Wikipedia:ACF Regionals answers/06

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  1. a ring --> For five points, Shakuntala is cursed by an angry saint and can only lift the curse by returning this object to her lover, the king; disambig.
  2. Queue Order --> After gaining power, the Qing Dynasty issued this mandate that stated that all Han Chinese must adopt Manchu clothing and the Manchu hairstyle of the pigtail, in direct violation of Confucian ethics; subsection of Queue (hairstyle)
  3. Empress Dowager Cixi (also accept Western Empress Dowager) --> She ruled as de facto empress of China for almost 40 years, using the Boxer Rebellion to regain power from reform-minded Guangxu. [1]
  4. the Second Battle of Tannenberg --> Russia attacked West Prussia to divert German forces intended for the Western Front and over a series of battles from August 17th to September 2nd collectively named this, Germany defeated Russia; leads to a different battle in World War I [2]
  5. Air Sacs --> Modern birds typically have nine of these unique respiratory structures, which allow air to flow through the lungs in only one direction and keep the partial pressure of the lungs the same as that of the environment. Furthermore, modern research shows that theropods also possessed these hollow regions within their skeletons long ago; leads to Pulmonary alveolus [3]
  6. chemoautotrophs --> These prokaryotes obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances and need only carbon dioxide as a carbon source; subsection of Chemotrophs, needs own article?
  7. photoheterotrophs --> The energy source of these prokaryotes is sunlight, but they must obtain carbon by removing it from organic compounds.
  8. photoautotrophs --> Included among these prokaryotes are cyanobacteria because they obtain ATP through photosynthesis and can use the inorganic carbon dioxide as a carbon source; subsection of Phototrophs [4]
  9. Legendre --> The first "proof" of quadratic reciprocity was published by this man, but was found to be incorrect. He lends his name to the symbol used for quadratic residues, written as open parenthesis, a over p, close parenthesis, evaluated as 1 when a is a quadratic residue and -1 when it is a non-residue; disambig. [5]
  10. Bubble Chambers --> Invented in 1952, these vessels are filled with a superheated transparent liquid, often hydrogen, which boils along the path of a charged particle. Enormous magnets are used to curve the paths of the particles, which are then photographed about 35 million times per second. [6]
  11. Time Projection Champers or TPCs --> These nearly identical detectors, invented in 1974, observe charge, mass and 3D position for a very large solid angle, as they surround the beam pipe entirely. They are often filled with methane and argon and house parallel electric and magnetic fields. [7]
  12. Hati and Skoll --> For 5 points each, give the name of Fenrir's sons, the two wolves who chase the sun and the moon; disambig. for "Hati"
  13. Iris --> Juno sent this goddess of rainbows to Somnus, who revealed to Halcyone that her husband was dead; disambig.
  14. Olmec --> This was the name of the colossal stone head that announced the rules on Legends of the Hidden Temple; leads to the Mesoamerican culture of the same name
  15. Pendant of Life --> Halves of these were won in the games and a whole one could be given to a Temple Guardian in order to go free during the final maze race; leads to Legends of the Hidden Temple
  16. Blue Barracudas, Red Jaguars, Green Monkeys, Orange Iguanas, Purple Parrots, Silver Snakes (up to 3) --> For five points each, give the color and animal team name of any three of the teams from the show; leads to Legends of the Hidden Temple [8]
  17. Hard Cash --> David Dodd goes mad when the titular thing is stolen by the dishonest Richard Hardie, but Dodd later escapes and goes back to sea. Name this 1863 novel, a sequel to the earlier Love My Little, Love My Long; disambig.
  18. Segismundo --> This son of Basilio becomes King of Poland and marries Estrella at the end of the play; leads to Life Is a Dream[9]
  19. "Memorabilia" --> It begins by asking "Ah, did you once see Shelley plain," while in the fourth and final stanza, the speaker picks up an "eagle-feather" and notes that he forgets the rest; leads to Souvenir
  20. the Sino-Japanese War --> disambig. [10]
  21. Bar-Kochba's Rebellion [11]
  22. Alaric --> This chief of the Visigoths led their sack of Rome in 410 AD; disambig. [12]


  1. Algeciras --> This 1906 conference confirmed the independence of Morocco and gave France the authority to control Morocco's Algerian border; leads to the city instead of the conference
  2. the Björkö Treaty --> In July 1905 this treaty providing for mutual aid between Germany and Russia was signed by Kaiser Wilhelm and Tsar Nicholas II, but it fell apart when France refused to back it.
  3. the Amalekites --> Samuel rejected Saul for the second time after Saul didn't get the job done against this nomadic tribe, who were defeated by the Hebrews at Rephidim during the Exodus; subsection of Amalek, needs own article? [13]
  4. Helen --> At Rhodes, she was worshipped as a tree goddess named Dendritis. Name this woman from Greek mythology, who according to one story was murdered by Polyxo in revenge for the death of Polyxo's husband Tlepolemus; disambig.
  5. Paris --> Helen's face launched a thousand ships after she eloped with this Trojan prince even though she was married to Menelaus; leads to the city instead of the not-city
  6. Juho Paasikivi --> Post World War II Finland adopted a policy of strict neutrality and friendly relations with the USSR. Name either Finnish politician who gives their name to this policy, or so-called "Line," the latter of which was president from 1956 to 1981. [14]
  7. Tokhtamish --> This former ally of Tamerlane's succeeded Mamai to win control of the Golden Horde and started to invade his territory, only to be defeated between 1394 and 1395, greatly weakening the Horde. [15]
  8. USS Arizona --> Nearly half the deaths at Pearl Harbor came when this US battleship went down with all hands in the first 30 minutes of bombing; disambig.
  9. Bismarck --> This gargantuan German battleship sank the battlecruiser Hood off Norway in 1941 before nearly the whole home-based British navy was sent to sink it; disambig.
  10. Brillouin Theorem --> By the terms of this approximation theorem, orbital energies may be used as ionization energies for inner-shell electrons. Its generalized form my be used to calculate self-consistent field orbitals of close and open shell systems. [16]
  11. guyots --> This is the term given to large seamounts, or largely extinct submerged volcanoes, which have flat tops as a result of the erosion of the volcano above sea level. [17]
  12. Kafka Temura --> This main character in Haruki Murakami's most recent novel to be released in the U.S. is accompanied by an alter ego named Crow. He screws a woman to may or may not be his mother, and gets to live in a library. [18]
  13. Fugitive Poets --> While a student at Vanderbilt University, Robert Penn Warren joined this group of poets critics led by John Crowe Ransom that wrote about Southern ways of life. [19]
  14. Hermione --> That barren wife of Neoptolemus has this name, and she appears at the temple of Thetis to accuse Andromache of attempting to oust her. She threatens Andromache with death and then later in the play she intends to commit suicide, only to have her sword taken away from her by her nurse; disambig. [20]
  15. A Red Red Rose --> The speaker of this poem says that his love is like the title object, "newly sprung in June", and also like "the melody that's sweetly played in tune." Choral arrangements of this poem abound, and it ends with the speaker declaring "I will come again my love, tho' it were ten thousand mile".
  16. "Tam O'Shanter" --> The drunken, blustering title character of this poem does not take his wife Kate's advice. Instead, he drinks every damn day, sometimes with the mistress of the tavern and sometimes with the cobbler Johnny. He also rides off into an intense thunderstorm on his horse Meg and stumbles upon some witches; disambig. [21]
  17. "Lament for the Death of a Bullfighter" --> Generally regarded as Lorca's greatest poem, this 1935 work in four parts is effectively a surrealist elegy for his friend Ignacio Sanchez Mejias, and contains the lines, "death has covered him with pale sulphur, and has placed on him the head of a dark minotaur."
  18. "The Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg" --> The title location of this short story was "the most honest and upright in all the region around about" before the arrival of the title character.
  19. Journalism in Tennessee --> The narrator of this sketch is sent for his health to the title location to become editor of the Morning Glory and Johnson County War-Whoop before deciding that the title profession is far more dangerous than his illness. [22]
  20. The Evolution of Desire --> Perhaps Buss' most famous work is this book, subtitled "Strategies of Human Mating," which explores how humans choose and lose their mates. Based on a 10,000 person cross-cultural study, it focuses on evolutionary perspectives to explain modern human mating behavior.
  21. Lake Albert --> This lake, aka Lake Mobutu Sese Seko, sits between Uganda and the DRC and receives water from Lake Victoria by way of the Victoria Nile and from Lake Edward to the southwest by way of the Semliki River; disambig.
  22. the Pantheon (accept Church of Santa Maria ad Martyres until mentioned) Note: The king is Victor Emmanuel II, the composer is Corelli, the artist is Raphael, the structure is Brunelleschi's cathedral dome in Florence]] --> disambig.[23]
  23. Tannhauser --> This three-act Wagner opera based on Germanic legends about the title character and a song contest at Wartzburg premiered in Dresden in 1845 with Johanna Wagner in the lead female role; leads to the historical figure
  24. Elizabeth --> That female role is this character, the landgrave's niece, who agrees to grant a wish to the victor of the song contest and prays for Tannhauser's return after he disappears. She also protects him when a bunch of knights draw their swords on him; disambig.
  25. Wolfram --> This baritone character competes in the song contest against Tannhauser and sings that love is like a pure stream which should never be disturbed. He loves Elizabeth faithfully and sings a "Song to the Evening Star"; disambig. [24]
  26. The Dreamers --> Pitt plays Matthew in this 2003 Bernardo Bertolucci movie, an American boy who befriends French siblings Theo and Isabelle during the 1968 Parisian student riots. The full-length version is a must if you enjoy sexual smearing of vaginal blood; disambig. [25]
  27. Newton's 2nd Law [26]
  28. Prophase I (prompt on Prophase, Meiosis or meiosis I) --> sub-subsection of Meiosis[27]
  29. Cathedral of Our Lady in Chartres (accept Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres)[28]
  30. Reading "Lolita" in Tehran --> Published in 2003, it is a memoir by Azar Nafisi about a weekly book group she held at her home after resigning from an Iranian university. [29]


  1. reach the North Pole (accept similar answers) --> Josiah Henson's great grand-nephew Matthew Henson received credit for being one of the first two men to do what? [30]
  2. 11,487 years (accept 9,190-13,784 years) --> Within 20%, what is the orbital period of 90377 Sedna? [31]
  3. spin-spin coupling (accept angular-momentum coupling) --> This phenomenon results from the interactions between neighboring electrons' individual magnetic fields, accounting for the splitting of peaks observed in the spectrum; subsection of Angular momentum coupling [32]
  4. Gwion Gwion (accept Bradshaw) --> This is the distinctive style of aboriginal rock art found in the Kimberley region of Western Australia; leads to Bradshaw rock paintings, no mention of "Gwion Gwion" as alternate name [33]
  5. Partitas for solo violin --> This set of 3 suites includes the Chaconne, a set of theme and variations which, along with the Goldberg Variations, is considered one of Bach's greatest masterpieces; leads to a general article [34]
  6. D-lysergic acid diethylamide --> Given one of several similar acronyms, tell what it stands for for 10 points each: For drugs, LSD. [35]
  7. Structural Functionalism [36]
  8. Pinchy or Mr. Pinchy --> leads to smoking those dank nugs[37]
  9. Nick Adams --> This boy, featured in many different Ernest Hemingway stories, shows up in "The Indian Camp", "The Three Day Blow" and others; disambig.
  10. the Anarchiad --> Employing much burlesque satire and modeled after Pope's Dunciad, this work is probably the Wits' greatest collaborative effort. It is a mock epic subtitled, "A Poem on the Restoration of Chaos and Substantial Night," and it derides states that were not speedy in ratifying the Constitution.
  11. The Hasty Pudding --> Probably the most famous work by any solo Wit was this mock epic inspired by his homesickness for New England and his desire for a bowl of corn porridge, a mushy dish which may have been inspired by Indians. [38]
  12. Mr. Barkis --> He drives a stagecoach and is very persistent in his pursuit of Copperfield's childhood nurse Clara Pegotty. His most common statement is that he "is willin'." [39]
  13. George M(ifflin) Dallas --> This former Pennsylvania senator became Polk's vice president and is the namesake of a major American city.
  14. William L(earned) Marcy --> He served as Polk's Secretary of War and Secretary of State under Frnaklin Pierce. A former governor of New York, he was once the leading member of the Albany Regency active during Van Buren's presidency and was known as a champion of the spoils system, noting, "To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy." [40]
  15. Sedan --> Probably the most disastrous of France's many poor military decisions came at this city on the Meuse River, the site of the war's deciding battle. Napoleon III and MacMahon surrendered to von Moltke on September 1, 1870; disambig.
  16. New Jersey Plan and William Paterson --> A second plan, favored by many small states, proposed a unicameral legislature in which each state received equal representation. The delegate who suggested it later became an associate justice of the Supreme Court. A municipality nicknamed "the Silk City" is named for him; disambig. for William Paterson
  17. glomerulus and Bowman's capsule --> For five each, these two structures make up the renal corpuscle within the nephron. One is a collection of capillaries and the other is the sac that encloses it; disambig. for Glomerulus
  18. Petiole --> This is the term for a leaf stem or stalk that connects the blades of a leaf to the twig; disambig.
  19. the Pantheon --> This domed Roman building officially became known as Santa Maria Rotonda or Santa Maria ad Martyres after it was converted into a church in the early seventh century; disambig. [41]
  20. Hunahpu and Xbalanque/Ibalanque --> FTP, name either of the Maya Hero Twins, the sons of One Hunahpu and the virgin Blood Moon, who subdued the arrogant god Seven Macaw and later defeated the Lords of Xibalba in the Ball Court Game. [42]
  21. Triangle --> Surprisingly difficult to play, this metal percussion instrument has a solo in Liszt's Piano Concerto No. 1; leads to the shape instead of the instrument
  22. Greek, Hieroglyphs, and Demotic Egyptian --> 5 points for two, 10 points for all three, identify the three scripts used on the Rosetta Stone; disambig. for "Greek", general article for "Hieroglyphics"
  23. "Poetry" --> In this work Marianne Moore notes that "there are things that are important beyond all this fiddle," saying that she, too, dislikes the title noun; leads to more general article
  24. "Fog" --> In this noted Carl Sandburg work, the title entity "comes on little cat feet. It sits looking / Over harbor and city / On silent haunches / And then moves on."; leads to the meteorological phenomenon [43]
  25. "Snow-bound: A Winter Idyll" [44]


