Help:IPA for Arabic

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The chart below explains how Wikipedia represents Arabic pronunciations with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

To be exact, pronunciations given are those of Modern Standard Arabic. Actual pronunciations differ, depending on the native variety of Arabic of the speaker. For a more thorough look at the sounds of Arabic, see Arabic phonology.

The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols which do not resemble any Latin letter are placed at the end.

Symbol English
approximation
Arabic
letter/symbol
Usual
romanization
Notes
A–B
a bat َ a e [a]
father ا ى ā aa a [b]
aj bay ي ay ey ai ei e [c]
aw /a/+/w/ و aw au o [d]
b bee ب b [e]
D
d deal د d [f]
emphatic /d/,
somewhat close to dark
ض [g][f]
jam ج j ǧ dj [h]
ð these ذ dh ḏ [i]
ðˤ emphatic /ð/ ظ [g][j]
F–H
f father ف f [k]
h he ه h
ħ No equivalent ح [l]
I–K
i sit[1] ِ i e [m]
machine ي ī ee i [n]
j yes ي y
k skin ك k [o]
L–N
l lease (Received Pronunciation) ل l
ɫ tool l [p]
m me م m
n no ن n
O–R
θ think ث th ṯ [i]
q somewhat close to c in scar ق q g [q]
r somewhat close to ray ر r [r]
S
s see س s
emphatic /s/,
somewhat close to massage
ص [g]
ʃ she ش sh š ch
T–W
t stik ت   (sometimes ة) t [f][o]
emphatic /t/,
somewhat close to star
ط [g][f]
u put ُ u o ou [s]
rule و ū oo ou u [t]
w we و w
X–Z
x Scottish loch,
Spanish jota
خ kh ḫ [u]
ɣ Spanish fuego,
French parler
غ gh ġ [v]
z zoo ز z
Other
ʔ The pause in uh-oh!;
Cockney butter
ء ʾ ' [w]
ʕ no equivalent ع ʿ ' ` [x][y]
θ see under O—R
ˈ [ˈkiːwi] كيوي 'kiwi' Indicates that the following syllable is stressed,
e.g. /ˈʕarabiː/.
ː [kiːs] كيس 'sack' Means that the preceding vowel is long

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Allophones of /a/ include [ɑ] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r] and [æ] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  2. ^ Allophones of /aː/ include [ɑː] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r]; and [æː] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  3. ^ In colloquial pronunciation, /aj/ may be realized as []~[ɛː] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595; Kaye 1997, p. 198).
  4. ^ In colloquial pronunciation, /aw/ may be realized as []~[ɔː] may occur (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595; Kaye 1997, p. 198).
  5. ^ The letter ب may represent [p] in foreign loanwords (sometimes written پ) as well as before voiceless consonants (Kaye 1997, p. 193).
  6. ^ a b c d /d dˤ t tˤ/ are realized as either dental, denti-alveolar or alveolar (Al-Ani 2008, p. 597).
  7. ^ a b c d Emphatic consonants may be equally pharyngealized or velarized (Al-Ani 2008, p. 599; Kaye 1997, p. 193).
  8. ^ The letter ج is pronounced as [ɡ] in Egypt, [ʒ] in the Levant and Maghreb (Al-Ani 2008, p. 598; Gairdner 1925, p. 23).
  9. ^ a b In non-standard pronunciations, /θ/ and /ð/ may be pronounced as [s] and [z] (Gairdner 1925, p. 19, 81).
  10. ^ The letter ظ is realized as [ðˤ] or [] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 601).
  11. ^ The letter ف may represent [v] in foreign loanwords (sometimes written ڤ or ڥ), and may be pronounced as well as before voiced consonants (Kaye 1997, p. 193).
  12. ^ /ħ/ is realized as [ħ] or [ʜ].
  13. ^ Allophones of /i/ include [ɪ]~[ɨ] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  14. ^ Allophones of /iː/ include [ɪː]~[ɨː] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  15. ^ a b /k/ is usually aspirated (Al-Ani 2008, p. 597–598).
  16. ^ [ɫ] only occurs in the word Allah: [ɑɫˈɫɑh] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 600; Kaye 1997, p. 196).
  17. ^ /q/ may be pronounced as [ʔ] in Egypt and the Levant, [ɡ] or [ɢ] in other dialects (Gairdner 1925, p. 26–27).
  18. ^ /r/ is either a trill [r] or flap [ɾ]. May be velarized or pharyngealized as well (Al-Ani 2008, p. 600).
  19. ^ Allophones of /u/ include [ʊ]~[ɤ]~[o] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  20. ^ Allophones of /uː/ include [ʊː]~[ɤː]~[] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  21. ^ /x/ is realized as [x] or [χ].
  22. ^ /ɣ/ is realized as [ɣ] or [ʁ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 599; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 598; Gairdner 1925, p. 26).
  23. ^ /ʔ/ is usually written above or below three letters: أ, إ, آ, ئ, ؤ.
  24. ^ /ʕ/ is realized as [ʕ] or [ʔˤ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 599; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 51).
  25. ^ /ʢ/ Neither pharyngeal nor fricative, but is more correctly described as a creaky-voiced epiglottal approximant (Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)).

References[edit]

  • Al-Ani, Salman H. (2008). "Phonetics". Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics III. Brill. pp. 593–603. 
  • Gairdner, W. H. T. (1925). The Phonetics of Arabic. Oxford University Press. 
  • Kaye, Alan S. (1997). "Arabic phonology". Phonologies of Asia and Africa I. pp. 187–204. 
  • Mitchell, T. F. (1990). Pronouncing Arabic I. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'adeddin, M. Akram (1999). "Arabic". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 51–54. 
  1. ^ http://www.madinaharabic.com/Arabic_Reading_Course/Lessons/L000_002.html