Wigan (UK Parliament constituency)
for the House of Commons
Boundary of Wigan in Greater Manchester
Location of Greater Manchester within England
|Electorate||74,241 (December 2017)|
|Member of Parliament||Lisa Nandy (Labour)|
|Number of members||One|
|Created from||Wigan, South West Lancashire|
|Number of members||Two|
|Type of constituency||Borough constituency|
|European Parliament constituency||North West England|
- 1 History
- 2 Boundaries
- 3 Constituency profile
- 4 Members of Parliament
- 5 Elections
- 5.1 Elections in the 2010s
- 5.2 Elections in the 2000s
- 5.3 Elections in the 1990s
- 5.4 Elections in the 1980s
- 5.5 Elections in the 1970s
- 5.6 Elections in the 1960s
- 5.7 Elections in the 1950s
- 5.8 Elections in the 1940s
- 5.9 Elections in the 1930s
- 5.10 Elections in the 1920s
- 5.11 Elections in the 1910s
- 5.12 Elections in the 1900s
- 5.13 Elections in the 1890s
- 5.14 Elections in the 1880s
- 5.15 Elections in the 1870s
- 5.16 Elections in the 1860s
- 5.17 Elections in the 1850s
- 5.18 Elections in the 1840s
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes and references
- 8 Sources
In 1295 and January 1307, Wigan was one of the significant places called upon to send a representative, then known as a ‘burgess,’ to the Model Parliament. However, for the remainder of the medieval period, the seat was not summoned to send an official. This changed with Henry VIII’s grant of two Members of Parliament to the town, which is believed to have been incorporated as a borough in 1246, after the issue of a charter by Henry III. At the close of the Middle Ages, in the Tudor period, Wigan was one of four boroughs in Lancashire possessing Royal Charters; the others were Lancaster, Liverpool and Preston.
The death of Roger Stott in office in 1999 made him the fourth Wigan MP in the twentieth century to die in office (uniquely for a constituency in the United Kingdom); the others were John Parkinson, Ronald Williams and William Foster.
Wigan is considered a safe seat given that it has been held by the Labour Party since 1918, with solid majorities ranging from 1,018 votes (2.2%) in 1931 to 22,643 votes (51.7%) in 1997.
|Member of Parliament||Notability|
|Algernon Egerton||Parliamentary Secretary to the Admiralty (1874–80)|
|Alan Fitch||Vice-Chamberlain of the Household (1968–70)|
1832–1918: The Township of Wigan.
- In 1835 Wigan became a Municipal borough, using the then current Parliamentary boundaries of the Township.
- In 1888 Wigan Municipal Borough became the County Borough of Wigan on the same boundaries.
- In 1904 Pemberton Urban District was dissolved, with the area covered by it becoming part of the County Borough of Wigan. However, for Parliamentary purposes, that area remained part of South-West Lancashire, Ince Division until the Parliamentary boundaries were redefined in 1918.
- In 1974 the Country Borough of Wigan was abolished and superseded by the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, covering a far greater area. However, the boundary of the Parliamentary Constituency of Wigan remained unchanged until 1983, when it was expanded to cover the northern part of the Metropolitan Borough.
1983–1997: The Metropolitan Borough of Wigan wards of Aspull-Standish, Beech Hill, Ince, Langtree, Newtown, Norley, Swinley, Whelley.
1997–2010: The Metropolitan Borough of Wigan wards of Aspull-Standish, Beech Hill, Langtree, Newtown, Norley, Swinley, Whelley.
- In 2004, new ward boundaries in the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan came in to effect. However, the Parliamentary boundaries remained unchanged until they were reviewed and adjusted to line up with the new ward boundaries in 2010.
2010–present: The Metropolitan Borough of Wigan wards of Aspull, New Springs and Whelley; Douglas; Ince; Pemberton; Shevington with Lower Ground; Standish with Langtree; Wigan Central; Wigan West.
The seat is productive and has excellent links to Manchester, as well as close links to the M6, which lies just within its western border. However, over the past century, Wigan has witnessed a fall in manufacturing, particularly in the production of textiles, which have been unable to compete with the Indian subcontinent and the Far East. Another industry which has suffered is coal mining, which had been a large employer in this part of Lancashire up until the mid-20th century.
As of May 2018, the rate of JSA and Universal Credit claimants was 3.9%, higher than the national average of 2.8% and regional average of 3.7%, based on a statistical compilation by the House of Commons Library.
