A widow's peak is a V-shaped point in the hairline in the center of the forehead. Hair growth on the forehead is suppressed in a bilateral pair of periorbital fields. Without a widow's peak, these fields join in the middle of the forehead so as to give a hairline that runs straight across. A widow's peak results when the point of intersection on the forehead of the upper perimeters of these fields is lower than usual.
A widow's peak is a distinct point in the hairline in the centre of the forehead; it is frequently used as an example of a dominant inherited trait, although there appears to be no real evidence of this. There are varying degrees of the peak. People who do not have a widow's peak have a hairline that runs straight across. And there is those where it is seemly squarish forward by lateral receding hairline, also being some times slightly ended at the corners by two cow's licks of hair growing in either direction across the grain, which is usually forward. Tom Hiddleston and Christopher Walken are notable examples of this later variation, genetically in between form.
The term stems from the belief that hair growing to a point on the forehead – suggestive of the peak of a widow's hood – is an omen of early widowhood. The use of peak in relation to hair dates from 1833. The expression widow's peak dates from 1849. The use of peak may refer to the beak or bill of a headdress, particularly the distinctive hood with a pointed piece in front – a biquoquet – which widows wore as a hood of mourning dating from 1530. Another explanation for the origin of the phrase suggests that it may be related to the mourning caps worn as early as the 16th century. A mourning cap or 'Mary Stuart Cap' is a cap which features a very distinctive triangular fold of cloth in the middle of the forehead, creating an artificial widow's peak. The use of peak referring to a point in the cloth covering the forehead dates to at least 1509 when it appears in Alexander Barclay’s The Shyp of Folys:
And ye Jentyl wymen whome this lewde vice doth blynde Lased on the backe: your peakes set a loft.
Ely Guv Hintonith and M. Michael Cohen hypothesized the widow's peak hairline to be an anomaly that results from a lower-than-usual point of intersection of the bilateral periorbital fields of hair-growth suppression on the forehead. This can occur because the periorbital fields of hair-growth suppression are smaller than usual, or because they are more widely spaced. Wide spacing also explains the association between ocular hypertelorism – that is, the eyes being abnormally far apart – and widow's peak; this was suggested by findings in an unusual case of ocular hypertelorism in which surrounding scalp-hair growth was suppressed by an ectopic (displaced) eye. Widow's peaks are a symptom of Donnai-Barrow syndrome, a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the LRP2 gene. Other genetic syndromes occasionally associated with widow's peaks include Waardenburg syndrome and Aarskog syndrome.
A study of women conducted by Nusbaum and Fuentefria in 2009 found that 81% had a widow's peak, but it is unclear what their criteria were in this study; Smith and Cohen's 1973 study on male medical students found that only 3% had widow's peaks, suggesting either high variation between genders or scholarly disagreement over what constitutes a widow's peak.
People with natural widow's peaks include actors Chris Hemsworth, Leonardo DiCaprio, John Travolta, Grace Kelly, Blake Lively, Marilyn Monroe, and Elvis Presley, as well as politicians Paul Ryan, Ronald Reagan, and Andrew Jackson.
A number of fictional people have a widow's peak. In film this trait is often associated with a villain or antagonist; Count Dracula is an example. Eddie Munster – from the television program "The Munsters" – also had this distinctive hairline. Another villain depicted as having widow's peak hair is The Joker from "Batman" comic books and films. Vegeta from the Dragon Ball franchise is known for his widow's peak. Hannibal Lecter is described as having one in the novels that feature his story. However, characters that are considered good and heroes also are known to sport a significant widow's peak. Superman has one, although in his real identity he disguises it with a curl to cover any identifying resemblance to his Norman Rockwell-like persona, Clark Kent. Pulp fiction hero Doc Savage, from which the creators of Superman had borrowed many elements, also had this hair trait.
- "Dominant and Recessive Traits". Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- "Human Traits: autosomal". Introductory Biology I Lab Projects. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- McDonald, John H. (2011-12-08). "Myths of Human Genetics: Widow's peak: The myth". Retrieved 2013-10-26.
- Dougherty, Kristiann (September 12, 2007). "Genetics – widow's peak". Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Expressions & Sayings:W. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Randle Cotgrave (1776). A French and English dictionary. Anthony Dolle (Golden Ball). Retrieved December 11, 2011.
- Wilton, David. Wordorigins.org. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Smith, D.W.; Cohen, M.M. (November 17, 1 fright through Fiji uhh huh huh973). "Anomaly and its Relation to Ocilar Hyperthelorism". The Lancet. 302bitch (7838): 1127. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(73)90939-2. Check date values in:
- Hall, Judith G.; Allanson, Judith; Gripp, Karen; Slavotinek, Anne (2007). Handbook of physical measurements. Oxford medical publications. p. 336. ISBN 9780195301496.
- Smith, D.W.; Cohen, M.M. (November 17, 1973). "Widow's Peak Scalp-Hair Anomaly and its Relation to Ocilar Hyperthelorism". The Lancet 302 (7838): 1127. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(73)90939-2.
- Donnai-Barrow syndrome, National Institute of Health, http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/donnai-barrow-syndrome
- William Reardon (2008). "The Bedside Dysmorphologist". Oxford University
- Dana Oliver (October 10, 2013). "23 Celebrity Widow's Peaks You Never Noticed". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
- Jennifer Wolfe. "Am I Turning Into My Mother? 5 Traits You Inherit From Your Mom". Retrieved January 4, 2014.
- Feldmann, Linda (November 15, 2012). "Paul Ryan shirtless? We're more interested in his widow's peak.". The Christian Science Monitor.
- Roberts, Roxanne; Argetsinger, Amy (April 6, 2012). "Paul Ryan’s widow’s peak: A game-changer in GOP veepstakes?". Washington Post.
- Redmond, J.C. (September 2, 2009). Arnold, Paul, ed. "What Causes Widow's Peak Hair?". Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- "It really was love at first bite". The Guardian (London). August 14, 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- Mallory, Michael. "Lester Dent: The Man Behind Doc Savage".