  1. Yellow Turban revolt or Yellow Scarves revolt or T'ai Ping Tao [45]
  2. Friedel Crafts reactions [46]
  3. Olurun (also accept Oludumare) [47]
  4. Talesin (accept Gwion before being mentioned) [48]
  5. The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp --> disambig. [49]
  6. Edward Jarecki --> Why We Fight also names a 2005 documentary by this director which won the jury prize at Sundance in 2005. It is a polemic against the military industrial complex.
  7. NP (do not accept NP Complete, this is a subclass of NP) --> This is the class of decision problems that can be solved by a nondeterministic Turing machine in polynomial time; disambig.
  8. P --> This is the class of decision problems that can be solved in polynomial time; disambig. [50]
  9. Stern Gerlach experiment --> In this 1920 experiment a beam of spin 1/2 particles was sent through an inhomogeneous magnetic field. It demonstrated spin quantization.
  10. Roc --> Appearing in the Arabian Nights, this kind of bird was the genie's original master. Hailing from Madagascar, it was known for carrying off elephants and looking like a giant eagle; disambig.
  11. Salgofnir (also accept Gollinkambi) --> This is the name of the rooster in Valhalla who will awaken the gods and warriors at Ragnarok. [51]
  12. The Shortest Way With Dissenters --> This 1702 Daniel Defoe work makes fun of intolerance in the extreme right of the Church of England by ironically proposing all Non-Conformist preachers be hanged. [52]
  13. "The Idyl of Red Gulch" --> It depicts an incident in a small town in northern California and centers on three archetypical Western characters - the prostitutes, the town drunk and the schoolmistress.
  14. Phillipine trench --> Until 1970, it was thought that this was the deepest point in the ocean, until the discovery of the Mariana, Tonga and Kuril trenches. [53]
  15. neutral pion, negative pion, positive pion --> Name the 3 types of pions.
  16. Lagrande remainder --> Taylor series are generally truncated after some number of terms. The error from truncating after n terms can be calculated as this remainder, which assumes Taylor's theorem is a generalization of the mean value theorem.
  17. James Gregory --> Taylor's theorem was actually discovered earlier by this Scottish mathematician who used it to compute natural logs of positive numbers. He also invented a namesake telescope; disambig. [54]
  18. paraphyletic group --> Groups of this type consist of one monophyletic group minus a sub-clade, such as "non-avian dinosaurs".
  19. polyphyletic group --> Not used in phylogenetic work, this type of grouping consists of an artificial construct based on a factor other than common descent, such as warm-bloodedness. [55]
  20. the Sirens - disambig. [56]
  21. Gustav Stresman --> While Kellogg was award the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts on the pact, Briand had already been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on the Locarno Treaties. This German foreign minister was awarded the Nobel Prize with Briand for the Locarno Treaties.
  22. Treaty of Rapallo --> Germany - Soviet relations cooled after the Locarno Treaties were signed as the Soviet Union felt the new treaty distracted from this 1922 agreement signed between Germany and Bolshevist Russia which renounced any claims against the other from World War II; disambig., two treaties of the same name [57]
  23. Reformation symphony or Mendelssohn's fifth (before mentioned) [58]
  24. leggiero (accept leggieramente) - This musical notation can be found in the first stanza. From the Italian for light, it instructs the pianist to play the opening run lightly and delicately; mentioned in Glossary of musical terminology [59]
  25. Orphee Noir or Black Orpheus- This Jean-Paul Sartre work regarded Negritude as "the weak stage in a dialectical progression," an anti-racist racism. It shares its name with a 1959 Marcel Camus film; leads to the film [60]
  26. electron quantum numbers [61]
  27. How to Travel With a Salmon and other Essays or Il Secondo Diario Minimo - This 1992 Umberto Eco essay collection discusses eating on airplanes, the right way to greet people you know, the wrong way to use fax machines, and the dangers of spreading skin infections among kidnap victims, as terrorists tend to re-use the same hoods. [62]
  28. Whites or White Guelphs or Cerchi or Bianchi ("Guelphs" alone is definitely not right at any point, so don't accept or prompt on it)[63]
  29. the sub-treasury - Polk administration Treasury Secretary Robert Walker was the namesake of a tariff bill which fulfilled Polk's pledge to lower tariff rates, and, satisfying Polk's sixth and final promise, he also oversaw the establishment of this institution, a government-operated depository for federal funds which attempted to stave off credit contractions. [64]
  30. Songhai --> Askia Muhammad expanded the boundaries of this empire, which was founded by Kossoi, briefly overrun by Mali, and eventually, under Issihak II, fell to Morocco; disambig. [65]
  31. Cù Chulainn or Sétante --> His exploits as leader of the Knights of the Red Branch are chronicled in the Ulster cycle. Name this son of Lugh and Dechtire who had fourteen fingers, fourteen toes and fourteen pupils who defended Ulster from Queen Maeve of Connaught. [66]
  32. Magnetigorsk or Magnetic Mountain City - This city in the Urals was founded under Joseph Stalin in order to mine the namesake iron oxide structure. Two hundred thousand people once lived here, but now that the resource has been completely flattened, it is a sparsely populated ski resort town.
  33. Battle of Guagamela - Darius III attempted to gain maximum use of his chariots by smoothing out a battlefield near present-day Irbil in Iraq, but Alexander diverted the cavalry to one side of the field in order to expose the infantry and come at the Persians from several sides, ending effective Persian resistance to the Macedonian march. [67]


  1. Ali Pascha --> John of Austria led a diverse naval force into battle against this Turkish admiral.
  2. The Shortest Way With Dissenters --> Daniel Defoe was fined, imprisoned and pilloried for this 1702 pamphlet that saw him ironically demand a total suppression of those who express their difference of opinion with the government. [68]
  3. Ericsson's second cycle --> The large intercooling stage number limit of a "vapor power" cycle, this cycle has two isothermal heat exchanges connected by isobaric heating and cooling stages. Like the Carnot cycle, it is reversible.
  4. Akiva Ben Joseph, Akiba Ben Joseph, Rabbi Akiva Ben Joseph --> This scholar has often been identified as the spiritual leader of the Bar Kochba Revolt. [69]
  5. Timofey Pnin --> leads to Pnin, no character page
  6. Philinte --> This man argues in favor of self-censorship and polite lies, becoming so tactful as to appear boring. While he tries to keep Alceste from ruining his standing in society, he's also able to win Éliante's affections from him. [70]
  7. The Battle of the Dunes --> disambig. [71]
  8. Yser pilgrimage - The yearly gathering of Flemish nationalists to remember the dead in Ypres. [72]
  9. "A is A" or "A equals A" (accept "Law of Identites" until Steve Ditko) --> leads to Law of identities, but APPARENTLY that's unacceptable within the context of the question [73]
  10. Serioso --> Given a work by Beethoven, give its more common name, for 10 points each: Opus 95: String Quartet No. 11 in F Minor
  11. Pastoral --> Opus 68: Symphony No. 6 in F Major; leads to the adjective
  12. Emperor --> Opus 73: Piano Concerto No. 5 in E Flat Major; leads to the noun [74]
  13. Major Depression (prompt on depression) [75]
  14. Bundestag; Bundesrat --> Germany; disambig. for Bundesrat
  15. Herbert Vaughan History --> This physician wrote several works with the same title as those of Herbert and is noted for Olor Iscanus, Thalia Rediviva, the Mount of Olives, and Flores Solitudinis.[76]
  16. The Six Acts --> This legislation, introduced shortly after Peterloo, was meant to prevent further radical insurrections through measures such as the Training Prevention Act, Seizure of Arms Act , and Seditious Meetings Prevention Act.
  17. support vector machine method --> Regression and classification systems use this set of protocols for supervised learning with a neural network. [77]
  18. The Perils of Obedience --> The findings of Stanley Milgram's experiment, inspired by the Eichmann trial and whether the Nazi workers could really have just been following orders, were presented in this landmark 1974 article. [78]
  19. Steppenwolf --> After the title character of this novel, Harry Haller, meets such characters as Hermine and Pablo and becomes a hedonist, he enters the Magic Theater and eventually resolves to change his ways. Oh, and it's by Herman Hesse; disambig.
  20. Paolo da Rimini and Francesca da Rimini --> After reading the story of Lancelot and Guinevere, these two characters now in the Second Circle of Hell started an adulterous love affair. Name them for 5 points each.
  21. U.S.S. Missouri or "Mighty MO" --> Originally designed to speed alongside the Navy's fast aircraft carriers, this last of the battlewagons was refitted and launched several cruise missiles in support of Operation Desert Storm. However, she still keeps her sixteen-inch guns which towered over the Japanese surrender in August 1945; disambig.[79]
  22. Plassey (accept Palashi) --> Fought on June 23, 1757, this historic battle saw the British East India Company defeat the army of Suraj-ud Daulah, the last independent nawab of Bengal. Stupid sexy imperialists; leads to the town instead of the battle
  23. Lord Robert Clive --> The British forces at Plassey were commanded primarily by this jerk, who would later become both the Baron of Plassey and the governor of Bengal.
  24. metric --> Matter and energy deform spacetime from the Minkowskian geometry of special relativity. This causes the standard notion of distance to be changed. This term, also used in real analysis, designates either the function or tensor that is used to determine the "distance" between two points; disambig.
  25. lense-thirring effect--> First suggested in 1918 and also known as the "dragging of inertial frames," this strong-field effect is the precession of the plane of orbit of a particle around a rotating mass. It is caused by the coupling of the mass's spin with the orbital angular momentum of the particle.
  26. connection coefficients --> Though these are not tensors, they possess 3 indices which run over the space-time coordinates. Represented by a capital gamma, these quantities can be derived from the metric and are representative of the change in the basis vectors; briefly mentioned in Christoffel symbols, needs own article? [80]
  27. Rain, Steam, and Speed - the Great Western Railway --> This really blurry painting shows an early locomotive crossing the River Thames and is now in the National Gallery, London; leads to an unrelated album
  28. theory of revealed preference --> Popularized by Paul Samuelson, this simply-named theory ignores utility and indifference and instead states that a consumer's purposes or subjective benefits can be extrapolated from that consumer's purchases.
  29. Barbarella: Queen of the Galaxy --> disambig.[81]
  30. Symphony No. 5 ½ or A Symphony for Fun [82]
  31. The Castle or Das Schloß --> former is a disambig., latter leads to a 1997 film adaptation[83]
  32. Et in Arcadia Ego [84]
  33. The Woman from Sarajevo or Gospođica --> The second novel in Andrić's so-called "Bosnian Trilogy", this work relates the last 3 decades of the life of Raika Radaković, which coincide with the first 3 decades of the 20th century. Following the last request of her father, an impoverished merchant, Raika seeks her whole life to never part with her small fortune, and dies unloved and unlovable. [85]
  34. The Bosnian Chronicles or Travinčka hronika --> Set in the Bosnian town of Travnik, this work details the period from 1807-1814 when Ottoman viziers and French and Austrian consuls vied for control of Bosnia, while the local citizenry , comprised of Catholic Croats, Orthodox Serbs, Muslim Bosniaks, Jews and Gypsies unite only in their contempt for these outsiders.[86]
  35. The Little Prince - a Magical Opera --> The cast of characters in this opera, composed by Rachel Portman to a libretto by Nicholas Wright, include the Fox, the Water, the Snake and the Rose, as well as a chorus of Stars. The title character meets a number of other characters as well, including the Businessman, the Lamplighter and the Pilot, before he must eventually return to Asteroid B-612. [87]
  36. Dù Fŭ­ or Dù Shàolíng or Dù Gōngbù --> He wished to serve his country as a capable civil servant, but has been immortalized as the Poet-Historian or Poet-Sage. He is noted for mastering all of the forms of Chinese poetry, either by making outstanding contributions or contributing outstanding examples, and his works range from direct and colloquial to allusive and consciously literary. [88]
  37. Anastasio Samoza García (do not accept "Anastasio Samoza Debayle") --> He was educated in Philadelphia and served with the National Guard created by the US Marines, commanding that group after US withdrawal in 1933. After organizing the assassination of Augusto Sandino, he led a coup which overthrew the democratically elected government, and founded a dictatorship which ruled Nicaragua for 42 years. [89]
  38. Áá --> It is characterized by a rough and rubbly surface composed of broken blocks of lava called clinker. As the lava flows, pieces of clinker at the tip fall down in front of the lava and are covered, depositing clinker on both the top and the bottom of the lava flow. [90]
  39. Pāhoehoe --> This type of lava flow has a smooth surface and is characterized by "toes" of molten lava breaking through a cooler, hardened surface. Often, the flowing lava results in odd shapes and textures known as lava sculpture; subsection of Lava, needs own article? [91]
  40. Pillow Lava --> Typically formed when lava exudes from underwater volcanic vents or when a lava flow enters the water, this type of flow is characterized by several large blobs which are connected. Because the lava cools upon touching the water, it hardens, forming a thin crust, which then cracks and produces other blobs of lava, which continue the cycle. [92]
  41. The Suppliants or Hiketides or The Suppliant Maidens or equivalents of "Maidens") --> disambig. for "Supplicants" and "Suppliant Maidens"; Hiketides leads to a play by Euripedes [93]
  42. "A Red Red Rose" --> In the first stanza of this poem, the speaker says "O my Luve's like the melodie / That's sweetly play'd in tune" after comparing it to the title flower. [94]
  43. Unitary --> A matrix whose inverse is equal to its hermitian conjugate is called this; disambig. [95]
  44. Caecillians or Gymnophiona or Apoda (prompt on "amphibians" before) [96]
  45. "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion" --> This three-part alliterative phrase uttered by Reverend Samuel Burchard angered many Catholics, and likely caused Cleveland to win the state of New York. For five points each, name the parts of this phrase; mentioned in "Campaign" subsection of United States presidential election, 1880 [97]


