Help:IPA for Ukrainian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Ukrainian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Ukrainian contrasts palatalized "soft" and unpalatalized "hard" consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript ⟨j/ ʲ /, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like in the /j/ sound in yes. The "hard" vs. "soft" distinction is phonemic for only nine pairs and may otherwise be ignored.

See Ukrainian phonology for more details on Ukrainian sounds.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
b бог boot
d дим do
дім, мідь dew
d͡z дзеркало pads
d͡zʲ ґедзь, дзьоб
d͡ʒ джміль jump; ridge
f фарба fool
ɡ ґанок goo
ɦ газета behind
йти, гай, найшов coin
j йога[1] yes
k ключ cooper
l лось leg
лід, сіль least
m мир moot; mute
n небо noon
ніжний, день new
p пил poo
r лікар trilled r, like in Spanish
річка
s суп soup
сіно, вісь suit
ʃ шпарина shop
t тин tool
тінь, мить tune
t͡s цибуля cats
t͡sʲ ціна, вінець
t͡ʃ очерет choose
β віл

вчитель[2], став

between baby and bevy
wine
x ховрах Bach; loch
z зуб zoo
зіллю, різьба azure
ʒ жито measure; garage
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Stressed
ɑ ɐ гай, мрія

країна

father
ɛ мета, є met
e мине, мене, Петре dress
i кіт, їжа key
ɪ миша six
ɔ o поле, льон

домівка

born
u дух, лють hook
ʊ туди put
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ Stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ː Gemination[3] (doubled consonant)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The "soft" (palatalized) vowel letters ⟨є, ї, ю, я⟩ represent a /j/ and a vowel at the beginning of a word or after a vowel.
  2. ^ The /w/ phoneme has two allophones:
    • Bilabial approximant [β̞] (transcribed here [β] for simplicity) before vowels;
    • Labialized velar semivowel [u̯] before a consonant at the beginning of word, after a vowel before a consonant or after a vowel at the end of a word (Жовтобрюх & Кулик (1965:121–122)).
  3. ^ In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: багаття /bɑˈɦɑtʲːɑ/ bonfire, подружжя /pɔˈdruʒːɑ/ married couple, обличчя face. Geminates also occur at the beginning of a few words: лляний /ˈlʲːɑnɪj/ flaxen, forms of the verb лити to pour (ллю /lʲːu/, ллєш /lʲːɛʃ/ etc.), ссати /ˈsːɑtɪ/ to suck and derivatives.[citation needed]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-929075-08-3 
  • Жовтобрюх, М.А.; Кулик, Б.М. (1965), Курс сучасної української літературної мови. Частина I., Kiev: Радянська школа