|Headquarters||Watertown, United States|
|Alex Gruzen, CEO|
The term WiTricity was used for a project that took place at MIT, led by Marin Soljačić in 2006. The MIT researchers successfully demonstrated the ability to power a 60 watt light bulb wirelessly, using two 5-turn copper coils of 60 cm (24 in) diameter, that were 2 m (7 ft) away, at roughly 45% efficiency. The coils were designed to resonate together at 9.9 MHz (wavelength ≈ 30 m) and were oriented along the same axis. One was connected inductively to a power source, and the other one to a bulb. The setup powered the bulb on, even when the direct line of sight was blocked using a wooden panel. Researchers were able to power a 60 watt light bulb at roughly 90% efficiency at a distance of 3 feet. The research project was spun off into a private company, also called WiTricity.
The emerging technology was demonstrated in July 2009 by CEO Eric Giler at the TED Global Conference held in Oxford. There he refers to the original idea, first applied by the physicist Nikola Tesla between his coils, and shows a WiTricity power unit powering a television as well as three different cell phones, the initial problem that inspired Soljacic to get involved with the project.
CEO Alex Gruzen was hired in 2014, and decided to take WiTricity out of the competition for powering consumer electronics, and focus on wireless power for vehicles. (Though it demonstrated wireless power for a Dell laptop at the January, 2017 Consumer Electronics Show). The company has reportedly collaborated with car makers Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Jaguar, Nissan, and Toyota. In 2017, having raised $68 million to date and facing competition from the wireless vehicle standard Halo (developed by Qualcomm), the company reduced its workforce from 80 to 55, and closed an office in Austin, Texas.
WiTricity is based on weakly coupled electromagnetic resonant objects to transfer energy wirelessly. This differs from other methods like simple induction, microwaves, or air ionization. The system consists of transmitters and receivers that contain magnetic loop antennas critically tuned to the same frequency. In this regard, MIT researchers believe they discovered a new way to wirelessly transfer power using non-radiative electromagnetic energy resonant tunneling.    Moreover, MIT researchers tried to explain this phenomenon by comparing it with microscopic field of quantum mechanics radiated electromagnetic energy resonant tunneling effect, but this was criticized.  Because WiTricity devices operate in the electromagnetic near field, receiving devices must be no more than about a quarter wavelength from the transmitter. In the system demonstrated in the 2007 paper, this was only a few meters at the frequency chosen. In their first paper, the group also simulated GHz dielectric resonators. WiTricity devices are coupled almost entirely with magnetic fields (the electric fields are largely confined within capacitors inside the devices), which they argue makes them safer than resonant energy transfer using electric fields (most famously in Tesla coils, whose high electric fields can generate lightning), since most materials couple weakly to magnetic fields.
Unlike the far field wireless power transmission systems based on traveling electro-magnetic waves, WiTricity employs near field resonant inductive coupling through magnetic fields similar to those found in transformers, except that the primary coil and secondary winding are physically separated, and tuned to resonate to increase their magnetic coupling. These tuned magnetic fields generated by the primary coil can be arranged to interact vigorously with matched secondary windings in distant equipment but far more weakly with any surrounding objects or materials such as radio signals or biological tissue.
In particular, WiTricity is based on using resonance to achieve a high power-transmission efficiency. Aristeidis Karalis, referring to the team's experimental demonstration, says that "the usual non-resonant magnetic induction would be almost 1 million times less efficient in this particular system". The researchers suggest that exposure levels are below the threshold for FCC safety regulations, and the radiated-power levels comply with FCC radio interference regulations.
Researchers attribute the delay in developing wireless-power technology to limitations of well-known physical laws and a simple lack of need. Only recently have modern consumers obtained a high number of portable electronic devices that use batteries and plug-in chargers.
- Evanescent wave coupling
- List of emerging technologies
- Nikola Tesla
- Qi (inductive power standard) -another standard for wireless energy transfers
- MagMIMO; another competing wireless power standard
- Resonant energy transfer
- WREL technology
- "Wireless electricity could power consumer, industrial electronics". MIT News. 2006-11-14.
- "Goodbye wires…". MIT News. 2007-06-07.
- "Wireless Power Demonstrated". Archived from the original on 2008-12-31. Retrieved 2008-12-09.
- Fildes, Jonathan (2009-07-23). "Wireless power system shown off". BBC News Online. Retrieved 2009-09-13.
- "Eric Giler demos wireless electricity". TED. July 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-13.
- Gordon-Bloomfield, Nikki (Apr 28, 2011). "Toyota Joins Wireless Electric Car Charging Revolution". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- "TMC and WiTricity Form Wireless Battery-charging Alliance". Toyota Motor Corporation. April 27, 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- Scott Kirsner (2012-09-17). "Flying electricity and neighborhood news". Boston Globe.
- WiTricity takes a turn toward electric-car charging
- Er. Manish Kumar; Dr. Umesh Kumar (13 December 2016). WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION : A REVIEW (PDF). Global Journal of Engineering Science and Researches. p. 120. ISSN 2348-8034.
- Pragati S. Chawardol; Deepali R. Badre; Mithul S. There (December 2014). Wireless Power Transmission (PDF). International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology. p. 150. ISSN 2277-9655.
- Sagolsem Kripachariya Singh; T. S. Hasarmani; R. M. Holmukhe (April 2012). "Wireless Transmission of Electrical Power Overview of Recent Research & Development" (PDF). 4 (2). International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering: 208. ISSN 1793-8163.
- Alice Peng (6 August 2013). PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2013 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENERGY. Conference on Energy (Energy2013) is a multidisciplinary international conference. DEStech Publications, Inc. p. 337. ISBN 9781605951263.
- Aristeidis Karalis; J.D. Joannopoulos; Marin Soljačić (January 2008). "Efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range energy transfer". Annals of Physics. 323: 34–48. arXiv: . Bibcode:2008AnPhy.323...34K. doi:10.1016/j.aop.2007.04.017.
Published online: April 2007
- Electrical recharging using electrosmog
- Andre Kurs; Aristeidis Karalis; Robert Moffatt; J.D. Joannopoulos; Peter Fisher; Marin Soljačić (July 2007). "Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances". Science. 317 (5834): 83–86. Bibcode:2007Sci...317...83K. doi:10.1126/science.1143254. PMID 17556549.
Published online: June 2007
- "Eric Giler demos wireless electricity". TED.
- "Supporting Online Material for Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances". Science Magazine.
- Anuradha Menon (2008-11-14). "Intel's Wireless Power Technology Demonstrated". The Future of Things e-magazine. Archived from the original on 2010-12-09.