  1. Jones Act --> This 1917 act granted citizenship rights to Puerto Ricans; disambig.
  2. Irish Coercion Act of 1846 --> The Corn Laws were repealed in May 1846, but Disraeli and the anti-Peelites organized to defeat this bill on a vote of confidence a month later, forcing Peel to resign. [98]
  3. Dempsey and Firpo --> Painted with more well-defined brushstrokes and lines than his earlier works, this 1924 painting was criticized for depicting one of the titular characters knock the other out of the ring using his left hand, when in reality he was a righty. [99]
  4. Law of diminishing marginal utility --> The convexity of indifference curves are dependent on this, which tells how much each additional unit is worth; mentioned in "Diminishing marginal utility" subsection of Marginal utility
  5. Perfect complements (accept variations, e.g. "perfectly complementary," but do not prompt on "complements") --> If indifference curves are L-shaped, then the goods are said to be these, examples of which are left shoes and right shoes, as a person who has two normal feet and only wears matching shoes won't benefit from an additional left shoe without an additional right one. [100]
  6. the Zend-Avesta or the Avesta --> no separate article for "Zend-Avesta" [101]
  7. Boreas --> He was the personification of the North Wind; disambig.
  8. Mulciber --> This demon was the primary architect of Pandemonium, Satan's stronghold in Hell and the capital of that realm; disambig.
  9. Sin and Death --> The gatekeepers of Hell, one apparently sprung full-grown from Satan's mind and then coupled with him to produce the other.
  10. Chaos and Old Night --> These two lords of the realm between Hell and Earth are not strictly in Satan's domain, but they agree to help him after they hear of Satan's intention to foil God's plans. [102]
  11. We Have Always Lived In the Castle --> About the isolated family of Julian, Merricat, and Constance Blackwood, it notably contains a scene where the rest of the Blackwood family was killed by arsenic mixed with sugar sprinkled on their blackberries, causing the surrounding New England town to view the surviving sisters with suspicion. [103]
  12. Sir Andrew Undershaft (accept either name) --> Name Barbara's father, a model employer whose conscience about manufacturing weapons is cleaned by his belief that even deadlier than arms is poverty. [104]
  13. Lady Britomart (accept either name) --> Barbara's mother is this woman, who has had a falling out with Andrew Undershaft because of his rule that his fortune must go to a foundling and not to his own family. Her name is taken from the Faerie Queene, in which a like-named character is the personification of chastity. [105]
  14. Lydia Languish (accept either name) --> Both Absolute, "Beverley", and Absolute's friend Bob Acres all vie for the attention of this girl, the neice of Mrs. Malaprop; leads to The Rivals, needs own article? [106]
  15. Sir Lucius O'Trigger (accept either name) --> Another who believes himself a potential suitor is this fiery Irish stereotype, who believes that love letters to him hich were actually written by Mrs. Malaprop were from Lydia. [107]
  16. Dick Diver (accept either name) --> Name the ostensible hero of Tender is the Night; leads to an Australian indie pop band [108]
  17. Rosemary Hoyt (accept either name) --> Aiding in the gradual breakup of the Divers is Dick's increasing infatuation with this woman, a pretty American movie actress who is attracted to the apparently carefree lifestyle without understanding its complexity. [109]
  18. "splendid little war" --> John Hay is credited with an enduring bon mot in that it was in a letter to McKinley that he came up with this three-word phrase to describe the Spanish American conflict; leads to Spanish American War
  19. Treaty of Paris --> Hay was also instrumental in negotiating this treaty in 1898 which ended the aforementioned splendid little war; disambig. [110]
  20. Massillon --> Coxey hailed from this Ohio village formerly named Kendal and renamed after the court preacher to Louis IV, of which he served as mayor from 1931 to 1933; leads to Jean Baptiste Massillon [111]
  21. Drepanum --> A major setback for Rome came at this 249 battle, when Publius Claudius Pulcher lost patience with the sacred chickens, threw them overboard, and then attacked Adherbal with Sicily to his back, losing half his fleet; leads to the modern town instead of the war
  22. Ankara --> One of Timur's most notable victories came in 1402 at this battle, after which the captured Sultan Bajazet I was for a time forced to serve as his footstool; leads to the city instead of the battle [112]
  23. Kaomintang --> Name the ruling party Sun founded to whose leadership Chiang Kai Shek succeeded after him.
  24. Tollens --> Ammonia is a constituent for this reagent which in a clean reaction forms a "silver mirror" and is used in tests for aldehydes. [113]
  25. complementarity --> An internet controversy has been generated by the so-called Afshar experiment, which claims to have disproven this quantum principle whose formulator was so pleased by his discovery that when knighted he used the yin-yang symbol on his crest to illustrate it. Name this principle which builds upon de Brogle's theory of wave-particle duality to suggest that a quantum mechanical system consisting of a boson or femion can either behave as a particle or as a wave, but never simultaneously as both; disambig.
  26. sabre-toothed tigers --> The Miocene saw the first appearance of these felines notable for a prominent facial feature; leads to genus Smilodon, no separate article [114]
  27. Stephen --> leads to a general article about the name; link available to the saint[115]
  28. St. Paul's Church (accept St. Paul's" but do not accept "St' Paul's Cathedral")--> Next to the Banqueting House at Whitehall, Jones is most famous for this small church in Covent Garden whose simplicity is the result of the Earl of Bedford's decree that it be simple, little more than a barn, to which Jones replied that it would be the finest barn in England. It is notable for its Tuscan style East Entrance, though that entrance is not the one used today; disambig. [116]
  29. Bolero --> Played mostly in 3/4 time over a softly played snare drum, its instrumentation includes violins plucked pizzicato-style and basically consists of basically one melody and one countermelody repeated as its spreads from the woodwinds to the whole orchestra. Name this piece, perhaps the most famous of Maurice Ravel; leads to the genre instead of the piece


  1. Supper at Emmaus --> Almost as famous as the Calling of Saint Matthew is this work taken from the Gospels of Luke and Mark, wherein a vision of the risen Crist appears to two believers; leads to Road to Emmaus [117]
  2. Gabriel Lajenunesse (accept either name) --> Name the lover sought so long by Evangeline in the poem. [118]
  3. Henry Rye Schoolcraft --> Longfellow drew a great deal of inspiration for Evangeline's wanderings in the Michigan territory from the enthnographic studies of this man, whose works include Indian Tribes of the United States and a Narrative Journal of Travels...from Detroit through the Great Chain of American Lakes to the Sources of the Mississippi River and which also inspired Longfellow's "Hiawatha". [119]
  4. John Watson --> The press coverage of this man's affair with a student and divorce of his wife, who happened to be the sister of future interior secretary Harold Ickes, led to this man's leaving Johns Hopkins for advertising, but not before he claimed he could turn 12 infants into anything he wanted and conducted at least one experiment to prove it. Name this psychologist, famous for instilling a far of white rats into an infant; disambig.
  5. the Piano Concerto of Edvard Grieg --> "Piano concerto" leads to general article, not to Grieg's concerto[120]
  6. Wilhelm --> The majority of the letters in the novel are written to which man, a personal friend of Werther's; disambig. [121]
  7. Alexander II or Aleksandr Nikolayevich Romanov --> He was killed by a bomb thrown by Ignacy Hryniewiecki, one of the members of the People's Will movement; disambig.
  8. People's Temple Full Gospel Church --> Give the name of Jones' church, one that was first named "wings of deliverance." It was celebrated for its fair treatment of African Americans, and it had a large number of black members.
  9. Cowpens --> This January 7, 1781 battle saw Banastre Tarleton crushingly defeated by an American force. Colonel William Washington shot Tarleton's horse out from under him as he made his escape; disambig.
  10. RR Lyrae Variables --> Also used as standard candles, this class of variable star is much less massive than Delta Cepheid Variables. They have mass approximately half that of the sun, and are very old white giants. [122]
  11. GTP-binding-proteins --> Ras, Rho, Rab, Ran and Arf all belong to this family of proteins, which are named for their unique phosphorylation source.
  12. Stern-Gerlach apparatus --> This apparatus, first used in a 1920 experiment to demonstrate space quanization, was later used by Ramsey and Kleppner to produce a beam of polarized hydrogen for the Maser; no mention of an apparatus in Stern-Gerlach experiment
  13. Siegfried --> Given a mythological weapon, name its wielder: Gram or Balmung; disambig.
  14. Karakum or Gara-gum --> This desert, occupying well over 1/2 of Turkmenistan, has a name meaning "Black Sands", and is separated into two regions by the Unguz depression; disambig.


  1. Timberline Hotel --> It was the first ski area on the continent to offer lift-served summer skiing, but it doesn't have a room 237. Name this hotel in Oregon.
  2. The Shining --> The Timberline served as the exterior of the Overlook hotel in what 1980 Kubrick film; disambig. for "Shining"
  3. Endgame or Fin de partie --> disambig. [123]
  4. Lucasta or Lux Casta or Lucy Sacheverell --> Cavalier poet Richard Lovelace addressed the lines "I could not love thee, so much / Lov'd I not Honour more" to this woman, when "Going to the Warres". [124]
  5. Halifax --> One of the first man-made mushroom clouds could be seen over this Canadian city after the explosion of the French ammunition ship Mont-Blanc in 1917; disambig.
  6. Leon Davidovich Bronstein Trotsky --> As Secretary of State for War during the Russian Civil War, Winston Churchill's staunch anti-Bolshevism did not endear him to this People's Commissar of War.
  7. Mustafa Kemal Attaturk --> When Churchill was first lord of the Admiralty, his plan for victory in the Dardanelles campaign was destroyed by the 19th Division of the Turkish Army, led by this man.
  8. the Hahn-Banach Theorem or the [Hahn-Banach Separation Theorem]] [125]
  9. Calcium Phosphide --> Although the original formula for Greek Fire is forever lost to history, it is suspected that it might have contained this compound that reacts and ignites on contact with water.
  10. Copper (II) Acetate --> Verdigris, a common green pigment, was created by mixing vinegar and a common metal to form this chemical compound. [126]
  11. Ampère's Law --> The only part of Maxwell's equations that are original to Maxwell is his correction to this law to account for changing electric fields in time (the "displacement current"); two different laws by Ampère
  12. Cathedrale Notre Dame de Chartres [127]
  13. Cathedrale Notre Dame de Amiens [128]
  14. malin genie (accept evil demon or similar answers) --> "genie" leads to Jinn[129]
  15. Charlie Allnut --> He and Rose Sayer manage to maneuver The African Queen through the rapids of East Africa and are married on the German ship the Louisa before their scheduled execution, from which they escape; leads to The African Queen (film), does the character need his own article? [130]
  16. Frank McCloud --> When forced to provide passage to Cuba, he defeats Johnny Rocco and wins the love of Nora Temple, restoring her father-in-law's hotel in Key Largo; leads to Key Largo (film), again does the character need an article? [131]
  17. Stephen I of Blois --> disambig for "Stephen I", possibly known by a different name[132]
  18. Barnburners --> This group of radical New York Democrats were opposed by the Hunkers. Their objectives included preventing the extension of slavery and stopping abuses by corporations; subsection of Barnburners and Hunkers, needs own article
  19. Snow-Bound: a Winter Idyl --> This "Winter Idyl" recounts a day from his childhood in which John Greenleaf Whittier was trapped from a blizzard, and then goes on to lament the deaths of his family members.
  20. "Ichabod" --> This poem, which lamented Daniel Webster's support for the Compromise of 1850, begins "So fallen! so lost! the light withdrawn / Which once he wore," and claims that "the Tempter hath / A snare for all"; leads to the Biblical son of Phinehas
  21. The Critic --> In this Sheridan play, Mr. Dangle and Mr. Sneer attend a rehearsal of a play written by their friend Mr. Puff, set during the defeat of the Spanish Armada; leads to the cartoon [133]
  22. "Tristan" --> In this story by Thomas Mann, Anton Kloterjahn takes his wife Gabriele to Einfried sanitorium, where she meets and falls in love with Detlev Spinell after playing the prelude from one of Wagner's operas on the piano; leads to the mythological figure[134]
  23. Beauty and Sadness or Utsukushisa to kanashimi to --> The action of this novel looks back on the affair between novelist Toshio Oki and the 15-year-old Otoko Ueno 24 years earlier, an affair that later causes Otoko's lover Keiko to exact revenge on the Oki family; disambig.
  24. Michaelis-Menten Equation --> This equation relates the concentrations of enzyme and substrate to the velocity of the reaction using a namesake constant abbreviated "K sub m"; mentioned in Michaelis-Menten kinetics, needs own article?
  25. Lineweaver-Burk Plot --> This "double reciprocal" representation of the Michaelis-Menten equation plots the inverse of initial velocity versus the inverse of substrate concentration; the x and y intercepts can be used to find maximum velocity and the Michaelis-Menten constant. answer:
  26. Eadie-Hofstee Plot --> Plotting velocity versus velocity per substrate concentration yields this plot for the Michaelis-Menten equation where the negative slope is the Michaelis-Menten constant. [135]


