Who Were the Shudras?

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Who Were the Shudras? is a book written by B.R. Ambedkar.[1][2] Ambedkar dedicated the book to Mahatma Jyotiba Phule (1827–1890).

Subject of the book[edit]

In this book Ambedkar argues that the Shudras were originally Aryans belonging to the Kshatriya class. Relations have also been drawn between the wide acceptance of Mahars in Hinduism as outcasts and untouchables due to their affirmation to Buddhist practices.

In a separate chapter, Dr. Ambedkar also expresses his view regarding the Partition of India, 1947, stating that if the Muslim community demanded a separate state their interests must be safeguarded as a threat would lay to Indian security and stability due to divided interests, as well as a chance of rebellion soon after the Independence of India.



PART I[edit]

  1. Chapter I - The Riddle of the Shudras
  2. Chapter II - The Brahmanic Theory of the Origin of the Shudras
  3. Chapter III - The Brahmanic Theory of the Status of the Shudras
  4. Chapter IV - Shudras Versus Aryans
  5. Chapter V - Aryans Against Aryans
  6. Chapter VI - Shudras And Dasas

PART II[edit]

  1. Chapter VII - The Shudras were Kshatriyas
  2. Chapter VIII - The Number of Varnas, Three or Four?
  3. Chapter IX - Brahmins Versus Shudras
  4. Chapter X - The Degradation of the Shudras
  5. Chapter XI - The Story of Reconciliation
  6. Chapter XII - The Theory in the Crucible

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ambedkar (1949). Who were the Shudras?. Bombay: Thackers. 
  2. ^ Karmarkar, A.P. (1946), "Review: Who were the Shudras? by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar", Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 30 (1-2): 158–160, JSTOR 41784527 

Further reading[edit]

  • Sharma, Arvand (2005), "Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on the Aryan Invasion and the Emergence of the Caste System in India", J Am Acad Relig (September 2005) 73 (3): 843-870., doi:10.1093/jaarel/lfi081 

External links[edit]