Help:IPA/Ukrainian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Ukrainian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Ukrainian contrasts palatalized "soft" and unpalatalized "hard" consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript ⟨j/ ʲ /, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like in the /j/ sound in yes. The "hard" vs. "soft" distinction is phonemic for only nine pairs and may otherwise be ignored.

See Ukrainian phonology for more details on Ukrainian sounds.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
b бог boot
d дим do
дім, мідь dew
d͡z дзе́ркало pads
d͡zʲ ґедзь, дзьоб
d͡ʒ джміль jump; ridge
f фарба fool
ɡ ґа́нок goo
ɦ газета behind
йти, гай, найшов coin
j йога[1] yes
k ключ cooper
l лось leg
лід, сіль least
m мир moot; mute
n не́бо noon
ніжний, день new
p пил poo
r лікар trilled r, like in Spanish
рі́чка
s суп soup
сіно, вісь suit
ʃ шпарина, вище[2] shop
t тин tool
тінь, мить tune
t͡s цибу́ля cats
t͡sʲ ціна́, віне́ць
t͡ʃ очерет, вище[2] choose
w віл between baby and bevy
вчитель,[3] став wine
x ховрах Bach; loch
z зуб zoo
зіллю, різьба azure
ʒ жи́то measure; garage
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Stressed
ɑ гай father
ɛ є met
i кіт, і́кла key
ɪ ми́ша six
ɔ по́ле, льон lot (RP)
u дух, лють hoop
Unstressed
ʊ туди́, ору́дний today
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ Stress

(placed before the stressed syllable)

ː Gemination[4](doubles the consonant)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The "soft" (palatalized) vowel letters ⟨є, ї, ю, я⟩ represent a /j/ and a vowel at the beginning of a word or after a vowel.
  2. ^ a b The consonant ⟨щ⟩ represents the two-phoneme cluster /ʃt͡ʃ/ in standard Ukrainian.
  3. ^ The /w/ phoneme, spelled ⟨в⟩, has two allophones:
    • Before vowels: a bilabial approximant [β̞] (transcribed here [β] for simplicity), or in some transcriptions a labiodental approximant [ʋ] especially before /i/;
    • Everywhere else, including word-initially before a consonant: a labialized velar semivowel [u̯] (Жовтобрюх & Кулик (1965:121–122)).
  4. ^ In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: багаття /bɑˈɦɑtʲːɑ/ bonfire, подружжя /pɔˈdruʒːɑ/ married couple, обличчя face. Geminates also occur at the beginning of a few words: лляний /ˈlʲːɑnɪj/ flaxen, forms of the verb лити to pour (ллю /lʲːu/, ллєш /lʲːɛʃ/ etc.), ссати /ˈsːɑtɪ/ to suck and derivatives.[citation needed]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-929075-08-3 
  • Жовтобрюх, М.А.; Кулик, Б.М. (1965), Курс сучасної української літературної мови. Частина I., Kiev: Радянська школа