  1. Sutra Pitaka or Sutta Pitaka --> Consisting of five main "nikayas," this is the section of the Tripitaka which contains more than 10,000 teachings of Buddha and his close followers; disambig. [136]
  2. Rhapsodie espagnole or Spanish Rhapsody --> Inspired by folk songs he heard from his Basque mother, Ravel wrote this orchestral suite which features an habanera, a feria, and a fandango entitled "Malaguena"; disambig. [137]
  3. The Flying Dutchman or Der flegende Hollander --> In this opera, Senta deserts her father Daland and her boyfriend Erik, jumps off a cliff into the ocean, and is reunited in heaven with the titular ghostly sailor; leads to the legend, instead of the opera
  4. Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District or Ledi Makbet Mtsenskogo uezda --> In this opera, Katerina, having poisoned her father-in-law, commits suicide by drowning herself in a river, but not before killing Sergei's new lover, Sonyetka; disambig. [138]
  5. Lost --> Charlie is one of the survivors of Oceanic flight 815 from Sydney to Los Angeles on this ABC show; disambig.
  6. Liam --> Charlie was in Australia to secure financial assistance from this brother who had sold Charlie's piano to move there with his wife and child; leads to a general article on the name [139]
  7. "The Jewish Cemetery at Newport" [140]
  8. Washington Square --> In 1946, it was made into a movie called The Heiress. Identify this Henry James work, which deals with the courtship of the wealthy heiress Catherine Sloper; disambig.
  9. Morris Townsend (accept either name) --> This suitor of Catherine's wants to marry her in order to acquire her fortune. He thinks being a doctor, like Catherine's father, is a "loathsome profession".
  10. Lavinia Penniman (accept either name) --> This aunt of Catherine's raised her and encourages Townsend to elope with Catherine. answer: This suitor of Catherine's wants to marry her in order to acquire her fortune. He thinks being a doctor, like Catherine's father, is a "loathsome profession." [141]
  11. When I consider how my light is spent or On his blindness --> Identify the John Milton poem from lines: "His state is kingly: thousands at his bidding speed, and post o'er land and ocean without rest; They also serve who only stand and wait." [142]
  12. The Sketch-Book of Geoffrey Crayon --> It analyzes the disproportionate impact of failed romances on women in "A Broken Heart" and decries the "illiberal spirit of ridicule" of English travelers in "English Writers on America". Identify this early-American collection of short works by Washington Irving.
  13. Tancredi --> This nephew of Don Fabrizio causes a scandal by courting Angelica and joining the rebel forces; leads to an opera by Rossini instead of the character from The Leopard [143]
  14. "Master Harold" and the Boys --> This 1982 Fugard play investigates the relationship between Hally and the other titular characters, Sam and Willie. [144]
  15. Battle of Gravelotte-St. Privat --> This largest battle of the war, fought west of Metz on August 18, 1870, saw Helmuth von Moltke push back the French under Francois Bazaine into a fortified position at Metz, which fell two months later.
  16. Santa Clara Company vs. Southern Pacific Railroad Company --> Waite also wrote for the majority in this 1886 case, in which Roscoe Conkling successfully argued that the word "persons" in the 14th Amendment also applied to corporations. [145]
  17. Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Albaracin - He defeated Bartolomeo Mitre to become president of his country, and his most famous work analyzed the impact of caudillismo on his country's politics. Identify this Argentine politician, president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874.
  18. Juan Manuel Jose Domingo Ortiz de Rosas y Lopez de Osornio --> Facundo was written as a protest against the rule of this caudillo politician, who ruled Argentina from 1829 to 1852. [146]
  19. parsers (accept parsing or parse) - subsection of Parsing, needs own article? [147]
  20. bundle sheaths --> CAM plants differ from C4 plants in that they lack these thick-walled structures, which surround the veins of C4 plants.
  21. Grignard reagents --> They are formed by reacting organic halides, such as alkyl, aryl or vinyl halides, with magnesium. Identify this class of chemicals, named for the French scientist who discovered them; mentioned in Grignard reaction, needs own article?
  22. action --> This quantity's time derivative appears explicitly in the Hamilton-Jacobi equations. It is the quantity whose extremum is obtained by the classical path in the formulation of Hamilton's principle; disambig. [148]
  23. the mantle --> It possesses a discontinuity at about 600 kilometers. Identify this layer of the earth separated from the crust by the Moho; disambig.
  24. Judith --> Another important work of Honegger's early period was this 1925 opera which depicts the killing of an Assyrian general by the title character; leads to Book of Judith
  25. Joan of Arc at the Stake --> With a libretto by Paul Claudel, this Honegger composition is sometimes performed as a mini-opera and depicts the immolation of a 15th century French heroine; leads to the film adaptation [149]
  26. Frans Boas --> He spent two years studying with Rudolf Virchow while preparing for an expedition to Baffin Island, which would result in his book, The Central Eskimo. Identify this German-born anthropologist, more famous for his studies of the Kwakiutl Indians.
  27. The Ruling Class or Elementi di scienza politica --> In this work, Gaetano Mosca put forth the thesis that "in every political organism there is one individual who is chief among the leaders of the ruling class," and that all societies are ruled by minorities; disambig. [150]


  1. The Magus --> Fowles' first novel was this work which concerns Nicholas Urfe's time on the island of Phraxos where he encounters Maurice Conchis, the title character and the inventor of the "godgame" - disambig.
  2. The Mask of Command --> Keegan compares and contrasts the leadership styles of Alexander the Great, Wellington, Grant, and Hitler in this book, which classifies leaders into four archetypal categories; leads to the author's page
  3. The Price of Admiralty --> Subtitled "The Evolution of Naval Warfare", this Keegan work explores the battles of Trafalgar, Jutland, Midway, and the Atlantic. [151]
  4. "Birds in Space" [152]
  5. States of Mind --> Boccioni's most ambitious series of paintings was this series of 3, individually subtitled 'Farewells", "Those who Go" and "Those who Stay", which depicts the inner feelings of people at a train station. [153]
  6. paraphyletic groups --> Groups of this type are monophyletic groups missing a single sub-clade, such as "non-avian dinosaurs". [154]
  7. polyphyletic grouping --> This is grouping predicated on an artificial construct based on a factor other than common descent, such as warm-bloodedness. [155]
  8. Lagrange remainder formula --> This is the simplest and earliest-devised estimator of the truncation error for a finite Taylor series. It bounds the error as the maximum of the next derivative on the expansion range, times the normal weighting. [156]
  9. The Bells, choral symphony for soprano, tenor, baritone, chorus & orchestra, Op. 35 --> This Rachmaninoff choral symphony was inspired by a tintinnabular Edgar Allan Poe poem; disambig. [157]
  10. Wilhelm Meister (accept either underlined part) --> Werther receives advice from this friend with whom he corresponds. His Apprenticeship would become the subject of a later Goethe work; no article about the character [158]
  11. Artemio Cruz (accept either name) --> This protagonist of a 1962 novel is balanced by a third voice that separates the accusatory "Thou" and defensive "I". Oh yeah, and it's about a former political boss who reflects on his shady life as Catalina and Teresa scheme to inherit his land; no article for the character; needs article? [159]
  12. Ericsson's second cycle --> The large-intercooling-stage-number limit of a "vapor power" cycle, this cycle has two isothermal heat exchanges connected by isobaric heating and cooling stages. Like the Carnot cycle, it is reversible. [160]
  13. Rabbi Akiva Ben Joseph or Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph --> This scholar has often been identified as the spiritual leader of the Bar Kochba Revolt. [161]
  14. Ali Pascha (prompt on Barbarosa) --> John of Austria led a diverse naval force into battle against this Turkish admiral. [162]
  15. The Shortest Way with Dissenters --> Daniel Defoe was fined, imprisoned, and pilloried for this 1702 pamphlet that saw him ironically demand a total suppression of those who express their difference of opinion with the government. [163]
  16. the interosseus muscles --> This group of seven intrinsic muscles is named for its location, between the bones of the metacarpals. [164]
  17. Concerto for chamber orchestra in E flat major ("Dumbarton Oaks") --> Stravinsky's 1938 Concerto in E flat major is known by this nickname which identifies the Bliss family mansion, a Washington D.C. landmark; Dumbarton Oaks leads to the neighborhood instead of the Concerto [165]
  18. Pulcinella, ballet with song in 1 act, for 3 vocal soloists & orchestra --> Crafted around numerous pieces by Pergolesi, this work, named for a commedia dell'arte character, was composed for Diaghilev in 1920; leads to the stock character [166]
  19. the Pantheon (accept the Church of Santa Maria Rotonda or the Church of Santa Maria ad Martyres until mentioned) --> disambig. [167]
  20. mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid prompt on deoxyribonucleic acid, mitochondria or mitochondrion[168]
  21. Stokes hypothesis --> This hypothesis defines the theoretical fluid state. It states that minus three-halves the coefficient of viscosity is the "molecular" viscosity, or lambda - minus 2/3 mu. [169]
  22. oroborus or uroboros or oroborus or uroboros --> This creature's name means "tail-eater" which is appropriate, since it's a serpent eating its own tail. It symbolizes the infinitude of time. [170]
  23. Fugitive Poets or Fugatives --> While a student at Vanderbilt University, Robert Penn Warren joined this group of poet-critics led by John Crowe Ransom who wrote about Southern ways of life. [171]
  24. ventral root ganglion or ventral root ganglia --> This is the type of spinal ganglion that contains efferent neurons. [172]
  25. Kohn-Sham density functional theory --> This reformulation of quantum mechanics in terms of the particle spatial probability amplitude is useful for electrons in quantum chemistry. The Kohn-Sham equation is its basis. [173]
  26. Tannhäuser --> This three-act Richard Wagner opera is based on Germanic legends about the title character and a song contest at Wartzburg premiered in Dresden in 1845 with Johanna Wagner in the lead female role; leads to the historical figure instead of the opera [174]
  27. Wolfram van Eschenbach (accept either underlined part) --> This baritone character competes in the song contest against Tannhauser and sings that love is like a pure stream which should never be disturbed. He loves Elizabeth faithfully and sings a "Song to the Evening Star". [175]
  28. Tokhtamish --> This former ally of Tamerlane's and leader of the White Horde succeded Mamai to win control of the Golden Horde and started to invade his territory, only to be defeated between 1394 and 1395, greatly weakening the Horde. [176]
  29. the Morgan-Keenan spectral classification system or the Harvard spectral classification system --> This system of classification of stellar bodies by absorption lines, an alternative to the Yerkes system, admits the popular mnemonic "Oh, be a fine girl, kiss me" for its most important classes. [177]
  30. Letter of Paul to the Ephesians --> Written in prison around 62 CE, this "queen of epistles" addresses Gentiles, includes a chapter on unity among believers, and tells of the mission of Tychicus, giving various images of spiritual warfare. [178]
  31. the Epistle of Saint Paul the Apostle to Philemon --> This twenty-five-verse letter, Paul's shortest, was written to reconcile the Christian slave Onesimus with the titular Christian master, to whom Onesimus returns as a "beloved brother". [179]
  32. "A Red Red Rose" --> The speaker of this poem says that his love is like the title object "newly sprung in June" and also like "the melody that's sweetly played in tune." Choral arrangements of this poem abound and it ends with the speaker declaring "I will come again my love / Tho' it were ten thousand mile.". [180]
  33. "Lament for the Death of a Bullfighter" or "Llanto por Ignacio Sánchez Mejias" --> Generally regarded as Federico Garcia Lorca's greatest poem, this 1935 works in four parts is effectively a surrealist elegy for a friend of his and contains the lines "death has covered him with pale sulphur, and has placed on him the head of a dark Minotaur." [181]
  34. guyots --> This is the term given to large seamounts or largely extinct submerged volcanoes that have flat tops as a result of the erosion of the volcano above sea level. [182]
  35. Suetonius or Suetonii --> leads to one person instead of whole family [183]
  36. Born approximations [184]


