|Written by||George Bernard Shaw|
|Date premiered||9 December, 1892, Independent Theatre Society,|
|Place premiered||Royalty Theatre|
|Subject||An idealistic doctor finds his principles compromised|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
Widowers' Houses (1892) was the first play by Nobel Prize in literature winner George Bernard Shaw to be staged. It premièred on 9 December 1892 at the Royalty Theatre, under the auspices of the Independent Theatre Society — a subscription club, formed to escape the Lord Chamberlain's Office censorship.
- Harry Trench
- William Cokaine
- Mr. Sartorius
The play comprises three acts:
In Act I a poor but aristocratic young doctor named Harry Trench and his friend William Cokane are vacationing at Remagen on the Rhine. There, they encounter fellow travelers: Mr Sartorius, a self-made businessman, and his daughter Blanche. Harry and Blanche fall in love and become engaged.
Act II opens with everyone back at home in London: Sartorius, is talking to Mr Lickcheese, whom he employs as a rent-collector, reveals himself to be a slumlord. He discharges Lickcheese for dealing too leniently with tenants. Trench and Cokane arrive to visit, but when Trench discovers that Sartorius makes his money by renting slum housing to the poor, he is disgusted and refuses to allow Blanche to accept money from her father after they are married and insists they must live on Harry's small income. They break up over this, after a bitter argument. Sartorius reveals that Trench's income depends on interest from mortgaged tenements and, therefore, is as dirty as the money made by Sartorius, but the lovers do not reconcile: Blanche utterly rejects Harry because of her wounded feelings.
In Act III, Trench, Cokane and Lickcheese return to Sartorius' house to plan a shady business venture (Trench, disillusioned and coarsened by knowing his income is tainted by its source, no longer takes the moral high-ground). In the final scene, notable for its erotic tension, Harry and Blanche reunite.
Creation and publication
The play had originally been written in 1885, as a collaboration with William Archer; but the two fell out and this first attempt was abandoned. Shaw reorganised his fragments, and added a third act for the production, at the invitation of Jakub Grein.
This is one of three plays Shaw published as Plays Unpleasant in 1898; they were termed "unpleasant" because they were intended, not to entertain their audiences—as traditional Victorian theatre was expected to—but to raise awareness of social problems and to censure exploitation of the laboring class by the unproductive rich. The other plays in the group are The Philanderer and Mrs Warren's Profession.
The play was first performed at the Royalty Theatre by the Independent Theatre Society, on 9 December, 1892. The lead role was taken by W. J. Robertson.
It was performed at the Shaw Festival, 2003
On 3 July 2011, a radio adaptation directed by Martin Jarvis was broadcast on BBC Radio 3 starring Ian McKellen as Sartorius, Charles Dance as William Cokane, Honeysuckle Weeks as Blanche, Dan Stevens as Harry Trench and Tim Pigott-Smith as Lickcheese.
- Styan, J Modern Drama in Theory and Practice: Realism and Naturalism pp. 57 (Cambridge University Press, 1981) ISBN 0-521-29628-5