Wikipedia:Geographic references

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The following is a list of sources used in the creation of encyclopedia articles on various geographic topics and locations, such as cities, counties, states, and countries. These sources are cited within the thousands of articles in Wikipedia.

International references[edit]


Geoscience Australia's place name search


On this wiki, we will use the Third Population Census of Bangladesh, which was conducted by Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics on 12, 13, 14 and 15 March, 1991 because the latest census data is not released online yet.

  • Data from the 1991 Census.[4]
Serial Year
First 1974
Second 1981
Third 1991
Fourth 2001 [5]


Bangladesh started census taking in 1872, and then the second census was undertaken in 1881. After that, First Census (Pro Independent) was held 1974 because of the liberation war, and second census was held 1981 and then every 10 years.


  • 2000 census results, per city/municipality[6]
  • 2004 population estimates, less information, but in a single excel file[7]


  • 2001 census results, including provinces (population, gender, ethnic group, religion and mother tongue) and municipalities (population and gender)[8]
  • Most recent population data by province, village.[9]


  • Statistics Canada: Data from the most recent census on cities across Canada is available here.[10]


  • Demographic data is from the Population Register Centre.[11]

Hong Kong[edit]

  • Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong[12]


  • Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns. (Provisional) [13]
  • Census of India 2001: Final data of the 2001 census.



  • Central Statistics Office Ireland: Data from the 2002 Census, including cities, villages, towns, counties and Gaeltacht regions.[15]


  • ISTAT, the official census arm of the Italian government, provides detailed demographic breakdowns and aggregate population figures for all the comuni, provinces and regions: currently the latest census year available is 2003.[16]
  • Guida ai Comuni d' Italia (Metropolis), an unofficial site that reproduces ISTAT data from other census years, and other information from official sources (surface areas of the comuni, names of frazioni and località, etc.)[17]


  • Statistics Norway (In Norwegian)[18]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

  • United Nations in Papua New Guinea (2018). "Papua New Guinea Village Coordinates Lookup". Humanitarian Data Exchange. 1.31.9.

United States[edit]

The United States Census Bureau's 2000 Census gazetteer. This was the primary source for the latitude and longitude values for about 23,500 U.S. cities. The data are indexed by state, county, and place FIPS codes.[19]
The United States Census Bureau's 2000 Census data. Much of the geographic and demographic information for the U.S. states, counties, and cities came from the data on the site. The data is not totally accurate due to various polling errors, but it is a very good estimate. See the Bureau's website for more information. The data were used for the following topics: geographic areas (total, land, and water), population and housing unit densities, demographic spreads across race, age, sex, and income. The data are indexed by state, county, and place FIPS codes. See also Race (United States Census) for a list of the definition of race according to the U.S. Census Bureau.[20]
The Geographic Names Information System developed by the United States Geological Survey. The data contain information on a wide range of geographic features such as populated places, rivers, mountains, etc. The data provided include geographic coordinates, elevation, population (if applicable), and the FIPS codes for the state and county containing the feature (but not the feature itself).[21] Note that elevations might be interpolated, locations of non-point features may be either approximate centres or mouths, and locations of cities may be arbitrary choices of a feature within the city. Buildings, post offices, and several other feature classes were added during phase 2, but were removed in 2017 when they were considered in retrospect too burdensome to maintain. Some data views may have been based upon topical subsets, such as the National Map Names, or the "Concise" and "Historic" lists. See also Wikipedia:Reliability of GNIS data.
The FIPS55 database, which contains standardized codes for populated places in the United States. The system describes the codes and the relationships between different entities, such as the part of relationship between a U.S. state and a county. It also contains ZIP code information.[22]
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency's database of foreign geographic feature names. Excludes information on the United States and Antarctica. Includes geographical coordinates in the WGS-84 format. Site also includes information on the FIPS10 standard.[23]
A list of the U.S. county seats: National Association of Counties (Most, but not all counties)
Montana Natural Resource Information System
Contains information on a wide range of geographic topics related to the U.S. state of Montana.[24]

See also[edit]