  1. Krebs-Henseleit area (accept Kreb-Henseleit urea cycle before it's mentioned; accept ornithine cycle) [185]
  2. An Lu-shan's Rebellion [186]
  3. virial equation of state --> The van der Walls equation is a second-order truncation of this general equation, which states that the compressibility is 1 plus the sum over N of temperature functions divided by a specific volume to the N. [187]
  4. schemas --> These "mental images or generalizations that form as people experience the world" are the fundamental units of intellectual development and knowledge according to Piaget; disambig. [188]
  5. Hageladas --> This possibly mythical master sculptor is said to have trained Phidias, Myron and Polyclitus. [189]
  6. consumer utility function --> This mapping from consumption sets onto real numbers measures the amount of satisfaction or benefit a consumer gains from consuming the items in a consumption set. Jevons defined its marginal. [190]
  7. Slutsky's equation --> This PDE relates the Hicksian demand to the Marshalian demand. According to it, the price partial of the Marshalian demand equals that of the Hicksian demand, minus an income effect term. [191]
  8. modulus of resilience or resilience modulus --> This is the strain energy density required to cause plastic deformation; mentioned in Resilience (needs own article?) [192]
  9. Salome, opera, Op. 54 (TrV 215) (accept any underlined part) --> This Strauss opera has a pretty famous "Dance of the Seven Veils"; leads to the Biblical figure instead of the opera [193]
  10. Axel, Greve Oxenstierna af Södermöre --> Chancellor for Gustav II Adolph, this Count drafted the riksdagsordning and negotiated the Truce of Ogra with Poland. [194]
  11. League of Heilbronn --> Oxenstierna was the driving force behind this corpus evangelicorum designed to win the Thirty Years War. It fell apart after the Battle of Nördlingen. [195]
  12. the Battle of Chaeronea --> This 338 BCE battle in Boeotia saw two units of Athenian and Theban phalanx defeated by two opposing phalanxes and the Companion Cavalry; multiple Battles at that place [196]
  13. Carlos Argentino Daneri --> This cousin of Beatriz is trying to use The Aleph to write an epic poem. Though he is unable to do so after his house is demolished, he still wins second prize in an Argentine national literary competition. [197]
  14. functionals --> These mappings from spaces of functions onto ones of numbers are often integrals. The calculus of variations seeks to optimize them and the variation is sometimes called their namesake differential. [198]
  15. the inverse problem of the calculus of variations --> The problem of finding a functional the stationary property of which is implied by a given equation known as this. [199]
  16. Fowre Hymnes --> Published in 1596, this work consists of like-titled sections "in Honour of Love", "in Honour of Beautie", "of Heavenly Love" and "of Heavenly Beautie". [200]
  17. The Star or L'etoile or Dancer on Stage or La danseuse sur la scene --> Showing the title character, who wears a black necklace and white dress with flowers, from almost directly above as she pirouettes, this 1878 Edgar Degas has an indistinct and almost abstract crowd at upper-left; disambig. for both, no mention of the Degas painting on either [201]
  18. The Cotton Exchange at New Orleans or The Cotton Exchange in New Orleans or The New Orleans Cotton Exchange or anything like that --> This 1873 oil shows fourteen men engaged in business at the title location, a theme reprised in 1879's At the Stock Exchange. Its namesake commodity is on a table to the left of the man reading the newspaper. [202]
  19. The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp --> disambig. [203]
  20. Olurun or Oludumare (accept Yansan or Ogus before they're mentioned) [204]
  21. Yellow Turban revolt or Yellow Scarves revolt or T'ai Ping Tao [205]
  22. bubble chambers [206]
  23. "Snow-bound: a Winter Idyll" [207]
  24. Lagrangian function (prompt on "L") --> disambig. for "Lagrangian" [208]
  25. Friedel-Crafts reactions [209]
  26. act common to the game of football or football action or football move --> This travesty was due to Peter Morelli's misinterpretation of the rule calling for this to establish a reception. Defined as a motion only executable by someone with possession, it is sufficient but not necessary for a reception; leads to Football [210]
  27. St. Anthony the Great of Egypt --> Written about by Athanasius, this 3rd-century saint corresponded with Constantine and, along with Paul the Hermit, founded monasticism while wandering around Egypt. [211]
  28. George II (prompt on "George") --> When his wife asked him to remarry after she died, he is said to have responded "No! I will have mistresses!" Name this British king who, early in his reign, left most of the governing to Robert Walpole; disambig. [212]
  29. Salgofnir or Gollinkambi --> This [[rooster of Valhalla will awaken the gods and warriors at Ragnarok. [213]
  30. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde --> This man first came to national prominence working to suppress a revolt in Asturias. He became Chief of the General Staff in 1935, and went on to lead Spain for decades. *As of 2016, he is still dead.[214]
  31. Falange Espanola Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-sindicalista --> Franco managed to combine the energies of the monarchist Carlists with this far-right political party with ideology similar to Mussolini's party. [215]
  32. Weber bars --> These devices should be able to detect strong gravity waves. a detector using them consists of two metallic cylinders in cryogenic vacuum conditions kept a distance apart. [216]
  33. Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Battuta --> The first recorded use of the name Hindu Kush was circa 1334 by this medieval Sunni explorer. [217]
  34. Seebeck effect (accept thermocouple effect before it's mentioned) --> subsection of Thermoelectric effect; needs own article? [218]
  35. Penguin Island or L'Ile des Pingouins --> disambig. [219]
  36. Toccata and Fugue, for organ in D minor, BWV 565 (BC J37) (accept any of the underlined parts) --> disambig. [220]
  37. Arthur Clive Heward Bell --> The literary members of the Bloomsbury Group included Strachey, Virginia Woolf and this critic, Woolf's brother in law, who popularized Post-Impressionism in works like Since Cezanne. [221]
  38. The Silent Woman or Die Schweigsame Frau --> This lesser opera of Strauss was begun shortly after the death of Hofmannsthal, so the libretto was written by Stefan Zweig. This story of the retired admiral Sir Morosus is based on Ben Jonson's Epicoene; disambig. [222]
  39. Richard Perry Loving, Mildred Jeter Loving v. Virginia --> This Warren court decision declared the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment and ended all race-based restrictions on marriage in 1967. [223]
  40. The Golem (How He Came into the World) or Der Golem, wie er in die Welt kam --> Paul Wegener created 3 films with this name, but only the 1920 version survives. This tale of a monster from Jewish folklore is especially notable for the cinematography by Karl Freund; disambig. [224]
  41. Joe Christmas (accept either name) --> Perhaps the best-known character in the novel is this mulatto man, who is castrated and killed by Percy Grimm; mentioned in character list for Light in August [225]
  42. Joanna Burden (accept either name) --> Christmas has an affair with this woman but, when she attempts to force him to join a law firm, he murders her. [226]


  1. the Kondo problem --> Kenneth Wilson's seminal paper on renormalization involved the solution to this "problem" of condensed matter physics, which concerns magnetic impurities in non-magnetic metals. [227]
  2. Costaguana --> Joseph Conrad only visited South America for about a week, but his experience helped him to create this fictional country, the location of Sulaco and setting of the novel. [228]
  3. Charles Gould (accept either name) --> Nostromo's boss is this man, the owner of the San Tome mines, whose obsession with the silver leads to his moral degradation and the decay of his marriage; disambig., no mention of the "Nostromo" character [229]
  4. Henry II (prompt on "Henry"; do not accept Henry the Fowler) --> This man defeated Boleslaw the Brave in battle in 1003, but he had taken a vow of chastity, precipitating the end of the Ottonian line and the rise of the Salian dynasty; disambig. [230]
  5. Henry IV (prompt on "Henry") --> This Holy Roman emperor spent much of his time battling his rebellious son Conrad, but he is best-known for quarreling with Gregory VII, which ended with this man asking him forgiveness at Canossa; disambig. [231]
  6. Barbarella: Queen of the Galaxy [232]
  7. Satyagraha, opera --> Centering on Mahatma Gandhi, this opera's libretto is in Sanskrit. It focuses on a few specific events in Gandhi's life; leads to the concept instead of the opera [233]
  8. Tirtankaras --> These 24 "ford-crossers" are considered to be the enlightened gurus of Jainism. The first was Rishab Dev, and the last was Mahavira. [234]
  9. general recursive functions or total recursive functions --> Church's thesis is that the set of functions computed by the lambda calculus is equivalent to this set of functions. Turing showed that these are both equivalent to computability by a Turing finite automaton. [235]
  10. Rain, Steam, and Speed - the Great Western Railway --> This really blurry painting shows an early locomotive crossing the River Thames and is now in the National Gallery; leads to an album by The Mutton Birds [236]
  11. dz2 (d-z-squared or d-z-two) --> This d sub-orbital is like a p-orbital in that it has two lobes along an axis, separated by a node, with a planar toroidal ring that bisects the 2 lobes. [237]
  12. connection coefficients or Christofel symbols --> Possessing three indices that run over the space-time coordinates and represented by a capital "gamma", these quantities can be derived from the metric and are representative of the change in the basis vectors; subsection of Christoffel symbols [238]
  13. the Battle of Chattanooga --> In this November 1863 battle, which included actions at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, Grant defeated Braxton Bragg and pushed the Confederate armies out of Tennessee; disambig. [239]
  14. Lord Robert Clive --> The British forces at Plassey were commanded primarily by this jerk, who would later become both the Baron of Plassey and the Governor of Bengal. [240]
  15. Herman Hesse and Harry Haller (accept either name for the latter) --> Name the author of Steppenwolf and its protagonist; no article for "Harry Haller" [241]
  16. Black Eagle Tavern --> Following an awkward dinner at a professor's house, Haller goes to this location for a drink and meets Hermine.[242]
  17. Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity or BCS theory of superconductivity[243]
  18. Gabriel Lajenunesse (accept either name) --> Name the lover sought by Evangeline in the poem by Longfellow. [244]
  19. Henry Rye Schoolcraft --> Longfellow drew inspiration for Evangeline from this man's ethnographic studies including A Narrative Journal of Travels...from Detroit through the Great Chain of American Lakes to the Sources of the Mississippi River. [245]
  20. Lorenz-Mie scattering theory --> This model of scattering by spherical centers of arbitrary aspect ratio in an isotropic homogeneous medium is often applicable to colloids. It is named for its German developer and, sometimes, for Lorenz. [246]
  21. Podkomennaya Tunguska River --> All that is known conclusively about the explosion near this Russian river is that it occurred about 7:15 AM on June 30, 1908, but the most popular explanation is that it was caused by a comet hitting the earth.[247]
  22. Öpik's equations --> Derived by their namesake in 1951, these equations give the probability of collision between two objects orbiting a common star, but contains several unknown factors. [248]
  23. Sir Andrew Undershaft (accept either name) --> This man, Barbara's father, believes that manufacturing weapons is less deadly than poverty. [249]
  24. Lady Britomart --> This woman, Barbara's mother, disagrees with her husband on the spending of his fortune. Her name is taken from The Faerie Queene, in which a like-named character is the personification of chastity.[250]
  25. Byblus --> If I know you correctly, you've already guessed what the fourteenth piece was, so instead you get to name the area of Phoenicia where Osiris' coffin came ashore after the first attempt to kill him.[251]
  26. '[[Der fliegende Holländer or The Flying Dutchman, opera, WWV 63 (accept any underlined part) --> This Richard Wagner opera concerning the Norwegian sailor Daland was partially inspired by Sir Walter Scott's novel The Pirate; leads to the legend instead of the opera [252]
  27. Rob Roy Overture or Intrata di Rob-Roy MacGregor, for orchestra, H.54 (accept any underlined part) --> This Hector Berlioz overture is based on Scott's retelling of the legend of Robert MacGregor, sometimes called the Scottish Robin Hood, who becomes an outlaw when his land was seized by James Montrose; leads to Overtures by Hector Berlioz [253]
  28. La Jolie Fille de Perth or The Fair Maid of Perth, opera in 4 acts --> This Georges Bizet opera is based on Scott's second chronicle of the Canongate, a novel subtitled and sometimes also called St. Valentine's Day; leads to Scott's novel. [254]
  29. The Lost Honor of Katerina Blum --> In this novel, the nominal heroine is a housekeeper whose one-night stand with an accused bank robber leads to her ruin. [255]
  30. Court Reorganization Bill (accept anything with the words "court-packing") --> As Chief Justice, Charles Evans Hughes fought against this bill proposed by Franklin Roosevelt which would have added six new justices to the Supreme Court.[256]
  31. Poisson distribution function --> This discrete distribution function over N may be stated as "lambda to the N times E to the minus lambda, divided by N factorial" where lambda is both the mean and standard deviation. [257]
  32. binomial distribution function --> The Poisson distribution is the low-likelihood, high-sample size limit of this other discrete distribution function, since a sequence of Bernoulli trials collapses to a Poisson process in these limits[258]
  33. Rosemary Hoyt (accept either name) --> In Tender Is the Night, Dick and Nicole's eventual divorce is precipitated by his infatuation with this American actress. [259]
  34. the Earl of Durham's Report --> This 1839 report on Canadian affairs written by its then-governor is considered one of the most important documents leading to the British Commonwealth of Nations. [260]
  35. molar heat capacity (accept molar specific heat capacity, but not just "specific heat") --> The 3rd law of thermodynamics relates this quantity to entropy. It is numerically equal to the energy absorbed per unit temperature change for a mole of a substance; mentioned in Heat capacity, needs own article? [261]
  36. the First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians (prompt on the Letter of Paul to the Corinthians) --> Written to counteract the influence of "Judaizing" interlopers who had convinced the addressees to follow Mosaic Law, this letter contains a description of Paul's personal revelation and a discussion of the story of Abraham. [262]


