Vibration training

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Whole body vibration (WBV) is a generic term used where any vibration of any frequency is transferred to the human body. It is a potential form of occupational hazard, particularly in the presence of continuous exposure to vibration from machines, such as truck driving or hand tool operation. High frequency components[1] (above 50Hz) leads to the negative effects known from occupational safety, for example when working with a jackhammer. Vibration [2]training equipment must ensure that these potentially harmful higher frequency components can not be introduced into the body, which is achieved by producing a purely sinusoidal (harmonic) disk movement. Farmers with long-term exposure to whole body vibration as well as exposure to mechanical shocks, prolonged sitting position, wrong body posture and physical work load (especially lifting and carrying loads) have a higher prevalence of back pain (compared to those not exposed to these factors).[3]

Whole body vibration training as a form of physical exercise can offer some fitness and health benefits, but it is not clear if it is as beneficial as regular physical exercise.[4] A review in 2014 came to the conclusion that there is little and inconsistent evidence that acute and/or chronic whole body vibration could improve the performance of competitive and/or elite athletes.[5]

Occupational exposure[edit]

Farmers with long-term exposure to whole body vibration and mechanical shocks have a higher prevalence of back pain (compared to those not exposed to vibration), and the prevalence increases with vibration dose.[3] Long-term exposure affecting the whole body leads to spinal degeneration (spondylosis).[3]

Vibration training[edit]

Vibration training is the deliberate exposure to the body of varying frequencies/amplitudes/forces using certain joint angles for any limited time (approximately 1 minute sets). It is also known as vibration therapy, biomechanical stimulation (BMS), mechanostimulation and biomechanical oscillation (BMO). It employs low amplitude, low frequency mechanical stimulation. It can be pivotal (vibrating from side to side) or lineal (vibrating up and down).

Training effects[edit]

According to Mayo Clinic, whole body vibration can offer some fitness and health benefits, but it is not clear if it is as beneficial as regular physical exercise.[4] A review in 2014 came to the conclusion that there is little and inconsistent evidence that acute and/or chronic whole body vibration could improve the performance of competitive and/or elite athletes.[5]

Cochrane reviews have concluded that there is insufficient evidence of effect of whole body vibration training on functional performance of people with neurodegenerative disease,[6] or in disease-related problems in people with fibromyalgia.[7]

Vibrating platform types[edit]

Vibrating platforms fall into different, distinct categories. The type of platform used is a moderator of the effect and result of the training or therapy performed (Marin PJ, Rhea MR, 2010[8]). Main categories of machine types are:

  1. High Energy Lineal, found mostly in commercial vibration training studios and gyms. The vibration direction is lineal/upward
  2. Premium Speed Pivotal, (teeter-totter movement) used for physiotherapy work at lower speeds and exercise workouts at “premium” speed, up to 30 Hz. Both commercial and home units are available.
  3. Medium Energy Lineal, the majority of lineal platforms produced. These are usually made of plastic; some have 3-D vibration which is low quality.
  4. Low Speed Pivotal units.

Other machine types are low Energy/Low amplitude lineal and Low energy/High amplitude lineal.

Concerning the z-movements, two main types of system can be distinguished (Marin PJ et al. 2010,[8] Rittweger 2010,[9] Rauch 2010[10]) :

  • Side alternating (pivotal) systems, operating like a see-saw and hence mimicking the human gait where one foot is always moving upwards and the other one downwards, and
  • Linear systems where the whole platform is mainly doing the same motion, respectively: both feet are moved upwards or downwards at the same time.

Systems with side alternation usually have a larger amplitude of oscillation and a frequency range of about 5 Hz to 40 Hz. Linear/upright systems have lower amplitudes but higher frequencies in the range of 20 Hz to 50 Hz. Despite the larger amplitudes of side-alternating systems, the vibration (acceleration) transmitted to the head is significantly smaller than in non side-alternating systems (Abercromby et al. 2007[11]) while at the same time muscle activation even at identical vibration parameters are increased in pivotal systems.[12]

Mechanical stimulation generates acceleration forces acting on the body. These forces cause the muscles to lengthen, and this signal is received by the muscle spindle, a small organ in the muscle. This spindle transmits the signal through the central nervous system to the muscles involved (Abercromby et al. 2007,[11] Burkhardt 2006[13]).

Power Plate[edit]

Power Plate is a brand of vibrating platform consisting of a vibrating base, which may vibrate up and down approximately 1 to 2 millimetres (39 to 79 thou) (1/16") 25 to 50 times per second.[14] The machine is large enough to accommodate a person in deep squat. Traditional exercises such as squats and push-ups can be done on the vibrating base.[15]

Galileo[edit]

Galileo (in the US up until 2014 also available as Vibraflex) is a brand of vibration training platforms used as exercise equipment as well as for therapeutic use. It consists of a vibration platform which vibrates sinusoidal side alternating like a see-saw. Depending on the device size it oscillates with an amplitude of up to 6 mm (equivalent to a peak to peak distance of 12 mm) and a frequency of 5 Hz to 40 Hz (5 to 40 repetitions per second). Galileo is manufactured in Germany by the German company Novotec Medical GmbH. Since 2004 Galileo is also available as a medical device.

