Wichita Falls, Texas
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|Wichita Falls, Texas|
|Nickname(s): Falls Town|
Location in the state of Texas
|• City Council||Mayor Glenn Barham
|• City Manager||Darron Leiker|
|• Deputy City Manager||Jim Dockery|
|• City||70.1 sq mi (183.1 km2)|
|• Land||70.66 sq mi (183.0 km2)|
|• Water||0.04 sq mi (0.1 km2)|
|Elevation||948 ft (289 m)|
|• Estimate (2013)||104,898|
|• Rank||US: 271th|
|• Density||1,474.1/sq mi (569.1/km2)|
|• Urban||99,437 (US: 301th)|
|• Metro||151,201 (US: 268th)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||1376776|
|Website||City of Wichita Falls|
Wichita Falls is a city in and the county seat of Wichita County, Texas, United States. Wichita Falls is the principal city of the Wichita Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Archer, Clay, and Wichita Counties. According to the 2010 census, the city had a population of 104,553, making it the 29th-most populous city in Texas. In addition to Sheppard Air Force Base, Wichita Falls is also home to the Newby-McMahon Building, constructed downtown in 1919 and since known as the "world's littlest skyscraper".
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Media
- 6 Sports and recreation
- 7 Government
- 8 Education
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Landmarks
- 11 Notable people
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The Choctaw Native Americans settled the area in the early 19th century from their native Mississippi area once Americans negotiated to relocate them after the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. American settlers arrived in the 1860s to form cattle ranches. The city was officially titled Wichita Falls on September 27, 1872. On that day, a sale of town lots was held at what is now the corner of Seventh and Ohio Streets – the birthplace of the city. The Fort Worth & Denver City Railway arrived in September 1882, the same year the city became the county seat of Wichita County. The city grew westwards from the original FW&DC train depot which was located at the northwest corner of Seventh Street and the FW&DC. This area is now referred to as the Depot Square Historic District, which has been declared a Texas Historic Landmark.
The early history of Wichita Falls well into the 20th century also rests on the work of two entrepreneurs, Joseph A. Kemp and his brother-in-law, Frank Kell. Kemp and Kell were pioneers in food processing and retailing, flour milling, railroads, cattle, banking, and oil.
A flood in 1886 destroyed the original falls on the Wichita River for which the city was named. After nearly 100 years of visitors wanting to visit the nonexistent falls, the city built an artificial waterfall beside the river in Lucy Park. The recreated falls are 54 ft (16 m) high and recirculate at 3,500 gallons per minute. They are visible to south-bound traffic on Interstate 44.
The city is currently seeking funding to rebuild and restore the downtown area. Downtown Wichita Falls was the city's main shopping area for many years, but lost ground to the creation of new shopping centers throughout the city beginning with Parker Square in 1953 and other similar developments during the 1960s and 1970s, culminating with the opening of Sikes Senter Mall in 1974.
Wichita Falls was once home to offices of several oil companies and related industries, along with oil refineries operated by the Continental Oil Company (now Conoco Phillips) until 1952 and Panhandle Oil Company (later American Petrofina) until 1965. Both firms continued to use a portion of their former refineries as gasoline/oil terminal facilities for many years.
A devastating tornado hit the north and northwest portions of Wichita Falls along with Sheppard Air Force Base during the afternoon of April 3, 1964, leaving seven dead and more than 100 injured, and causing roughly $15 million in property damage with about 225 homes destroyed and another 250 damaged. It was rated as an F5, the highest rating on the Fujita scale, but it is overshadowed by the 1979 tornado.
An F4 tornado struck the heavily populated southern sections of Wichita Falls in the late afternoon on Tuesday, April 10, 1979 (known locally as "Terrible Tuesday"). It was part of an outbreak that produced 30 tornados around the region. Despite having nearly an hour's advance warning that severe weather was imminent, 42 people were killed (25 in vehicles) and 1,800 were injured because it arrived just in time for many people to be driving home from work. It left 20,000 people homeless and caused $400 million in damage, a U.S. record not topped by an individual tornado until the F5 Moore-Oklahoma City tornado of May 3, 1999.