  1. mass density (prompt on rho) --> The constancy of this quantity implies that the velocity is divergence-free. It is equal to the dynamic viscosity divided by the kinematic viscosity; leads to Density, different? [263]
  2. La Primavera or The Allegory of Spring or The Rite of Spring --> In this Botticelli painting, the Three Graces can be seen dancing on the left. On the right, Zephyrus swoops in to grab Chloris, who turns into Flora; disambig. for former, latter leads to the Stravinsky ballet [264]
  3. The Mystic Nativity --> The Virgin and Child appear larger than the other figures in this painting, the only one signed by Botticelli. Three angels kneel on the roof of a manger in this painting, while three kings and three shepherds appear on either side.[265]
  4. Charles II, the Bad (accept either underlined part along with "Charles"; prompt on "Charles") --> This king of Navarre helped crush the Jacquerie. He had earlier planned the assassination of the marshal of France, Charles de la Creda, and quarreled with his father-in-law, John II, as an ally of the Black Prince; disambig. [266]
  5. burial mask of Agamemnon --> Following his Trojan excavation, Schliemann found this artifact at a gravesite in Mycenae. It is now believed that it is 3 centuries older than its supposed owner. [267]
  6. Bernarda Alba (prompt on partial answer) --> During the eight-year mourning period that this Garcia Lorca character declares for her second husband, her youngest daughter Adela commits suicide after sleeping with her future brother-in-law Pepe el Romano; leads to The House of Bernarda Alba [268]
  7. Orphee Noir or Black Orpheus --> This Jean-Paul Sartre work regarded negritude as "the weak stage in a dialectical progression" and anti-racist racism. It shares its name with a 1959 Marcel Camus film; leads to the film version [269]
  8. the Sino-Japanese War --> disambig [270]
  9. prophase I (prompt on prophase prompt on meiosis until "second") --> sub-subsection of Meiosis [271]
  10. Bar-Kochba's Rebellion (accept Bar-Kochba's Revolt) [272]
  11. Lepiduses or Lepidi [273]
  12. energy of the field --> In Poynting's theorem, the Poynting vector appears as the current density of this quantity for the electromagnetic field. [274]
  13. Centuars or Centaur objects --> These icy, asteroid-sized bodies probably originated in the Kuiper belt. The second of them, Pholus, was discovered in 1977. [275]
  14. the Björkö Treaty --> In July 1905, this treaty providing for mutual aid between Germany and Russia was signed by Kaiser Wilhelm and Tsar Nicholas II, but it fell apart when France refused to back it. [276]
  15. wax girl (accept equivalents, so long as they make it clear it's a girl made of wax; prompt on just "girl") --> Anansi was overthrown as king of all men after he got angry at this statue for not heeding him and struck it. Nyame's powers caused Anansi's legs to stick fast and his subjects then beat him. [277]
  16. the Amalekites --> Samuel rejected Saul for the 2nd time after Saul didn't get the job done against this nomadic tribe, who were defeated by the Hebrews at Rephidim during the Exodus; mentioned in Amalek [278]
  17. right to trial by jury (accept anything reasonable that mentions a jury or juries]] [279]
  18. Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Fürst Von Metternich [280]
  19. Giants in the Earth: a Saga of the Prairie or [I de dage]] --> disambig.[281]
  20. "Gunga-Din" --> First appearing in Barrack-Room Ballads, it describes an Indian water-porter who meets his end dragging the narrator out of a battle. Name this poem about a "Lazarushian-leather" who is ultimately described as "a better man than I am." [282]
  21. Askia Muhammad or Muhammed I Askia or Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr Ture (prompt on "Muhammad I") --> He overthrew Sonni Baru in the 1493 Battle of Anfao and appointed el-Mehrili to institute an orthodox Islamic law code. Name this ruler who conquered Yatenga and Aïr from his palace at Gao before falling short in Borgu and being exiled by his quarreling sons; link leads to a current radio host/journalist [283]
  22. the biological species concept or the isolation species concept --> This approach, probably the most generally popular, defines a species as a group of individuals fertile with each other but unable to produce fertile offspring with other groups; subection of Species problem, needs own article? [284]
  23. the phylogenetic species concept --> This highly general concept of speciation from the late 1980s defines a species as an irreducible cluster of organisms with a known pattern of ancestry and features enabling distinction from other groups; briefly mentioned in a subsection of Species [285]
  24. lattice binding energy or lattice binding enthalpy (prompt on "binding energy") --> Commonly measured via the Born-Haber cycle, this is the work required to separate the components of an ionic solid into a gas of mixed ions. [286]
  25. the Fifth Republic of France --> In May 1968, communists and student radicals rioted and attempted to overthrow the government of France. Their target was what French republic, established in 1959 and tailored to the rule of Charles de Gaulle, which remains in power today? [287]
  26. charge conjugation-parity symmetry --> This postulated physical symmetry is broken by some weak interactions, specifically those accompanying K-mesons, as was shown in 1964 by Cronin and Fitch. [288]
  27. electron antineutrinos --> In 1956, Reines and Cowan used a tank of cadmium chloride dissolved in water and a series of photomultiplier tubes to detect these particles. [289]
  28. the chain of dependent origination or paticca-samuppada or paticca-samuppada (accept origination by dependence or chain of causation or anything close to those) --> In 12 steps, or nidanas, it relates the root cause, ignorance or avijja, to its ultimate consequence, age and death. Name this Buddhist concept of the interrelation of all events. [290]
  29. How to Travel With a Salmon and Other Essays or Il Secondo Diario Minimo --> This 1992 Umberto Eco essay collection discusses eating on airplanes, the right way to greet people you know, the wrong way to use fax machines, and the dangers of spreading skin infections among kidnap victims as terrorists tend to re-use the same hoods. [291]
  30. Sonata for violin & piano No. 9 in a major ("Kreutzer Sonata"), Op. 47 (accept any underlined part) --> latter leads to a disambig.[292]
  31. the Battle of the River Granicus --> This first match up between Darius III and Alexander the Great saw Mr. the Great personally lead the cavalry across the namesake river against the Persian center while Parmenio led his Thessalians against the enemies' left wing.[293]
  32. alenolate --> A compound of this type may be formed in the Reformatsky reaction by adding zinc to a carbonyl with an alpha bromine. They are alkene derivatives in which a hydroxyl group attaches to a double-bond carbon. [294]
  33. aldols --> Adding dibutylboyrl triflate and an aldehyde to the enolate to conduct the Evans reaction for this type of compound, a beta-hydroxyl aldehyde or ketone. Borodin discovered their namesake condensation. [295]
  34. Gauss-Bonnet equation --> The "intrinsic curvature" of a surface is related to its topological attributes, specifically the surface's Euler characteristic, by this formula. [296]
  35. Lagrangian turbulence --> At high Reynolds number, this form of turbulence, also known as chaotic advection, can occur. Its interesting patters correspond to hyperbolic fixed points in the phase space of the flow. [297]
  36. Tarasco or Tarascan (accept Purepecha) --> This culture, centering around Lake Patzcuaro, had its capital at Tzintzuntzan. They are known for their round temples called yacatas, and they worshipped a fire god, Curicaueri; disambig. for Tarasco/Tarascan [298]
  37. glomerulus and Bowman's capsule (accept in either order) --> disambig.for glomerulus[299]


  1. "Musée des Beaux-Arts, Revisited" --> Billy Collins was inspired to write this poem about Hieronymous Bosch's The Temptation of St. Anthony. It was named for the same Brussels museum that earlier inspired W. H. Auden. [300]
  2. Ottavia --> In The Coronation of Poppea, this mezzo-soprano role sings "Disprezzeta Regina" after finding out about her husband's affair with Poppea. In act 2, she tries to get Ottone to kill Poppea but instead gets sent off on a ship. [301]
  3. Euler gamma function [302]
  4. Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Albaracin --> He defeated Bartolomeo Mitre to become president of his country. Identify this Argentine politician, president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874. [303]
  5. Juan Manuel Jose Domingo Ortiz de Rosas y Lopez de Osornio --> Facundo was written as a protest against the rule of this caudillo politician, who ruled Argentina from 1829 to 1852. [304]
  6. bundle sheaths --> CAM plants differ from C4 plants in that they lack these thick-walled structures, which surround the veins of C4 plants. [305]
  7. Morris Townsend (accept either name) --> In Henry James' Washington Square, this suitor of Catherine's wants to marry her in order to acquire her fortune. He thinks being a doctor like Catherine's father is practicing a "loathsome profession". [306]
  8. Lavinia Penniman (accept either name) --> This aunt of Catherine's raised her and encourages Townsend to elope with her. [307]
  9. Battle of Gravelotte-St. Privat --> This largest battle of the Franco-Prussian War, fought west of Metz on August 18, 1870, saw Helmuth von Moltke push back the French, under François Bazaine, into a fortified position at Metz, which fell 2 months later. [308]
  10. Marie-Edme-Patrice-Maurice de Mac-Mahon, duke of Magenta --> The war ended when von Moltke won a victory at Sedan over the forces of this French general. [309]
  11. The Sketch-Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent --> It analyzes the disproportionate impact of failed romances on women in "A Broken Heart" and decries the "illiberal spirit of ridicule" of English travelers in "English Writers in America". Name this early American collection by Washington Irving. [310]
  12. Judith, opera in 3 acts, H57b (accept either underlined part) --> Another important work of Arthur Honegger's early period was this 1925 opera which depicts the killing of an Assyrian general by the title character; leads to a different opera on the same subject
  13. Jeanne d'Arc au búcher, dramatic oratorio for various speakers & vocal soloists, chorus & orchestra, H99 or Jeanne d'Arc at the Stake (accept any underlined part) --> With a libretto by Paul Claudel, this Honegger composition is sometimes performed as a mini-opera, and depicts the immolation of a 15th century French heroine. [311]
  14. classical action --> The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is derived by requiring that this functional remain extremal under a canonical transformation, as it must be extremal for the classical path according to Hamilton's principle.[312]
  15. "Master Harold" and the Boys --> This 1982 Fugard play investigates the relationship between Hally and the other titular characters, Sam and Willie. [313]
  16. the mantle --> It possesses a discontinuity at about 660 kilometers. Identify this layer of the earth separated from the crust by the Moho; disambig. [314]
  17. The Castle or Das Schloß --> first link leads to a disambig., second to a film adaptation [315]
  18. Chandragupta II Virkramaditya (accept either underlined part after Chandragupta as long as it's proceeded by Chandragupta [316]
  19. Marito Varguitas (accept either underlined part) --> In 1990's Tune In Tomorrow, Keanu played Martin Loader, Jon Amiel's version of this Mario Vargas Llosa autobiographical character who interacts with scriptwriter Pedro Camacho and Barbara Hershey's Aunt Julia. [317]
  20. eigenvalue problem for A --> For an operator A, this problem consists of finding all the non-trivial operands v such that the operation of A on V is only a scaling of v. The magnitude of that scaling is then this problem's namesake. [318]
  21. unitary matrix operator --> An operator whose inverse is its conjugate is called this. Each Hermitian matrix operator has an associated one that is immensely useful for solving the eigenvalue problem for that operator. [319]
  22. Saturday Night & Sunday Morning --> The protagonist of this Alan Sillitoe novel is bicycle factory lathe operator Arthur Seaton, who settles for Doreen after he is beaten by Winnie's husband. [320]
  23. Pittsburgh Cycle --> The first installment chronologically is 2003's Gem of the Ocean and two of the ten works have been awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Name this 10-work drama cycle by August Wilson which takes its name from the city whose Hill District is the setting of 9 of the plays; subsection of August Wilson [321]
  24. Olin Kreutz and Fred Miller (accept in either order) --> These two Chicago Bears offensive linemen got into a drunken brawl at an FBI shooting gallery, and one walked away with a broken jaw. They were fined, but not suspended; latter is a disambig. [322]
  25. Epistle of Paul to the Romans [323]
  26. Stephen I of Blois --> disambig.[324]
  27. cyclizations [325]
  28. Rhapsodie Espagnole or Spanish Rhapsody --> Inspired by folk songs he heard from his Basque mother, Maurice Ravel wrote this orchestral suite which features a habanera, a feria and a fandango entitled "Malaguena"; disambig. [326]
  29. The Tomb of Couperin --> Written as an homage to the titular classical French harpsichordist and composer, this suite for piano was written in four movements, each dedicated to a World War I soldier who died in battle. [327]
  30. Little Eva St. Clare --> John Greenleaf Whittier wrote a song for this character, whose life was saved by a slave whom her father, Augustine, then purchased with the intent to free. [328]
  31. Hati and Skoll --> For 5 points each, give the name of Fenrir's sons, the two wolves who chase the sun and moon; former leads to a disambig. [329]
  32. Lady Macbeth of the Mtensk District or Ledi Makbet Mtsenskogo uezda --> In this Shostakovich opera, Katerina, having poisoned her father-in-law, commits suicide by drowning herself in a river, but not before killing Sergei's new lover, Sonyetka; disambig. [330]
  33. The Salt Cellar of Francis I [331]
  34. Branganza or Braganca [332]
  35. surjectiveness or onto [333]
  36. the myelin sheath --> leads to Myelin, does the sheath needs its own article [334]
  37. Orphism or Orphic cubism --> This group was led by Jacques Villon and included Frantisek Kupka, Sonia Terk and her husband Robert Delauney, whose Simultaneous Composition may be its most representative work; disambig. [335]
  38. I Saw the Figure "5" in Gold --> Orphism was one of the inspirations of the American Precisionist School, of which Charles Demuth was a member. Its most representative work may be this Demuth work, based on a William Carlos Williams poem. [336]


  1. The Possessed or Besy or The Devils --> Fyodor Dostoyevsky adapted Cheryshevky's frame to this novel, which features the intellectual Stepan Verhovensky. Appalled by his son's actions, including the murder of Ivan Shatov, he leaves his estate in order to search for the true Russia; disambig. [337]
  2. Asano Takumi-no-Kami Naganori or Kira Kozuke-no-Suke Yoshinaka --> The plot of the Forty-Seven Ronin was to avenge the seppuku necessitated of their leader after his non-lethal attack on a Tokugawa official. Name either the dead leader or the not-dead official.[338]
  3. Delight Makers --> In 1890, Adolph Bandelier published this fictionalized account of the prehistoric life of the Pueblo peoples in the Four Corners area. [339]
  4. Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 in D minor ("Choral"), Op. 125 (accept any of the underlined parts after Beethoven so long as prefixed by "Beethoven"; prompt on anything less) --> Perhaps the most famous D minor symphony is this one, which premiered in 1824. Its finale is choral and uses Schiller's "Ode to Joy". [340]
  5. the Cassini division --> This feature, almost 3,000 miles wide, is seen from the Earth as the black gap between Saturn's A and B rings; subsection of Rings of Saturn; needs own article? [341]
  6. William Hershel --> The large Mimantean impact crater is named for this man, the moon's discoverer, whose son suggested the moon's name. He is more famous for his discovery of another planet. [342]
  7. the Ninety-Nine Names for God --> The First is "al-Lah", the One, and the last is "al-Subur", the Timeless. What is this group of eponyms associated with God by the Qu'uran. [343]
  8. groups --> These objects are comprised of a set and an associative operation that is closed on that set. They must also include an identity element and inverses for each other element; disambig.
  9. rings --> These objects are comprised of a set and two binary operations, one of which forms an Abelian group on the set, and the other of which forms a semi-group; disambig.
  10. madness (exact answer required) --> This title from the English version of Foucault's book Folie et deraison is contrasted with "civilization", and explores a phenomenon once viewed as a religious experience, but now socially shunned; disambig. [344]
  11. Stephen I (accept Stjepan before "Anna"; note that all are "Stephen I", but some were the only "Stephen") --> disambig. [345]
  12. The Caesars or Caesars Palace or Twelve Caesars --> This alt-rock group of "Kick You Out" fame recorded 2005's Paper Tigers, but their most successful single, "Jerk It Out" is off their album 39 Minutes of Bliss and has been notably featured on an iPod commercial; disambig. for all versions [346]
  13. The Increased Difficulty of Concentration or Ztizena moznost soustredeni --> Karel Krieble operates Puzuk, a computer which tests Eduard Huml for conformity in this 1968 play by Vaclav Havel; leads to an album by Air Liquide (band) [347]
  14. Showdown or Tocaia Grande: a face obscura --> This Amado novel, derided by Time (magazine)|Time]] as "Louis L'Amour with a Portuguese accent" is set in Tocaia Grande, a cacao-farming town overseen by the profligate cowboy Natario da Fonseca; disambig. [348]
  15. action --> Name this quantity typically expressed as the closed path integral of a generalized momentum with respect to its associated generalized position, or as the time integral of the Lagrangian; disambig.; could be Action (physics), but is "Lagrangian" a math term?


