Wiggers diagram

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A Wiggers diagram

A Wiggers diagram is a standard diagram used in cardiac physiology named after Dr. Carl J. Wiggers.[1]

The X axis is used to plot time, while the Y axis contains all of the following on a single grid:

By illustrating the coordinated variation of these values, it becomes easier to illustrate the relationship between these values in the cardiac cycle.


Phase EKG Heart sounds Semilunar valves Atrioventricular valves
A Atrial systole P S4* closed open
B Ventricular systole - Isovolumetric/isovolumic contraction QRS S1 ("lub") closed closed
C1 Ventricular systole - Ejection 1 - open closed
C2 Ventricular systole - Ejection 2 T open closed
D Ventricular diastole - Isovolumetric/isovolumic relaxation - S2 ("dub") closed closed
E1 Ventricular diastole - Ventricular filling 1 - S3* closed open
E2 Ventricular diastole - Ventricular filling 2 - closed open

Note that during isovolumetric/isovolumic contraction and relaxation, all the heart valves are closed. At no time are all the heart valves open.

  • S3 and S4 heart sounds are associated with pathologies and are not routinely heard.


  1. ^ Mitchell, Jamie R.; Wang, Jiun-Jr (2014-06-01). "Expanding application of the Wiggers diagram to teach cardiovascular physiology". Advances in Physiology Education. 38 (2): 170–175. doi:10.1152/advan.00123.2013. ISSN 1043-4046. PMC 4056172free to read. PMID 24913453. 

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