Wiener's tauberian theorem
In mathematical analysis, Wiener's tauberian theorem is any of several related results proved by Norbert Wiener in 1932. They provide a necessary and sufficient condition under which any function in L1 or L2 can be approximated by linear combinations of translations of a given function.
Informally, if the Fourier transform of a function f vanishes on a certain set Z, the Fourier transform of any linear combination of translations of f also vanishes on Z. Therefore, the linear combinations of translations of f can not approximate a function whose Fourier transform does not vanish on Z.
Wiener's theorems make this precise, stating that linear combinations of translations of f are dense if and only if the zero set of the Fourier transform of f is empty (in the case of L1) or of Lebesgue measure zero (in the case of L2).
Gelfand reformulated Wiener's theorem in terms of commutative C*-algebras, when it states that the spectrum of the L1 group ring L1(R) of the group R of real numbers is the dual group of R. A similar result is true when R is replaced by any locally compact abelian group.
The condition in L1
Let f ∈ L1(R) be an integrable function. The span of translations fa(x) = f(x + a) is dense in L1(R) if and only if the Fourier transform of f has no real zeros.
The following statement is equivalent to the previous result, and explains why Wiener's result is a Tauberian theorem:
Suppose the Fourier transform of f ∈ L1 has no real zeros, and suppose the convolution f * h tends to zero at infinity for some h ∈ L∞. Then the convolution g * h tends to zero at infinity for any g ∈ L1.
More generally, if
for some f ∈ L1 the Fourier transform of which has no real zeros, then also
for any g ∈ L1.
Wiener's theorem has a counterpart in l1(Z): the span of the translations of f ∈ l1(Z) is dense if and only if the Fourier transform
has no real zeros. The following statements are equivalent version of this result:
- Suppose the Fourier transform of f ∈ l1(Z) has no real zeros, and for some bounded sequence h the convolution f * h tends to zero at infinity. Then g * h also tends to zero at infinity for any g ∈ l1(Z).
- Let φ be a function on the unit circle with absolutely convergent Fourier series. Then 1/φ has absolutely convergent Fourier series if and only if φ has no zeros.
Gelfand (1941a, 1941b) showed that this is equivalent to the following property of the Wiener algebra A(T), which he proved using the theory of Banach algebras, thereby giving a new proof of Wiener's result:
- The maximal ideals of A(T) are all of the form
The condition in L2
Let f ∈ L2(R) be a square-integrable function. The span of translations fa(x) = f(x + a) is dense in L2(R) if and only if the real zeros of the Fourier transform of f form a set of zero Lebesgue measure.
The parallel statement in l2(Z) is as follows: the span of translations of a sequence f ∈ l2(Z) is dense if and only if the zero set of the Fourier transform
has zero Lebesgue measure.
- Gelfand, I. (1941a), "Normierte Ringe", Rec. Math. (Mat. Sbornik) N.S., 9 (51): 3–24, MR 0004726
- Gelfand, I. (1941b), "Über absolut konvergente trigonometrische Reihen und Integrale", Rec. Math. (Mat. Sbornik) N.S., 9 (51): 51–66, MR 0004727
- Rudin, W. (1991), Functional analysis, International Series in Pure and Applied Mathematics, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., ISBN 0-07-054236-8, MR 1157815
- Wiener, N. (1932), "Tauberian Theorems", Annals of Math., 33 (1): 1–100, JSTOR 1968102