Geography and climate
Wichita Falls is about 15 miles (24 km) south of the border with Oklahoma, 115 mi (185 km) northwest of Fort Worth, and 140 mi (230 km) southwest of Oklahoma City. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 70.71 square miles (183.1 km2), of which 70.69 square miles (183.1 km2) is land and 0.02 square miles (0.052 km2) (0.03%) is covered by water.
Wichita Falls experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with some of the highest summer daily maximum temperatures in the entire U.S. outside of the Desert Southwest. Temperatures have hit 100 °F (38 °C) as early as March 27 and as late as October 17, but more typically reach that level on 28 days annually, with 102 days of 90 °F (32 °C)or higher annually; the average window for the latter mark is April 9–October 10. However, 59 to 60 nights of freezing lows occur, and an average of 4.8 days where the high does not rise above freezing. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 42.0 °F (5.6 °C) in January to 84.4 °F (29.1 °C) in July. Extremes in temperature have ranged from −12 °F (−24 °C) on January 4, 1947, to 117 °F (47 °C) on June 28, 1980. Snowfall is sporadic and averages 4.1 in (10 cm) per season, while rainfall is typically greatest in early summer.
|Climate data for Wichita Falls, Texas (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1923–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||87
|Average high °F (°C)||54.2
|Average low °F (°C)||29.8
|Record low °F (°C)||−12
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.14
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||1.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||4.8||5.3||6.7||6.2||8.7||7.7||5.0||6.2||6.0||7.4||5.3||5.0||74.3|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.6||0.4||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.7||2.0|
|Source: National Weather Service, Weather.com|
Major drought ends
Wichita Falls is no longer experiencing drought conditions. During a three-week period in May 2015, 17 inches of rain filled the city's water-source lakes, Arrowhead and Kickapoo, ending the drought. The lakes went from just below 19% capacity to 100% capacity. The drought began in 2011, when the city experienced 100 days of 100 °F weather and a significant decline in annual rainfall. The city averages 28.5 in of rain a year. In 2011, the city received only 13 in; 2012 had 19.75 in, and in 2013 23 in. The city implemented significant conservation efforts and constructed a direct potable reuse system (DPR) that took treated wastewater, which normally emptied into the Wichita River, and sent it to the water treatment plant, where it was blended with raw lake water and treated a total of five times through various cleaning processes, all approved and monitored by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The blended and treated water was then placed into the water system. City Mayor Glenn Barham explained, "This reuse system will put five million gallons [of water] back in the distribution system each day. The city saves five million gallons from being taken out of the lake." Within 7 months, the DPR produced 1 billion gallons of source water.
|U.S. Decennial Census
Texas Almanac: 1850–2000
As of the census of 2000, 104,197 people, 37,970 households, and 24,984 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,474.1 inhabitants per square mile (569.2/km2). The 41,916 housing units averaged 593.0 per square mile (229.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 75.1% White, 12.4% African American, 0.9% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 6.4% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 14.0% of the population.
Of the 37,970 households, 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were not families. About 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46, and the average family size was 3.04.
In the city, the population was distributed as 24.7% under the age of 18, 15.2% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,554, and for a family was $39,911. Males had a median income of $27,609 versus $21,877 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,761. About 10.8% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.7% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.