Members of Parliament
MPs since 1885
- The Honourable Orlando Bridgeman from 1796
- On petition, the election of Crosse was declared void and after scrutiny of the votes his opponent, Standish, was declared duly elected.
- On petition, Powell's election was declared void and the writ was suspended. The following year a new writ was issued and a by-election was held
Elections in the 2010s
|Brexit Party||William Malloy|
|Liberal Democrats||Stuart Thomas|
|Liberal Democrats||Mark Clayton||916||1.8||0.8|
|Liberal Democrats||Mark Clayton||1,255||2.8||12.6|
|Wigan Independents||Gareth Fairhurst||768||1.7||N/A|
|Liberal Democrats||Mark Clayton||6,797||15.4||1.5|
Elections in the 2000s
|Liberal Democrats||Denise Capstick||6,051||17.7||2.9|
|Community Action||Kevin Williams||1,026||3.0||N/A|
|Liberal Democrats||Trevor Beswick||4,970||14.8||4.8|
|Socialist Alliance||Dave Lowe||886||2.6||N/A|
Elections in the 1990s
|Liberal Democrats||Jonathan Rule||2,148||13.3||3.3|
|Socialist Labour||William Kelly||240||1.5||N/A|
|National Democrats||Stephen Ebbs||100||0.6||N/A|
|Natural Law||Paul Davis||64||0.4||0.2|
|Conservative||Mark A. Loveday||7,400||16.9||6.7|
|Liberal Democrats||Trevor R. Beswick||4,390||10.0||1.0|
|Natural Law||William J. Ayliffe||94||0.2||0.2|
|Conservative||Edward J.W. Hess||13,068||23.6||0.9|
|Liberal Democrats||George Davies||6,111||11.0||3.0|
|Natural Law||Annie B. Tayler||197||0.4||N/A|
Elections in the 1980s
Elections in the 1970s
|Workers Revolutionary||A Smith||348||0.8||N/A|
Elections in the 1960s
|Conservative||Ian K Paley||11,648||28.2||3.4|
Elections in the 1950s
|Conservative||Harold D Lowe||14,883||32.2||0.9|
|Conservative||Dennis C Walls||17,078||33.1||3.1|
Elections in the 1940s
|King's Cavalier||Owen L Roberts||932||1.6||N/A|
|Conservative||Evelyn Charles Lacy Hulbert-Powell||14,666||31.8||6.9|
Elections in the 1930s
|Conservative||Geoffrey Dorling Roberts||22,526||48.9||10.2|
Elections in the 1920s
|Unionist||David Maxwell Fyfe||15,006||42.4|
|Unionist||Albert Edward Baucher||15,436||43.5||0.5|
Elections in the 1910s
|Labour gain from Unionist||Swing||+5.7|
|C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.|
General Election 1914/15:
Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing||+6.0|
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing|
Elections in the 1900s
|Independent Labour||Thorley Smith[n 4]||2,205||28.7||N/A|
Elections in the 1890s
Elections in the 1880s
|Liberal||Cornelius McLeod Percy||2,780||45.2||+2.4|
|Liberal||George Harris Lea||2,721||42.8||−5.8|
- Caused by Knowles' death.
- Caused by the previous election being declared void on petition.
- Caused by Lindsay's elevation to the peerage, becoming Earl of Crawford and Balcarres. This by-election was later voided on petition.
|Turnout||5,696 (est)||93.1 (est)||+4.8|
Elections in the 1870s
|Turnout||4,470 (est)||88.3 (est)||+5.5|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+7.5|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+7.3|
Elections in the 1860s
|Turnout||4,090 (est)||82.8 (est)||N/A|
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||N/A|
Elections in the 1850s
|Turnout||625 (est)||74.8 (est)||−4.5|
|Turnout||624 (est)||78.3 (est)||+5.5|
- Caused by Thicknesse's death.
|Whig||Ralph Anthony Thicknesse||366||35.0||N/A|
|Turnout||523 (est)||72.8 (est)||N/A|
Elections in the 1840s
|Whig||Ralph Anthony Thicknesse||Unopposed|
|Whig gain from Conservative|
|Whig||Ralph Anthony Thicknesse||211||43.5||−5.8|
- Caused by Greenall's death.