  1. Kiss of the Spider Woman or El beso de la mujer Araña --> In this 1976 Manuel Puig novel, Molina, a middle-aged homosexual man, develops a quality friendship with Valentin, a young socialist revolutionary, while each serve six months in an Argentine jail cell; disambig. [349]
  2. NAND or not-and --> The Sheffer stroke, an operator sometimes used in predicate calculus, is equivalent to this Boolean operator, which is the negation of the conjunction operator. Its namesake flash memory is commonly used in USB drives; disambig. for "Nand"
  3. trees --> Examples of this data structure include the "Dancing" and "Fusion" types. Name this structure consisting of linked nodes, growing from the root node down to the leaf nodes; leads to those big ol' plants
  4. Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra --> This generically titled five section orchestral work included parts for three different experience levels of string players. An earlier piece of the same name was scrapped, with various parts being recycled into other works; disambig. [350]
  5. The Lamentation of Christ --> In this Arena Chapel fresco, a diagonal rock form draws the viewer to the lower left, where figures hunch over the body of Jesus while distressed angels fly overhead; leads to an article on the general theme [351]
  6. d orbitals --> Crystal field theory was developed to explain the absorption of light when a compound's electrons transitioned between different ones of these atomic orbitals, whose filling largely governs the chemistry of transition metals; mentioned in Atomic orbital, needs own article?
  7. degenerate --> In the absence of ligands, the d orbitals initially begin in this state, in which all five have the same energy; leads to Degeneracy (disambiguation)
  8. d-sub-z squared or d-sub-x squared y squared (do not accept or prompt on partial answer) --> Name either of the two d orbitals that belong to the double degenerate E-sub-g group. In the common octahedral complexes, they have a higher energy because they are closer to the ligand than the other three. [352]
  9. Fidelio --> It ends with the love duet "O namenlose Freude!" between the title character and her husband. Name this opera in which Leonore disguises herself as the title character, a male prison guard, to rescue her imprisoned husband from the murderous Pizarro.
  10. Ludwig van Beethoven --> Fidelio was the only opera by this composer of the "Ode to Joy" and the "Moonlight Sonata."
  11. Florestan --> Leonore's husband shares this name with one of Robert Schumann's altar egos. [353]
  12. The Narrow Road to the Deep North or Oku-no-Hosimichi or Back Roads to Far Towns --> This allegedly most famous Basho work recounts his travels around the island of Honshu. [354]
  13. Kai Oi or The Seashell Game --> This other book by Basho takes the form of a "haiku-off", where Basho takes haikus written by two different poets, puts them head-to-head, and chooses a winner, then explains his choice and why. [355]
  14. Battle of Mafeking/Siege of Mafeking --> In this battle during the Second Boer War, the British, led by Robert Baden-Powell, were under siege for more than 200 days before finally breaking through and winning. [356]
  15. opsins (accept photopsins or iodopsins; do NOT accept "rhodopsin" - that is a complex in rods) --> In humans, they are encoded by the genes OPN1SW, -MW and -LW. Name these transmembrane proteins that are associated with retinol to form the photofigments in the cones of the retina. [357]
  16. red and green --> Both answers required. The genes for the photopigments associated with these two colors, found in the L and M cones, are linked on the X chromosome, so they can't be distinguished in a major form of color-blindness.
  17. Ishihara test --> Color-blindness is typically diagnosed via this test, named for its Japanese formulator, in which normal-vision people see one number amid a sea of varying-size dots, while color-blind people see a different number. [358]
  18. Hong Kong International Airport --> This airport, which opened on Chep Lap Kok island in 1998, was voted the best airport in the world in the 2007 Skytrax honors. [359]
  19. Triangle Inequality (prompt on Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality before mentioned) [360]
  20. The Anti-Federalist Papers [361]
  21. dissociation of sensibility (accept disassociation of sensibility) [362]
  22. Lake Malawi or Lake Nyassa [363]
  23. The Threepenny Opera or Die Dreigroschenoper [364]
  24. "Moll Pitcher" (do not accept Molly Pitcher) [365]
  25. Baker v. Carr (either or both party names in any order) [366]
  26. Dead Souls or Mertvye dushi [367]
  27. Uffizi Gallery or Palazzo delgi Uffizi [368]
  28. Devi (accept Shakti prompt on "Goddess") [369]
  29. Virial Equation --> This is a power series expansion of the ideal gas law, and though it is technically an infinite series, typically the 3rd namesake coefficient is sufficient for most systems.
  30. Van der Waals Equation --> This common second-order approximation of the ideal gas law works for high-density gases by utilizing parameters a and b, which take into account the intermolecular forces and size of the molecules.
  31. Peng-Robinson Equation --> This doubly eponymous equation of state, in much the same form as the Soave modification of the earlier Redlich-Kwong equation, makes use of the acentric factor to deal with compressibility near the critical point. [370]
  32. Karlheinz Stockhausen --> A one-time student of Pierre Schaeffer, this German composer, who died in 2007, was a pioneer in electronic music and serialism; his works include Klavierstucke, Kontra-Punkte and a 7 opera cycle entitled Licht.
  33. Oliver Messiaen --> A teacher of Stockhausen, this French composer also experimented with musique concrete, though he is better known for the religiously inspired pieces, Illuminations on the Beyond and Quartet for the End of Time. [371]
  34. The Sorcerer's Apprentice or L'apprenti sorcier --> One of Messiaen's teachers was Paul Dukas, who composed this piece, based on a Goethe poem, which was famously used in both Fantasia and Fantasia 2000. [372]
  35. Romansh or Grishons --> Its 2 dialects are Survilvan and Sutsilvan. Name this Rhaetian-group language, spoken in the environs of the Rhine River. [373]
  36. Switzerland or Swiss Confederation Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft or Confederation Suisee or Confederazione Svizzera or [Confederaziuri Svizra]] --> Along with German, French and Italian, Romansh is an official language of this canton-happy country. [374]
  37. Serbo-Croatian or Srpskohrvatski Jezik (you can accept either Serbian or Croatian by itself, even though that's so much nationalist bullshit from revisionists who find it hard to admit they speak the same language as the people they are ethnically cleansing) --> While Romansh is the fourth official language, the fourth-place language in number of primary Swiss speakers is this South Slavic language that comes in Chakavian, Kajkavian and Shotkavian. [375]
  38. Karl Popper --> Paul Feyeraband particularly took aim at the rationalist and falsificationist views of this guy, whose The Logic of Scientific Discovery and The Open Society and Its Enemies are still pretty good books. [376]
  39. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry (prompt on "Perry") --> Dissatisfied with his command of gunboats off Newport, this man petitioned his friend Isaac Chauncey to gain an important command in the Great Lakes; he became the "Hero of Lake Erie" after meeting and owning the enemy. [377]
  40. Juvenal or Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis --> Writing a number of poems in dactylic hexameter, this 2nd century roman author is best known for his Satires, which roundly derided upper-class decadence during the rule of Domitian. [378]
  41. Copenhagen Interpretation --> It evolved out of meetings between Bohr and Heisenberg in the namesake city. Identify this standard and widely accepted interpretation of quantum theory which suggests that, via wave function collapse, every particle can be described by its wave function and that there are no hidden variables.
  42. complementarity --> This principle, generally attributed to Bohr as part of the Copenhagen Interpretation, says that light is neither a wave nor a particle, but can have characteristics of each depending on the experiment.
  43. Ensemble Interpretation (prompt on "Statistical" Interpretation) --> This alternate interpretation to the Copenhagen denies the objective reality of wave functions and suggests that the mathematical results of quantum theory are just abstractions that describe the world rather than define it. [379]
  44. Operation Desert Shield (do not accept Desert Storm) -->During this "wholly defensive" operation beginning in August 1990, just prior to the Gulf War, Bush, Sr. called on a military deployment to protect the Saudi border and oil fields after Saddam Hussein's forces invaded Kuwait. [380]
  45. symbolists (accept symbolism, etc.) --> Pulished in 1886, their manifesto explained the love for a highly suggestive and metaphorical style. Name this poetic and artistic movement which was a reaction to realism, idolized Theophile Gautier, and included among its ranks Stephan Mallarme. [381]
  46. Bavaria or Bayern --> This predominantly Catholic state, the largest free state in Germany by land mass, is located in the southeast of the country, with its capital at Munich and is the home of BMW. [382]
  47. Hesse or Hessia --> This six-million-inhabitant state is home to Wiesbaden and Frankfurt am Main. Centrally located, it is the namesake of certain military regiments. [383]
  48. Passover or Pesach --> This holiday is the first of three major festivals in the Jewish tradition, and the eating of unleavened bread, bitter herbs, and other crap is emblematic of the seder which kicks off its eight-day duration. [384]
  49. gel electrophoresis --> Ethidium bromide is often used to visualize its results. Agarose is commonly the medium for this general technique of separating proteins or nucleic acids by applying a current to get them to migrate, usually in proportion to their mass.
  50. SDS-PAGE or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-PolyacrylAmide Gel Electrophoresis --> This type of gel electrophoresis is named for both the anionic detergent that denatures and imparts a charge to the polypeptide backbone, and the type of gel used, which is made from a neurotoxic precursor. [385]
  51. Coomassie Brilliant Blue or Brilliant Blue G 250 or Kunasty Blue --> The gel from SDS-PAGE is often soaked in this blue dye to visualize the bands. In a technique known as BN-PAGE, this dye takes the place of SDS to denature the proteins and therefore allows direct visualization. [386]