The base plate of Galileo vibration training devices is moving like a see-saw. This side alternating motion is supposed to mimic human gait in order to utilize nearly physiological motion patterns close to the side alternating human gait. The side alternation causes the hip to tilt which requires the contra lateral muscles of the back to be activated – while one leg is lifted the other drops.[16] Compared to vertically vibrating devices the side alternating motion results in very low acceleration acting on the centre of gravity of the upper body and the head.[17][18][19]

Belts[edit]

A vibrating belt machine (also Mueller belt machine, belt massager, or jiggler machine) is an exercise machine that uses a vibrating belt, to be used around the waist or buttocks.

History[edit]

The immediate predecessor of modern vibration training is Rhythmic Neuromuscular Stimulation (RNS). In former East Germany Biermann was experimenting with the use of cyclic massage and its effects on trunk flexion back in the sixties (Biermann, 1960[20]).

The technique has been tested on turkeys in the hope of finding a benefit that could be used for astronauts.[21] For the used technology an engineering issues came into play when they tried to upgrade the machine to take the weight of a human being. Once the vibration intensity grew strong enough to lift over 40 kg, fractures appeared in the steel. Using a different mechnanical stimulation approach the first bedrest study using a vibration training device for humans was done by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2003 in Berlin[22] (Berlin Bedrest Study, BBR). The same technology was then used in several parabolic flight campaigns of the DLR (German Aerospace Agency) starting in 2006 where the feasibility of use of a lightweight vibration training device under microgravity conditions was demonstrated and ein 2009 and 2010 where basic research on influence of microgravity on vibration training effects was investigated.[23] [24]

NASA, since 1961, has been doing tests at adding light vibrations to pre-existing exercise equipment’s and systems to minimize vibration transmission of existing exercise devices to the space station like the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS) and the Cycle Ergometer Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS). Any company referencing NASA directly in its marketing campaigns is highly misleading and has no relevance to the discipline of vibration training.

