Help:IPA for Italian

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The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet represents pronunciations of Italian in Wikipedia articles.

See Italian phonology for a more thorough overview of the sounds of Italian. There is also an Italian pronunciation guide at Wiktionary.

To learn more about the correspondence between spelling and sounds, see Italian orthography.

Consonants[1]
IPA Examples English approximation
b banca, cibo bike
d dove, idra done
dz zaino, azalea, mezzo[2][3] dads
gelo, giù, magia, judo, gadget[4] job
f fatto, cifra, phon fast
ɡ gatto, agro, glifo, ghetto gas
k cosa, acuto, finché, quei, kiwi[4] scar
l lato, tela lip
ʎ figli, glielo, maglia[3] billion
m mano, amare, input, anfibio[5] mother
n nano, punto, pensare[5] nest
ŋ unghia, anche, dunque[5] sing
ɲ gnocco, ogni[3] canyon
p primo, ampio, apertura[4] spin
r Roma, quattro, morte trilled r
s sano, scusa, presentire, pasto sorry
ʃ scena, scià, pesci, flash, chic[3] shoe
t tranne, mito, altro, thai[4] star
ts zio, sozzo, marzo[2][3] cats
certo, ciao, farmacia, chip check
v vado, povero, watt vent
z sbirro, presentare, asma zipper
Non-native consonants
h hobby, hertz[4][6] house
θ Thatcher, Pérez[4][7] thing
x khamsin, Bach, jota[8] loch (Scottish English)
ʒ Fuji, abat-jour, garage, casual[4] vision
Vowels[9]
IPA Examples English approximation
a alto, sarà, must, clown father
e vero, perché, liaison hey
ɛ elica, cioè, cash, play, spread bed
i viso, sì, zia, feed, team, sexy ski
o ombra, otto, show, coach tow (American English)
ɔ otto, sarò, Sean off (RP)
u usi, ragù, tuo, look, tour rule
Non-native vowels
ø viveur, goethiano, Churchill[10] murder (RP)
y parure, brûlé, Führer[11] future (Scottish English)
 
Semivowels
IPA Examples English approximation
j ieri, saio, più, Jesi, yacht, news you
w uova, guado, qui, week-end wine
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ Cennini [tʃenˈniːni] primary stress
ˌ altamente [ˌaltaˈmente] secondary stress[12]
. continuo [konˈtiːnu.o] syllable break
ː primo [ˈpriːmo] long vowel[13]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ If consonants are doubled after a vowel, they are geminated: all consonants may be geminated except for /z/. In IPA, gemination is represented by doubling the consonant (fatto /ˈfatto/, mezzo /ˈmɛddzo/) or by using the length marker ⟨ː⟩. There is also the sandhi of syntactic gemination: va via /ˌva vˈviːa/).
  2. ^ a b ⟨z⟩ represents both /ts/ and /dz/. The article on Italian orthography explains how they are used.
  3. ^ a b c d e /dz/, /ts/, /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated after a vowel.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g In Tuscany [h], [ɸ], [θ] and [ʒ] are the common allophones of vowel-following single /k/, /p/, /t/ and /dʒ/.
  5. ^ a b c The nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/ ~ /nk/ is a velar [ŋ], and the one in /nf/ ~ /nv/ is the labiodental [ɱ], but for simplicity, ⟨m⟩ is used here. A nasal before /p/, /b/ and /m/ is always the labial [m].
  6. ^ /h/ is usually dropped.
  7. ^ /θ/ is usually pronounced as [t] in English loanwords, and [dz], [ts] (if spelled ⟨z⟩) or [s] (if spelled ⟨c⟩ or ⟨z⟩) in Spanish ones.
  8. ^ In Spanish loanwords, /x/ is usually pronounced as [h], [k] or dropped. In German, Arabic and Russian ones, it is usually pronounced [k].
  9. ^ Italian contrasts seven monophthongs in stressed syllables. Open-mid vowels /ɛ, ɔ/ can appear only if the syllable is stressed (coperto /koˈpɛrto/, quota /ˈkwɔːta/), close-mid vowels /e, o/ are found elsewhere (Boccaccio /bokˈkattʃo/, amore /aˈmoːre/). Close and open vowels /i, u, a/ are unchanged in unstressed syllables, but word-final unstressed /i/ may become approximant [j] before vowels, which is known as synalepha (pari età /ˌparj eˈta/).
  10. ^ Open-mid [œ] or close-mid [ø] if it is stressed but usually [ø] if it is unstressed. May be replaced by [ɛ] (stressed) or [e] (stressed or unstressed).
  11. ^ /y/ is often pronounced as [u] or [ju].
  12. ^ Since Italian has no distinction between heavier or lighter vowels (like the English o in conclusion vs o in nomination), a defined secondary stress, even in long words, is extremely rare.
  13. ^ Stressed vowels are long in non-final open syllables: fato [ˈfaːto] ~ fatto [ˈfatto].

External links[edit]