According to Wichita Falls' 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Sheppard Air Force Base||12,272|
|2||Wichita Falls Independent School District||2,059|
|3||North Texas State Hospital||1,974|
|4||United Regional Health Care System||1,778|
|5||City of Wichita Falls||1,477|
|6||Midwestern State University||1,284|
|7||James V. Allred Unit||971|
|9||Work Services Corporation||730|
- American Classifieds (free weekly)
- Times Record News (daily)
- KWFS 1290 AM (news/talk radio)
- KMCU 88.7 FM (National Public Radio)
- KMOC 89.5 FM (Contemporary Christian)
- KZKL 90.5 FM (Contemporary Christian)
- KNIN 92.9 FM (CHR)
- KXPN-FM 95.5 FM (Sports/ESPN Radio)
- KXXN 96.3 FM (Urban Adult Contemporary)
- KLUR 99.9 FM (Country)
- KWFB 100.9 FM (Adult hits)
- KWFS-FM 102.3 FM (Modern Country)
- KQXC 103.9 FM (Rhythmic CHR)
- KYYI 104.7FM (Classic rock)
- KBZS 106.3 FM (Active rock)
- KFDX-TV Channel 3 (NBC)
- KAUZ-TV Channel 6 (CBS) & Channel 6.2 (CW)
- KSWO-TV Channel 7 (ABC)
- KJTL Channel 18 (FOX)
- KJBO Channel 35 (MNT)
By default, Dallas' KERA-TV serves as the default PBS affiliate for Wichita Falls via a translator station on UHF channel 44.
Sports and recreation
Nearby Lake Wichita was dredged in 1901 at a cost of $175,000 through the efforts of entrepreneur Joseph Kemp. The 234-acre (95 ha) Lake Wichita Park is on the north shore of the lake. This park offers a 2.6-mile concrete hiking and bicycling trail that runs from the southern tip of the park at Fairway Avenue to the dam. The trail resumes northward to Lucy Park. The park has a playground, basketball courts, and multiple picnic areas. The 10-unit picnic shelter can seat 60 people and is available for rent. The park also has two lighted baseball and two lighted softball fields, three lighted football fields, and an 18-hole disc golf course. The park has the only model airplane landing strip in the Texas state park system. An off-leash dog park is available.
Because of drought, the fish population in Lake Wichita has been damaged by golden algae blooms and periods of low dissolved oxygen. Therefore, the lake was not recommended in 2013 as a destination for fishing. When available, the fish population consists mostly of white bass, hybrid striped bass, channel catfish, and white crappie. Camping facilities are also available.
Mark Rippetoe, a popular strength coach and author of Starting Strength – Basic Barbell Training, resides in Wichita Falls and owns the black-iron gym, the Wichita Falls Athletic Club.
The city has been home to a number of semiprofessional, developmental, and minor league sports teams, including the Wichita Falls Drillers, a semipro football team that has won numerous league titles and a national championship; Wichita Falls Kings (formerly known as Wichita Falls Razorbacks), the professional basketball team Wichita Falls Texans of the Continental Basketball Association; Wichita Falls Fever in the Lone Star Soccer Alliance (1989–92); the Wichita Falls Spudders baseball team in the Texas League; the Wichita Falls Wildcats (formerly the Wichita Falls Rustlers) of the North American Hockey League, an American "Junior A" Hockey league; and the Wichita Falls Roughnecks (formerly the Graham Roughnecks) of the Texas Collegiate League. The Dallas Cowboys held training camp in Wichita Falls during the late 1990s.
Lucy Park is a 170-acre (69 ha) park with a log cabin, duck pond, swimming pool, playground, frisbee golf course, and picnic areas. It has multiple paved walkways suitable for walking, running, biking, or rollerskating, including a river walk that goes to a recreation of the original falls for which the city was named (the original falls were destroyed in a 19th-century flood; the new falls were built in response to numerous tourist requests to visit the "Wichita Falls"). It is one of 37 parks throughout the city. The parks range in size from small neighborhood facilities to the 258 acres of Weeks Park featuring the Champions Course at Weeks Park, an 18-hole golf course. In addition, an off-leash dog park is within Lake Wichita Park and a skatepark adjacent to the city's softball complex. Also, unpaved trails for off-road biking and hiking are available.
