev, Ivan (2021-08-31). ""Духовное родство с упырями". Рунет об обелении Сталина" ["Spiritual affinity with ghouls". Runet about whitewashing Stalin]. Radio Liberty (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-09-17.
- Craig Simpson (27 November 2021). "Wikipedia may delete entry on 'mass killings' under Communism due to claims of bias". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 27 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
He said: “This is morally indefensible, at least as bad as Holocaust denial, because 'linking ideology and killing' is the very core of why these things are important. “I have read the Wikipedia page, and it seems to me careful and balanced. Therefore attempts to remove it can only be ideologically motivated – to whitewash Communism.
- The Commissar Vanishes - the whitewashes by Stalin.