After the 1841 election, Crosse was unseated on petition and Standish was declared elected in his place on 11 April 1842.
|Conservative||Thomas Bright Crosse||268||25.1|
|Whig||Charles Strickland Standish||264||24.7|
|Conservative gain from Whig||Swing|
|Conservative gain from Whig||Swing|
Notes and references
- A county constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
- As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
- Exceptions were the twenty-three borough constituencies, the City of London and the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin
- Nominee of the Lancashire and Cheshire Women's Textile and Other Workers Representation Committee
- "Electoral statistics for the UK - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- Parliamentary Boundaries Act 1832
- Municipal Corporations Act 1835
- "View: Lancashire XCIII (includes: Billinge and Winstanley; Orrell; Wigan.) - Ordnance Survey Six-inch England and Wales, 1842-1952". maps.nls.uk.
- Local Government Act 1888
- "A History of the County of Lancaster | British History Online". www.british-history.ac.uk.
- A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4
- Redistribution of Seats Act 1885
- Representation of the People Act 1918
- "View: Lancashire XCIII.SE (includes: Ashton in Makerfield; Ince in Makerfield; Wigan.) - Ordnance Survey Six-inch England and Wales, 1842-1952". maps.nls.uk.
- Local Administrative Units: Northern England, Frederic A. Youngs, Jr, Royal Historical Society, 1991
- Representation of the People Act 1948
- Boundary Commission for England: First Periodical Report
- Boundary Commission for England: Second Periodical Report
- Local Government Act 1972
- Boundary Commission for England: Third Periodical Report
- Boundary Commission for England: Fourth Periodical Report
- Boundary Commission for England: Fifth Periodical Report
- McGuinness, Feargal; Powell, Andy (12 June 2018). "People claiming unemployment benefits by constituency, May 2018". Cite journal requires
- "History of Parliament". Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Gerard, Sir Gilbert (d.1593), of Ince, Lancs. and Gerrard's Bromley, Staffs". History of Parliament.
- "Wigan". History of Parliament.
- "Gerard, Sir Gilbert, 1st Bt. (1587-1670), of Flambards, Harrow-on-the-Hill, Mdx". History of Parliament.
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "W" (part 4)
- Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 188–190. ISBN 0-900178-13-2.
- Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. pp. 186, 212. Retrieved 23 December 2018 – via Google Books.
- "POTTER, Richard, 1778–1833, politician". Archives Hub. Jisc. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- Donnelly, Sue (22 January 2015). "Beatrice Webb – the early years". LSE History. The London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1847). Dod's Parliamentary Companion, Volume 15. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. p. 164. Retrieved 1 September 2018 – via Google Books.
- Boase, George Clement (1889). Stephen, Leslie (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 18. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
|url=(help) . In
- Farrell, S. M. (9 January 2014) . "Ewart, William (1798–1869)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9011.
- "Leeds Intelligencer". 31 July 1841. p. 7. Retrieved 1 September 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Dumfries Burghs". Northern Star and Leeds General Advertiser. 10 July 1841. p. 7. Retrieved 1 September 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The General Election". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 31 July 1847. pp. 2, 3, 6, 7. Retrieved 22 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The Late Elections". Northern Star and Leeds General Advertiser. 14 August 1847. pp. 3, 7, 8. Retrieved 22 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Wigan Election". Coventry Standard. 6 October 1854. p. 2. Retrieved 22 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Statement of persons nominated" (PDF).
- "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Wigan". BBC News.
- "Wigan". BBC News. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "BBC NEWS – Election 2010 – Wigan". BBC News.
- "The BNP Announces Candidates for Makerfield, Leigh and Wigan".
- "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "UK". Politicsresources.net.
- "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "UK". Politicsresources.net.
- "UK". Politicsresources.net.
- "UK". Politicsresources.net.
- "UK". Politicsresources.net.
- British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
- Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. p. 209. ISBN 9781349022984.
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
- The Liberal Year Book, 1907
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
- Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)
|url=(help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. pp. 331–332. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
- "Wigan Election". Todmorden & District News. 8 December 1882. p. 9. Retrieved 15 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Wigan". The Morning Post. 17 November 1868. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 23 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Election Intelligence." Times [London, England] 27 March 1866: 5. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 29 September 2013.
- Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) A Chronological Register of Both Houses of the British Parliament, from the Union in 1708, to the Third Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in 1807
- D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
- Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) titles A-Z
- F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
- Maija Jansson (ed.), Proceedings in Parliament, 1614 (House of Commons) (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1988)
- J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949)
- Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)