The mayor of Wichita Falls is Glenn Barham. The Wichita Falls City Council has six members: District 1-Stephen Santellana, District 2-DeAndra Chenault, District 3-Brian Hooker, District 4-Tim Ingle, District 5-Tom Quintero, and Councilor-at-Large-Michael Smith. The city manager is Darron Leiker.
State and federal politics
Wichita Falls is located in the 69th district of the Texas House of Representatives. Lanham Lyne, a Republican, represented the district from 2011 to 2013; he was the mayor of Wichita Falls from 2005 to 2010. When Lyne declined to seek a second term in 2012, voters chose another Republican, James Frank. Wichita Falls is located in the 30th district of the Texas Senate. Craig Estes, a Republican, has held the senate seat since 2001. Wichita Falls is part of Texas's 13th congressional district for the U.S. House of Representatives. Mac Thornberry, a Republican, has held this seat since 1995.
The Texas Department of Criminal Justice James V. Allred Unit is located in Wichita Falls, 4 mi (6.4 km) northwest of downtown Wichita Falls. The prison is named for former Governor James V. Allred, a Democrat and a native of Bowie, Texas, who lived early in his career in Wichita Falls. The United States Postal Service operates the Wichita Falls Post Office, the Morningside Post Office, the Bridge Creek Post Office, and the Sheppard Air Force Base Post Office.
Wichita Falls is home to Midwestern State University, an accredited four-year college and the only independent liberal arts college in Texas offering both bachelor's and master's degrees. A local branch of nearby Vernon College offers two-year degrees, certificate programs, and workforce development programs, and also Wayland Baptist University, offering both bachelor's and master's degrees, whose main branch is located in Plainview, Texas.
Public primary and secondary education is covered by the Wichita Falls Independent School District, the City View Independent School District, and the Bright Ideas Charter School. The several parochial schools include Notre Dame Catholic school. Other private schools operate in the city, as does an active home-school community. Many of the local elementary schools participate in the Head Start program for preschool-aged children. The Wichita Falls ISD is one of only a handful of school districts in Texas that does not require its students to attend a particular school in the district based on their residency.
Two schools in the Wichita Falls ISD participate in the International Baccalaureate programs. Hirschi High School offers the IB Diploma Programme, and G.H. Kirby Junior High School for the Middle Years Programme. Other public high schools are Wichita Falls High School and S. H. Rider High School (Wichita Falls ISD) and City View High School (City View ISD).
Wichita Falls is the western terminus for Interstate 44. U.S. Highways leading to or through Wichita Falls include 287, 277, 281, and 82. State Highway 240 ends at Wichita Falls and State Highway 79 runs through it. Wichita Falls has one of the largest freeway mileages for a city of its size as a result of a 1954 bond issue approved by city and county voters to purchase rights-of-way for several expressway routes through the city and county, the first of which was opened in 1958 as an alignment of U.S. 287 from Eighth Street at Broad and Holliday Streets northwestward across the Wichita River and bisecting Lucy and Scotland Parks to the Old Iowa Park Road, the original U.S. 287 alignment. That was followed by other expressway links including U.S. 82–287 east to Henrietta (completed in 1968), U.S. 281 south toward Jacksboro (completed 1969), U.S. 287 northwest to Iowa Park and Electra (opened 1962), Interstate 44 north to Burkburnett and the Red River (opened 1964), and Interstate 44 from Old Iowa Park Road to U.S. 287/Spur 325 interchange on the city's north side along with Spur 325 from I-44/U.S. 287 to the main gate of Sheppard Air Force Base (both completed as a single project in 1960). However, cross-country traffic for many years had to contend with several ground-level intersections and traffic lights over Holliday and Broad Streets near the downtown area for about 13 blocks between connecting expressway links until a new elevated freeway running overhead was completed in 2001.