  1. Lucius Claudius Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius --> Born in present day Turkey, this second- and third-century historian's work Romaika, written in Greek, covers the history of Rome from the late Republic to the early Empire, ending with the reign of Alexander Severus. [387]
  2. Livy or Titus Livius --> The Periochae is something of a summary of this man's Ab Urbe Condita, which covers the entire history of Rome from the city's foundation and consists of approximately 142 volumes, some of which are extant. [388]
  3. El Greco or Domenicos Theotokopoulos --> He painted a portrait of Grand Inquisitor Don Fernando Nino de Guevara. Name this spiritual painter of works such as Opening of the Fifth Seal, named for his place of birth. [389]
  4. View of Toledo --> This El Greco work depicts his adopted hometown, with buildings in the background and a river cutting through the center.
  5. The Disrobing of Christ or El Espolio or Christ's Disrobing or The Spoilation --> Found in a cathedral in Toledo, this El Greco work depicts the central figure all in red surrounded by a grey accusing mob, with the three Marys in the bottom left corner and a man in green ready to perform the title action]] [390]
  6. P versus NP --> One problem is to prove or disprove this question of whether if one can check the validity of a solution to a problem in polynomial time, then one can find the solution in polynomial time.
  7. Hodge Conjecture --> This statement waiting to be proved holds that projective algebraic varieties of the namesake cycles are linear, rational combinations of algebraic cycles. [391]
  8. Riemann Hypothesis --> Another problem is to prove this assertion that all nontrivial zeros of the Zeta function lie along a certain line. [392]
  9. Judas Maccabaeus --> It featured a libretto by Thomas Worrell and followed the Occasional Oratorio. Name this oratorio about the titular Jew who rebelled against the Syrians, as told in an eponymous apocryphal book of the Bible.
  10. George Frideric Handel --> This composer wrote Judas Maccabaeus, as well as some Water Music and the oratorio the Messiah.
  11. "See, the Conqu'ring Hero Comes" --> This most famous song from Judas Maccabaeus, sung as he returns in triumph, was later adapted into the popular hymn "Thine Be the Glory" and was featured in Henry Wood's Fantasia on British Sea Songs. [393]
  12. Big Dipper --> Asterisms are not your daddy's constellations, especially if your daddy was Ptolemy. Probably the most famous asterism is this collection of the 8 brightest stars from Ursa Major, which in that constellation from the bear's tail and hindquarters.
  13. Summer Triangle --> Located overhead at mid-north latitudes during a certain season, this three star asterism is composed of Deneb, Altair, and Vega.
  14. keystone --> The epsilon, pi, eta, and zeta stars of the Hercules constellation form a quadrilateral that comprises its head and is also given this name as an asterism. [394]
  15. Las Meninas or The Maids of Honor [395]
  16. Canto General or General Song [396]
  17. first woman (accept obvious equivalents) [397]
  18. the Great Northern War or the Second Northern War (prompt on Northern War) [398]
  19. Charlie Parker (prompt on "Bird" or "Yardbird") [399]
  20. Nicolae Ceausescu (be lenient on pronounciation) --> This so-called "Genius of the Carpathians" and his wife Elena were executed on Christmas Day 1989 after a nationally televised show trial. [400]
  21. Kiribati or Republic of Kiribati --> Consisting of 33 atolls, this Pacific nation, formerly named the Gilbert Islands, is a former British colony and has its capital at Tarawa. [401]
  22. tachyons --> These particles that travel faster than the speed of light are predicted by some theories, but have never been observed.
  23. proton --> Some grand unified theories predict the decay of these stable baryons into a positron and a pion. Unfortunately, this has not been observed, perhaps ruling out the predicted time constant of about ten to the thirty-three years.
  24. Kaluza-Klein theory --> This theory seeks to unify gravity with electromagnetism. It uses a five-dimensional space-time consisting of Einstein's field equations, Maxwell's Laws, and a scalar dimension called the radion. [402]
  25. Judith Beheading Holofernes or Judith Slaying Holofernes or Giuditta che decapita Oloferne --> The unfortunate title figure lies on his back covered by a red robe. Name this work in which another woman holds that fella down while the other title figure digs into his neck with her sword. [403]
  26. Artemisia Gentileschi --> Name this 17th century Italian Baroque painter, daughter of the painter Orazio, of Judith Beheading Holofernes. A rape by a colleague inspired her to create several versions of the scene over her career.
  27. Susanna and the Elders or Susanna e i vecchioni --> Gentileschi also painted a version of this scene in which a nude woman tries to hide from a couple of creepy old guys, one of whom is trying to get her to be quiet. [404]
  28. Clemmensen reduction --> This reaction uses a zinc amalgam to reduce a carbonyl compound to an alkane.
  29. hydrazine --> An alternative to the Clemmensen reduction, the Wolff-Kishner reduction, uses this molecule with formula N2H4, which is often part of rocket fuel.
  30. Stork enamine reaction --> This reaction, named for a Belgian fellow, involves the formation of an enamine from an amine and a ketone, which then undergoes a conjugate addition before hydrolysis results in a 1,5-dicarbonyl compound. [405]
  31. Fathers and Sons or Ottsy i Deti --> Bazarov and Arkady Kirsanov, two young nihilists, visit Anna Odintsova and Fenechka eventually marries Arkady's father, in this Ivan Turgenev novel. [406]
  32. "The Torrents of Spring" or "The Spring Floods" or "Veshniye Vody" (accept rough equivalents to any title) --> In this Turgenev short story, named for the seasonal thaw's results, Dmitry Sanin remembers a trip to Frankfurt during which he revived Emil and fell in love with his older sister Gemma Roselli. [407]
  33. Tempietto --> Its circular peristyle surrounds a cylindrical cella. Name this work, confined to a narrow courtyard, that marks where St. Peter was said to have been martyred.
  34. Donato Bramante --> This architect designed the Tempietto, as well as the Belvedere Courtyard.
  35. St. Peter's Basilica or Basilica of St. Peter or Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano --> Bramante was the original architect of this massive church in the Vatican. [408]
  36. Polymerase Chain Reaction --> The ability to amplify genetic material in the laboratory has allowed the development of genetic sequencing. This process, invented by Kerry Mullis uses specifically designed primers to amplify a small amount of DNA using in vitro cycles of DNA replication.
  37. Taq polymerase accept Thermus aquaticus --> In PCR, the DNA-enzyme mixture must be heated to denature DNA strands. In order to avoid the destruction of the polymerase enzyme during cycling, this form of polymerase, discovered in a thermophilic bacterium, is used.
  38. dideoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (that's ddNTP for convenience) --> To sequence DNA, one carries out DNA replication in the presence of these molecules which, if incorporated into a DNA strand, will halt replication due to their lack of a three prime hydroxyl group. [409]
  39. Pea Ridge or Elkhorn Tavern --> This greatest of Trans-Mississippi battles was a major loss for Earl van Dom's Confederates, securing Missouri for the Union, though fought in Arkansas in 1862. [410]
  40. the Midgard Serpent or Jörmungandr --> This world-encircling offspring of Loki and Angrboda will kill Thor at Ragnarok. [411]
  41. The Good Woman of Szechuan or The Good Person of Szechuan --> Written while in exile in the United States, this 1948 play revolves around the hospitable prostitute Shen Te and her fictitious male cousin Shui Ta. [412]
  42. the Bab or BOB --> The Baha'i faith was founded by Siyyid 'Ali-Muhammad, who took this title, meaning "gate", for himself. His tomb in Haifa is an important destination for Baha'is. [413]
  43. Shoemaker-Levy 9 --> This comet was discovered orbiting Jupiter in 1993. This turned out to be its final orbit, as it broke up and crashed into the planet the following year.
  44. Tempel-Tuttle --> The 33-year cycle of the Leonid meteor shower corresponds to the period of this comet whose orbital dust is the origin of the Leonids every November. [414]
  45. William S. Gilbert and Sir Arthur Sullivan --> They collaborated on 14 operas over 25 years. Name this British duo whose first joint effort was 1871's Thepsis.
  46. The Mikado --> This 1885 Gilbert and Sullivan offering had an original run of 672 nights and features characters like Yum-Yum, Nanki-poo, and Poo-Bah - Lord High Everything Else.
  47. Patience --> It has been theorized that Oscar Wilde was the basis for Bunthorne, the main character of this comic opera that satirizes the English aesthetic at the time. [415]
  48. "Museé des Beaux Arts" --> W. H. Auden muses about Brueghel's Icarus in this poem, which ends with a description of how the "expensive delicate ship" that observed Icarus' fall "sailed calmly on." [416]
  49. "In Memory of W. B. Yeats" --> This three-part poem, which repeats the line "The day of his death was a dark cold day", describes the titular figure as "silly like us" who Time "pardons for writing well." [417]
  50. Treaty of Westphalia or Peace of Westphalia [418]
  51. Cyrus the Great or Cyrus II or Cyrus the Elder [419]
  52. Sunflower Sutra --> The narrator claims that "we're not out of our skin of grime, we're not our dread bleak dusty imageless locomotive." Name this poem, in which the narrator grabs "the skeleton thick" title plant and "stuck it at [his] side like a scepter". [420]
  53. Baja California or Lower California --> This northernmost state of Mexico has its capital at Tijuana. It's bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and by the Sea of Cortes on the east. [421]
  54. Korea (accept obvious equivalents) --> Recent historical work has discredited the notion that Yamato-era Japan exercised dominion over this place, which was later ruled independently by the Paekje, Silla and Choson dynasties. [422]
  55. "The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World" or "El abogado mas hermoso del mundo" --> While some believe that his name could be Lautaro , it is eventually discovered that the title character's name is Esteban. The villagers become the kinsmen of the title character, who is too large and heavy for chairs and extraordinarily beautiful in this short story. [423]
  56. Leaf Storm or La Hojarasca --> "The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World" appears in this debut short story collection by Gabriel Garcia Marguez, named for a title yarn in which Isabel remembers Meme and the suicidal Doctor. [424]
  57. IR or infrared spectroscopy --> This form of spectroscopy uses light with wavelengths longer than visible light to probe the vibrational modes of chemical bonds. It plots the transmittance of light at wavenumbers from about 4000 to 400 inverse centimeters.
  58. fingerprint region --> The region of an IR spectrum from about 400 to 1600 inverse centimeters is given this name because its complex bands provide a great deal of structural information to identify a molecule.
  59. scissoring, wagging, twisting, and rocking --> For five points each, name any two of the four modes of vibration in chemical bonds besides symmetrical and asymmetrical stretching that are typically probed in IR spectroscopy. [425]
  60. Harold en Italie or Harold in Italy --> This second symphony of Hector Berlioz' notably features a violin solo due to a request from Paganini. Based on a poem by Lord Byron, it features such movements as "Marche des pélerins" and "Orgie des brigands". [426]
  61. Pope Martin V (prompt on partial answer) --> This man was chosen as pope to end the Great Schism. Dying soon after calling the Council of Basel, he had earlier called a council at Pavia. [427]
  62. D'' "D double prime" or "D prime prime" -->The Gutenberg discontinuity occurs around the top of this layer, named according to Keith Bullen's system, which comprises the lowermost 200 km of the mantle, and may be made of the mineral post-perovskite. [428]
  63. Gilbert Stuart --> Arguably the most famous portrait of George Washington, which appears on the one-dollar bill, is by this American portraitist who also depicted Washington in the Lansdowne Portrait and painted The Skater.
  64. Emmanuel Leutze --> This German immigrant created a work sometimes called Westward, Ho! for the US Capitol, but his fame rests on his work Washington Crossing the Delaware.
  65. Charles Wilson Peale --> This American painted several portraits of Washington and other early Presidents. He also painted a portrait of his sons Raphaelle and Titian in his The Staircase Group, as well as The Exhumation of the Mastadon. [429]
  66. Holomorphic functions or Analytic functions --> These functions have values in the complex plane C that are complex differentiable at every point. [430]
  67. Bronisław Kasper Malinowski --> This anthropologist wrote Sex and Repression in Savage Society, along with Coral Gardens and Their Magic, Myth in Primitive Society and the preface to Jomo Kenyatta's Facing Mount Kenya. [431]
  68. Fresnel number --> This number, the square of the aperture radius divided by the distance to the screen and the wavelength of light, determines whether Fraunhofer diffraction or the other major type of diffraction takes place. [432]
  69. Remembrance of Things Past or In Search of Lost Time or À la recherche du temps perdu --> Marcel Proust may be better known for writing about The Captive, [Time Regained]] and Swann's Way in this fourteen-year series about memories. [433]
  70. Joseph Gurney Cannon --> He was the first Congressman to serve for over 40 years, but his reputation was diminished by his pugnacious manner. Identify this "explosive" speaker of the House of Representatives, who held the post from 1903 to 1911. [434]
  71. Gifford Pinchot and Richard Ballinger (either order, 5 points for each correct answer) --> Taft was also hurt by the controversy between these two men; one the chief of the Forest Service, the other a Secretary of the Interior who opened public lands in Alaska for private development. [435]
  72. zakah or zakat --> This pillar, whose name means "purify" or "foster", is the practice of alms-giving to the poor. The minimal level of wealth above which one must perform it is called the nisab. [436]
  73. D-Day or Operation Overlord or Battle of Normandy or Debarquement [437]
  74. Napoleon Bonaparte (accept either) [438]
  75. the Serengeti Plain (generously prompt on Tanzania before it is read) [439]
  76. Charles Ives [440]
  77. If on a winter's night a traveler or Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore [441]
  78. Pere Goriot or Old Goriot or Father Goriot [442]
  79. New Brutalism or Brutalism [443]
  80. United States v. Butler (accept reverse order) [444]
  81. Enigma Variations --> The seventh work is known as "Ysobel" and the tenth is "Dorabella". Name this work officially called "Variations on an Original Theme for Orchesra", whose best known section is the ninth, known as "Nimrod".
  82. Edward Elgar --> This British composer wrote the Enigma Variations, as well as some Pomp and Circumstance marches.
  83. Cockaigne Overture --> This concert overture by Elgar was intended as a humorous depiction of London, as it is alternately called "In London Town". [445]
  84. DNA polymerase --> This enzyme catalyzes the addition of base pairs to the 3-prime end of a growing DNA strand.
  85. Okazaki fragments --> Because DNA polymerase can only catalyze the growth of DNA strands from the 5-prime to the 3-prime direction, one of the two strands forms these short pieces, which are later joined together by ligase.
  86. D-Loop or displacement loop --> Replication in chloroplasts and mitochondria is given this name based on the structure found at the start site, which is defined as a region where double stranded DNA is separated, with a third strand between them. [446]
  87. The Tale of Genji or Genji Monogatari --> Hundreds of tanka are exchanged by Fujitsibo, Kitayama, and other characters in this work by Lady Murasaki Shikibu. [447]
  88. The Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves or Collection of Myriad Leaves or Collection of Myriad Ages (accept further such variants; or Man'yoshu [448]
  89. Edict of Worms (accept Diet of Worms or Reichstags zu Worms) --> This theological meeting lasted from January 28 to May 25, 1521 in a small town on the Rhine and promised safe passage to Martin Luther. [449]
  90. norm --> If this can be defined on a vector-space, that space is a Banach space. Name this quantity that describes the length of a vector.
  91. the L2-norm (accept Euclidian Norm) --> For a vector, this type of norm is the square root of the sum of the squares of each of the vector component's complex modulus. [450]
  92. John von Neumann's inequality --> An inequality named for this developer of a computer architecture says the norm of a polynomial of a matrix with norm one is less than or equal to the maximum modulus of that polynomial evaluated on the complex unit disk. [451]
  93. A Modest Proposal For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland From Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public --> It proposes a method that will best foolish expedients like taxing absentees, promoting thrift, or buying locally-produced goods. Name this 1730 essay, which hopes that the method discussed will incidentally reduce the Catholic population. [452]
  94. "The Shortest Way With Dissenters" --> 27 years earlier, Daniel Defoe made his own satiric modest proposal of killing all of the religious opposition in this pamphlet; most readers thought he was serious. [453]
  95. Watson and the Shark --> This J. S. Copley painting shows a swimming youth about to get got by the titular animal off the coast of Havana.
  96. The Gulf Stream --> This Winslow Homer painting, presumably set in a notable current, shows a shirtless black man in a sail-less dinghy, surrounded by sharks.
  97. Damien Hirst --> A mako shark is suspended in preservatives in this guy's The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living. [454]
  98. an isocyanate --> In this type of molecule, a nitrogen atom is double-bonded to a carbon
  99. hydroxyl (accept alcohol) --> Di-isocyanates can be polymerized into polyurethane upon reaction with these simple functional groups defined by the presence of an -OH.
  100. surfactants --> The polyurethane polymerization reaction makes use of these molecules, which lower surface tension. [455]