Help:IPA for Italian
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To learn more about the correspondence between spelling and sounds, see Italian orthography.
- If the consonants are doubled after a vowel, they are geminated (all consonants may be geminated except for /z/). In International Phonetic Alphabet, gemination may be represented by doubling the consonant (fatto /ˈfatto/, mezzo /ˈmɛddzo/) or by the length marker ⟨ː⟩. There is also a sandhi, called syntactic gemination: va via /va vˈviːa/).
- ⟨z⟩ represents both /ts/ and /dz/. Italian orthography explains how they are used.
- /dz/, /ts/, /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated after a vowel.
- The nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/~/nk/ is a velar [ŋ], and the one in /nf/~/nv/ is a labiodental [ɱ] (for simplicity, however, ⟨m⟩ is used in the list). A nasal before /p/, /b/ and /m/ is always the labial [m].
- Usually dropped.
- Please note that in the Tuscan gorgia [h], [θ] and [ʒ] are the common allophones of vowel-following single /k/, /t/ and /dʒ/, respectively; e.g. matematica /mateˈmaːtika/ → [maθeˈmaːθiha], agitazione /adʒitatˈtsjoːne/ → [aʒiθatˈtsjoːne].
- Usually realized as [t] in English loans; commonly [dz], [z] (if spelled ⟨z⟩) or [s] (if spelled either ⟨c⟩ or ⟨z⟩) in Spanish ones.
- In Spanish loanwords, it is usually realized as [h] or dropped; in German, Arabic and Russian ones, it is usually pronounced [k].
- Italian contrasts seven monophthongs in stressed syllables. Open-mid vowels /ɛ ɔ/ can appear only if the syllable is stressed (coperto /koˈpɛrto/, quota /ˈkwɔːta/), close-mid vowels /e o/ are found elsewhere (Boccaccio /bokˈkattʃo/, amore /aˈmoːre/). Open and close vowels /a i u/ are unchanged in unstressed syllables, but word-final unstressed /i/ may become an approximant [j] before vowels, which is known as synalepha (pari età /ˌparj eˈta/).
- Open-mid [œ] or close-mid [ø] if stressed but usually [ø] when unstressed. May be replaced by [ɛ] (stressed) or [e] (stressed or unstressed).
- Often realized as [u] or [ju].
- Since Italian has no distinction between heavier or lighter vowels (like the English o in conclusion vs o in nomination), a defined secondary stress, even in long words, is extremely rare.
- Stressed vowels are long in a non-final open syllable: fato /ˈfaːto/ ~ fatto /ˈfatto/.
- (Italian) Dizionario italiano multimediale e multilingue d'ortografia e di pronunzia (not based on IPA)
- (Italian) Dizionario di pronuncia italiana online by Luciano Canepari (based on IPA)