Efforts to create an additional freeway along the path of Kell Boulevard for U.S. 82–277 began in 1967 with the acquisition of right-of-way that included a former railroad right-of-way and the first project including construction of the present frontage roads completed in 1977, followed by freeway lanes, overpasses, and on/off ramps in 1989 from just east of Brook Avenue west to Kemp Boulevard; similar projects west from Kemp to Barnett Road in 2001 followed by Barnett Road west past FM 369 in 2010 to tie in which a project now underway to transform U.S. 277 into a continuous four-lane expressway between Wichita Falls and Abilene.
Greyhound Lines provides intercity bus service to other locations served by Greyhound via its new terminal at the Wichita Falls Travel Center located at Fourth and Scott in downtown. Skylark Van Service shuttles passengers to and from Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport on several runs during the day all week long.
The Wichita Falls Municipal Airport is served by American Eagle, with four flights daily to the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport. The Kickapoo Downtown Airport and the Wichita Valley Airport serve smaller, private planes.
The J. S. Bridwell Agricultural Center off Burnett Street hosts various exhibits throughout the year. It is named for the oilman, rancher, and philanthropist Joseph Sterling Bridwell.
The Kell House, located across from the First Baptist Church in Wichita Falls, was inhabited by members of the Kell family from 1910 to 1980. It was turned into a museum after the death of Willie May Kell, daughter of entrepreneur Frank Kell and the former Lula Kemp, sister of another Wichita Falls business pioneer Joseph A. Kemp.
Downtown Wichita Falls with location of the first Zales jewelry store on front left, Holt Hotel on front right, American Bank and Trust Company in back right and Wichita Tower on back left
- Greg Abbott, Governor of Texas, first term began January 20, 2015
- JT Barrett, quarterback for Ohio State University, graduated from Rider in 2013
- Bowling for Soup, rock band
- Joseph Sterling Bridwell, oilman, rancher, conservationist, philanthropist
- Orville Bullington, Republican Party nominee for governor of Texas in 1932; son-in-law of city entrepreneur Frank Kell
- Raymond Carroll, renowned statistician now at Texas A&M University
- Frank Kell Cahoon, Midland oilman and member of Texas House of Representatives; grandson of Frank Kell
- Greyson Chance, singer-songwriter and pianist
- Don Cherry, charting pop singer and a leading amateur golfer of 1950s and early '60s
- Phyllis Coates, actress who originated role of Lois Lane in first 26 episodes of Adventures of Superman
- William C. Conner (1920–2009), federal judge for United States District Court for the Southern District of New York
- Carlos Coy, rapper, also known as S.P.M.
- Nic Endo, singer for digital-hardcore band Atari Teenage Riot
- Paul Eggers, Republican nominee for Governor of Texas in 1968 and 1970
- "Cowboy" Morgan Evans, rodeo champion
- Sally Gary, speaker and author
- Mia Hamm, NCAA, World Cup, and Olympic champion soccer player, attended Notre Dame Catholic School in Wichita Falls.
- Eddie Hill, drag racer
- Frank N. Ikard, U.S. representative from Texas' 13th congressional district from 1951 to 1961; oil industry lobbyist
- Robert Jeffress, Baptist clergyman
- Neel Kearby, World War II US Army Air Forces flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient
- Khari Long, professional football player
- Rosie Manning, professional football player
- Markelle Martin, professional football player
- Bill McDonald, legendary Texas Ranger
- Ed Neal, professional football player
- David Nelson, professional football player
- Don Owen, Louisiana news anchor and politician from Shreveport, Louisiana, got his start at KFDX-TV in Wichita Falls in 1953.