The first Galileo machine patent was filed in 1996 in the same year the first Galileo device was commercially available.[25][26] In 1996 the first Galileo vibrating dumbbell patent was filed.[27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pyykkö I, Färkkilä M, Toivanen J, Korhonen O, Hyvärinen J (June 1976). "Transmission of vibration in the hand-arm system with special reference to changes in compression force and acceleration". Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2 (2): 87–95. JSTOR 40964583. PMID 959789. 
  2. ^ Swe M, Benjamin B, Tun AA, Sugathan S (September 2016). "Role of the Whole Body Vibration Machine in the Prevention and Management of Osteoporosis in Old Age: A Systematic Review". The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences. 23 (5): 8–16. doi:10.21315/mjms2016.23.5.2. PMC 5101982Freely accessible. PMID 27904420. 
  3. ^ a b c Solecki L (2011). "[Low back pain among farmers exposed to whole body vibration: a literature review]". Medycyna Pracy. 62 (2): 187–202. PMID 21698878. 
  4. ^ a b Laskowski ER. "Is whole-body vibration a good way to lose weight and improve fitness?". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2018-03-11. 
  5. ^ a b Tibor Hortobágyi, Urs Granacher, Miguel Fernandez-del-Olmo (2014). "Whole body vibration and athletic performance: A scoping review". European Journal of Human Movement. 33. 
  6. ^ Sitjà Rabert M, Rigau Comas D, Fort Vanmeerhaeghe A, Santoyo Medina C, Roqué i Figuls M, Romero-Rodríguez D, Bonfill Cosp (2012-02-15). "Whole-body vibration platform training in patients with neurodegenerative diseases". Cochrane collaboration. 
  7. ^ Bidonde J, Busch AJ, van der Spuy I, Tupper S, Kim SY, Boden C (2017-09-26). "Whole body vibration training for adults with fibromyalgia". Cochrane collaboration. 
  8. ^ a b Marín PJ, Rhea MR (March 2010). "Effects of vibration training on muscle power: a meta-analysis". Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 24 (3): 871–8. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c7c6f0. PMID 20145554. 
  9. ^ Rittweger J (March 2010). "Vibration as an exercise modality: how it may work, and what its potential might be". European Journal of Applied Physiology. 108 (5): 877–904. doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1303-3. PMID 20012646. 
  10. ^ Rauch F, Sievanen H, Boonen S, Cardinale M, Degens H, Felsenberg D, Roth J, Schoenau E, Verschueren S, Rittweger J (September 2010). "Reporting whole-body vibration intervention studies: recommendations of the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions". Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions. 10 (3): 193–8. PMID 20811143. 
  11. ^ a b Abercromby AF, Amonette WE, Layne CS, McFarlin BK, Hinman MR, Paloski WH (October 2007). "Vibration exposure and biodynamic responses during whole-body vibration training". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 39 (10): 1794–800. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3181238a0f. PMID 17909407. 
  12. ^ Ritzmann R, Gollhofer A, Kramer A: The influence of vibration type, frequency, body position and additional load on the neuromuscular activity during whole body vibration., European Journal of Applied Physiology, (113):1-11, 2013; PMID 22538279
  13. ^ Burkhardt A.: Vibrationstraining in der Physiotherapie - Wippen mit Wirkung, Physiopraxis 9/06, s.22.25, 2006
  14. ^ Bautmans I, Van Hees E, Lemper JC, Mets T (December 2005). "The feasibility of Whole Body Vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN62535013]". BMC Geriatrics. 5: 17. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-5-17. PMC 1368976Freely accessible. PMID 16372905. 
  15. ^ Heyward, Vivian H (2006). "power+plate"+vibration Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription. Human Kinetics. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7360-5732-5. Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  16. ^ Rittweger J, Just K, Kautzsch K, Reeg P, Felsenberg D (September 2002). "Treatment of chronic lower back pain with lumbar extension and whole-body vibration exercise: a randomized controlled trial". Spine. 27 (17): 1829–34. doi:10.1097/00007632-200209010-00003. PMID 12221343. 
  17. ^ Pel JJ, Bagheri J, van Dam LM, van den Berg-Emons HJ, Horemans HL, Stam HJ, van der Steen J (October 2009). "Platform accelerations of three different whole-body vibration devices and the transmission of vertical vibrations to the lower limbs". Medical Engineering & Physics. 31 (8): 937–44. doi:10.1016/j.medengphy.2009.05.005. PMID 19523867. 
  18. ^ Abercromby AF, Amonette WE, Layne CS, McFarlin BK, Hinman MR, Paloski WH (October 2007). "Vibration exposure and biodynamic responses during whole-body vibration training". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 39 (10): 1794–800. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3181238a0f. PMID 17909407. 
  19. ^ Spitzenpfeil P, Stritzker M, Kirchbichler A, Tusker F, Hartmann U, Hartard H (2006). "Mechanical impacts to the human body by different vibration training devices". Journal of Biomechanics. 39 (Suppl 1): 196. doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(06)83707-3. 
  20. ^ Biermann, W. "Influence of cycloid vibration massage on trunk flexion". American Journal of Physical Medicine. 1960 (39): 219–224. 
  21. ^ "Good Vibrations". 
  22. ^ Rittweger J., Felsenberg D.: Resistive vibration exercise prevents bone loss during 8 weeks of strict bed rest in healthy male subjects: results from the Berlin Bed Rest (BBR) study, 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research; October 2004; Seattle
  23. ^ Kramer A, Gollhofer A, Ritzmann R (August 2013). "Acute exposure to microgravity does not influence the H-reflex with or without whole body vibration and does not cause vibration-specific changes in muscular activity". Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology : Official Journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology. 23 (4): 872–8. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.02.010. PMID 23541330. 
  24. ^ Ritzmann R, Krause A, Freyler K, Gollhofer A (2016). "Gravity and Neuronal Adaptation - Neurophysiology of Reflexes from Hypo- to Hypergravity Conditions". Microgravity Sci. Technol. 
  25. ^ Bosco C, Colli R, Introini E, Cardinale M, Tsarpela O, Madella A, Tihanyi J, Viru A (March 1999). "Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure". Clinical Physiology. 19 (2): 183–7. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2281.1999.00155.x. PMID 10200901. 
  26. ^ Bosco C, Cardinale M, Tsarpela O, Colli R, Tihanyi J, Ducillard C, Viru A (1998). "The Influence of Whole Body Vibration on Jumping Performance" (PDF). Biology of Sport. 15 (3): 157–164. [permanent dead link]
  27. ^ Bosco C, Cardinale M, Tsarpela O (March 1999). "Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexor muscles". European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 79 (4): 306–11. doi:10.1007/s004210050512. PMID 10090628. 

Recommendations for reporting whole-body vibration intervention studies[edit]

  • Rauch F, Sievanen H, Boonen S, Cardinale M, Degens H, Felsenberg D, Roth J, Schoenau E, Verschueren S, Rittweger J (September 2010). "Reporting whole-body vibration intervention studies: recommendations of the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions". Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions. 10 (3): 193–8. PMID 20811143. 

Literature[edit]

  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (1997). ISO 2631-1:1997. Mechanical shock and vibration: Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration — Part 1: General requirements. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.