Help:IPA for Estonian and Finnish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Estonian and Finnish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See Finnish phonology and Estonian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages.

IPA Examples English approximation
d Finnish ladot adept
h hevonen horse
j joulu yoyo
k kala scold
l laulu lack
[1] Estonian only: lk leep
m metsä, onpa mocha
n nenä nanny
[1] Estonian only: vann onion
p puu spill
r rauta rolled r
s sinä sole
[1] Estonian only: vastik super (some dialects)
t tina stand
[1] Estonian only: vatt at you
ʋ viha Between v and w
ˈ hevonen Normally placed on the first syllable.
hernekeitto ['her']

Tule! ['tu'le]
Both syllables in two-syllable imperatives and two first syllables in some compound words.
IPA Examples English approximation
ɑ pouta Like father, but shorter
ɑː poutaa father
æ pöytä cat
æː päivää mad
e[2] terve let
[2] eesti émigré
i viha kid
siika see
o[2] oksa chore
[2] koostaa sole
ø[2] pöytä No English equivalent; somewhat like bird
øː[2] säröön Same as above but longer
ɤ Estonian only: õlu No English equivalent; somewhat like cup or wood
ɤː Estonian only: õõnsus Same as above but longer
u surma wood
suu, ruoan coop
y Finnish kesy
Estonian küla
No English equivalent; somewhat like cube
Finnish ryyppy
Estonian rüüpa
Same as above but longer

Finnish diphthongs[edit]

IPA Examples English approximation
ɑi aika aisle, eye
ɑu aura how
æi äiti main in some Australian dialects
æy täytyy no English equivalent
ei ei, hei heyday
eu neutraali No English equivalent. Spanish and Italian neutro.
ey keskeytyä no English equivalent
ie kieli (standard pronunciation) no English equivalent
iu viulu no English equivalent
IPA Examples English approximation
iy siistiytyä no English equivalent
oi koittaa, koettaa coin
ou outo American pronunciation of no, oh
øi töi No English equivalent. French feuille.
øy pöyristyä roughly like the British pronunciation of no, oh
ui muita No English equivalent. Spanish muy, French grenouille, Portuguese anuis, Italian lui.
uo Suomi (standard pronunciation) No English equivalent. Spanish cuota, Italian quota.
yi syi No English equivalent. French huit.
yø , ttä (standard pronunciation) no English equivalent

Estonian diphthongs[edit]

ae, ai, ao, au, äe, äi, äo, äu, ea, ei, eo, iu, oa, oe, oi, ou, õa, õe, õi, õo, õu, öa, öe, öi, ui, üi.


  1. ^ a b c d In Estonian, the palatalized consonants, /tʲ nʲ sʲ lʲ/ are pronounced like their non-palatalized counterparts, but with constriction of the tongue towards the hard palate, as if pronouncing a simultaneous /j/.
  2. ^ a b c d e f The open-mid vowels [ɛ œ ɔ] may also be seen for /e ø o/.

External links[edit]