- Graham B. Purcell, Jr., Democrat, U.S. representative 1962-1973; post office on Lamar Street in downtown Wichita Falls is named in his honor
- Frances Reid, soap opera actress
- Mark Rippetoe, physical trainer and author, competitive powerlifter, gym owner
- Herbert Rogers, classical pianist
- Lloyd Ruby, race car driver
- Bernard Scott, professional football player
- Frank Lee Sprague, composer and musician
- Keith Stegall, country music artist and record producer
- Rex Tillerson, ExxonMobil CEO
- John Tower, U.S. Senator from 1961 to 1984
- Tommy Tune, actor, singer, dancer, producer
- Nathan Vasher, professional football player
- Ronnie Williams, professional football player
- Dave Willis, voice actor, screenwriter, and television producers
- The previous record was 79 in 1980; a 52-day stretch, June 22 to August 12, of uninterrupted 100°F highs, and 100-day stretch, May 27 to September 3, of interrupted 90°F highs occurred. In addition, the all-time warm daily minimum of 88 °F (31 °C) was set on July 26, and June, July, and August of that year were all the hottest on record.
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- Richard Carter (November 29, 2005). "Full circle: residences, businesses returning to spot where Wichita Falls began". Wichita Falls Times Record News. Wichita Falls, Texas: E. W. Scripps Company. p. A1. ISSN 0895-6138. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
They say business and people have been moving westward in Wichita Falls ever since the city was born on Sept. 27, 1872. The birthplace of the city-the corner of Seventh and Ohio Streets, where the original town lot sale was held – is once again blossoming with renovated apartment buildings, new businesses and increased traffic.
- Bill Whitaker (August 20, 1998). "Cowboys Mosey On, But Littlest Skyscraper Remains". Abilene Reporter-News. Abilene, Texas: E. W. Scripps Company. ISSN 0199-3267. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
But when the building was done, investors discovered the skyscraper was only 30 feet tall, 18 feet deep and 10 feet wide. And of the reportedly $200,000 sunk into the skyscraper's construction – well, that was plainly gone with the wind.
- Carlton Stowers (July 2008). "Legend of the World's Littlest Skyscraper" (PDF). Texas Co-Op Power. Austin, Texas: Texas Electric Cooperatives. 65 (1): 25. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
- Le Templar (March 19, 1999). "Historic District Could Expand". Wichita Falls Times Record News. Wichita Falls, Texas: E. W. Scripps Company. p. A1. ISSN 0895-6138. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
The Wichita Falls Landmark Commission wants to more than double the size of the downtown historic district in an effort to slow the loss of buildings that proclaim the city's heritage. Commission members voted unanimously Thursday for expanding the district to include a total of 77 buildings on Indiana and Ohio streets.
- "Brian Hart, "Joseph Alexander Kemp"". Texas State Historical Association online. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
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- "WICHITA RIVER", Handbook of Texas Online, accessed April 12, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association. See also: Assessment of Channel Changes, Models of Historical Floods and Effects of Backwater on Flood Stage, and Flood Mitigation Alternatives for the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas United States Geological Survey
- Grazulis, Thomas P. (1993). Significant tornadoes, 1680-1991: A Chronology an Analysis of Events. St. Johnsbury, Vt.: Environmental Films. p. 1050. ISBN 1-879362-03-1.
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- LiveScience. Accessed 2014-05-06
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- Washington Post (26 May 2015). "After massive storms in Oklahoma and Texas, at least nine killed and 30 people missing".
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- "Monthly Averages for Wichita Falls, Texas". Weather.com. 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2011.
- "Texas City Working To Turn Sewer Water Into Tap Water". CBS Dallas Fort Worth. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- Alex, Greig (27 February 2014). "From flush to faucet: Drought-stricken Texas town turning sewer water into drinking water". Daily Mail. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- SATIJA, NEENA (8 February 2014). "Texans Answer Call to Save Water, Only to Face Higher Rates". New York Times. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
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- City of Wichita CAFR
- "Lake Wichita Park". wichitafallstx.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Wichita Reservoir". tpwd.state.tx.us. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Texas Panhandle Plains". texassportfishing.com. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- ""Allred Unit". Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
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- Douglas, Martin (July 19, 2009). "William C. Conner, 89, Judge Known for First Amendment Rulings, Dies – Obituary". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 4, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
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