Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-hns}}, {{IPA-hi}}, {{IPA-ur}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Hindustani phonology, Devanagari, and Urdu alphabet for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindi-Urdu.

Key[edit]

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
b बीस بیس bīs cabbie
भालू بھالو bhālū clubhouse
d[1] दाल دال dāl ado (but dental), Spanish andar
[1] धूप دھوپ dhūp redhead (but dental)
जान جان jān budging
dʒʱ झड़ना جھڑنا jhaṛnā hedgehog
ɖ[1] डालना ڈالنا ālnā ado
ɖʱ[1] ढक्कन ڈھکّن ḍhakkan redhead
f ख़िलाफ़ خلاف k͟hilāf fuss
ɡ गोल گول gol ago
ɡʱ घर گھر ghar loghouse
ɣ[2] बाग़ باغ ġ similar to a French r
ɦ हम ہم ham ahead
हुक्म حکم ukm
j याद یاد yād yuck
k कमज़ोर کمزور kamzor scab
खाल کھال khāl cab
l लब لب lab leaf
m मगर مگر magar much
n नहीं نہیں nahī̃ not (but dental)
ɳ[3] चरण چرن cara not
ŋ रङ्ग رن٘گ rag bang
p पल پل pal spot
फल پھل phal pot
q[2] क़रीब قریب qarīb somewhat like caught
r[4] रस رس ras Trilled R
ज़र्रा ذرّہ zarrā
ɾ[4] ज़रा ذرا zarā American atom
ɽ लड़ना لڑنا la American garter
ɽʱ पढ़ाई پڑھائی paṛhāī no English equivalent
s सब سب sab sun
साफ़ صاف āf
साबित ثابت ābit
ʂ[3] नष्ट نشٹ na shrew
ʃ काश کاش ś shoe
t[1] तालाब تالاب tālāb stub (but dental), Spanish tomar
लतीफ़ा لطیفہ laīfa
[1] थैला تھیلا thailā tub (but dental)
चोर چور cor catch
tʃʰ छोड़ना چھوڑنا choṛnā achoo
ʈ[1] टमाटर ٹماٹر amāar stub
ʈʰ[1] ठंड ٹھنڈ ṭhanḍ tub
ʋ[5] वर्ज़िश ورزش varziś vat
w[5] पकवान پكوان pakvān well
x[2] ख़राब خراب k͟harāb Scottish loch
z काग़ज़ کاغذ kāġaz zoo
ʒ अझ़दहा اژدہا aždahā pleasure
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
काम کام kām father
जेब جیب jeb say
ɛ[6] रहना رہنا rêhnā pen
ɛː कैसा کیسا kai fairy
ə कल کَل kal about
ɪ जितना جِتنا jitnā sit
जीतना جیتنا jītnā seat
बोलो بولو bolo border
ɔː कौन کَون kaun horse
ʊ उन اُن un book
ऊन اُون ūn moon
◌̃ हँस ہن٘س has nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
मैं مَیں mai
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Notes
ˈ◌ [ˈbaːɦər] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Hindi and Urdu contrast dental [t] and [d] with apical postalveolar [ʈ] and [ɖ] (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers.
  2. ^ a b c Mainly phonemes of Urdu. Some Hindi speakers may replace [ɣ], [q] and [x] with [gʱ], [k] and [kʰ] respectively.
  3. ^ a b Mainly phonemes of Hindi. Urdu speakers usually replace [ɳ] and [ʂ] with [n] and [ʃ] respectively.
  4. ^ a b /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill.
  5. ^ a b [w] occurs as an allophone of [ʋ] when / و/ is in an onglide position between an onset consonant and a following vowel while [ʋ], which may phonetically be [v], occurs otherwise.
  6. ^ [ɛ] occurs as an allophone of /ə/ near an /ɦ/ that is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa becomes silent, which results in an [ɛ] preceding an /ɦ/.