Wikipedia:Jewish Encyclopedia topics/A3

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1001 to 1100[edit]

1001 – 1020[edit]

  1. Aholibamah (JE | wp gwp g) -- See O41: Oholibamah
  2. Ahot Ketannah (JE | wp gwp g) A pizmon (ritual poem) of eight stanzas, signed with the acrostic of Abraham Ḥazan, and sung in the Sephardic ritual...
  3. Ahriman (JE | wp gwp g) in the Mazdian religion, the evil deity, who has his real opposite in Spenta Mainyu, "the beneficent [holy] spirit." the latter...
  4. Isaac Ahrony (JE | wp gwp g) -- See C831: Courland
  5. Ahrweiler (JE | wp gwp g) Town of Rhenish Prussia, twenty-three miles northwest of Coblenz, on the river Ahr. It is mentioned in the year 1248 as containing...
  6. Mattithiah Ahrweiler (JE | wp gwp g) German rabbi; born about 1650 at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died at Heidelberg, September 19, 1728. At the time of his birth his...
  7. Ahub ben Meir Hanasia (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1007: Hanasia, Ahub ben Meir
  8. Solomon Ahudi (JE | wp gwp g) See Solomon b. Joseph ibn Ayub.
  9. Ahuramazda (JE | wp gwp g) -- See O133: Ormuzd
  10. Ai (JE | wp gwp g) A royal Canaanitish town, eastward from Beth-el in the northern part of the territory of the tribe of Benjamin, the seat of...
  11. Aibu (Ibu) (JE | wp gwp g) By this name, unaccompanied by patronymic or cognomen, are known four amoraim, three of whom were members of the family of...
  12. Aibu (Ibu) (JE | wp gwp g) A prominent haggadist of the fourth amoraic generation (fourth century), contemporary of Judah (Judan) b. Simon (b. Pazzi...
  13. Aibu (Ibu) b. Naggari (JE | wp gwp g) A Palestinian amora of the fourth generation (fourth century), disciple of Hila, and contemporary of Judah b. (Simon b.) Pazzi...
  14. Ain (JE | wp gwp g) 1. A city given to the Levites in the tribes of Judah and Simeon (Josh. xv. 32, xix. 7, xxi. 16; Neh. xi. 29). The Septuagint...
  15. Ain Kades (JE | wp gwp g) A well near the Arabah, first seen by Rowlands in 1842. He identified it with the Kadesh Barnea of the Bible. It was not seen...
  16. Ain Musa (JE | wp gwp g) A small oasis, about seven or eight miles southwest of Suez, Egypt. It is about 250 acres in extent, with luxuriant gardens...
  17. Aire (JE | wp gwp g) A fortified town on the river Adour, in southern France. There is no certainty that a Jewish community ever existed here;...
  18. Aix (JE | wp gwp g) A town in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, France, the Aquæ Sextiæ of the Romans, and for a short period...
  19. Aix-la-chapelle (Aachen) (JE | wp gwp g) A city in Rhenish Prussia, in which a Jewish settlement flourished during the time of the Roman empire. in the Carlovingian...
  20. Ajalon (JE | wp gwp g) A city in Palestine, from which the adjacent "Valley of Ajalon" took its name (Josh. x. 12). Its location is identical with...

1021 – 1040[edit]

  1. Ajas (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A2187: Ayas
  2. Akabah, Palestine ((Aqaba)) (JE | wp gwp g) See Eloth.
  3. 'Akabia ben Mahalalel JE (JE | wp gwp g) A religious teacher, probably of the second tannaitic generation (first and second centuries). of his early history nothing...
  4. Akbarites (JE | wp gwp g) -- See O44: Okbarites
  5. Akdamut (JE | wp gwp g) A mystical poem, written in Aramaic by Meir ben Isaac Nehorai, which is in the Ashkenazic usage interpolated after the opening...
  6. 'Akedah (JE | wp gwp g) This Biblical incident plays an important part in the Jewish liturgy. The earliest allusion to it in prayer occurs in the...
  7. Rachel Akerman JE (JE | wp gwp g) the earliest Jewess to write German poetry; born probably at Vienna, 1522; died at Iglau, Moravia, 1544. She appears to have...
  8. Akhaltzyk (JE | wp gwp g) A fortified town of Transcaucasia, in the government of Tiflis, on an affluent of the Kur, 110 miles west of Tiflis. Of the...
  9. Akiba Baer ben Joseph (Simon Akiba Baer) (JE | wp gwp g) Son of Joseph Ḥanoks, a Talmudist and cabalistic writer, one of the refugees who, at the expulsion of the Jews from...
  10. Akiba Eger the Elder, of Presburg (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1030: Eger, Akiba, the Elder, of Presburg
  11. Akiba Eger the Younger, of Posen (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1031: Eger, Akiba, the Younger, of Posen
  12. Akiba Frankfurt (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1032: Frankfurt, Akiba
  13. Akiba ben Joseph JE (JE | wp gwp g) Palestinian tanna; born about 50; martyred about 132. A full history of Akiba, based upon authentic sources, will probably...
  14. Alphabet of Akiba ben Joseph JE (JE | wp gwp g) the title of a Midrash on the names of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Two versions or portions of the same exist: Version...
  15. Akiba [ben Joseph]'s Book On Letter-ornaments (JE | wp gwp g) According to the Haggadah (Men. 29b), Akiba found a significance in every little ornament or flourish upon the letters of...
  16. Akiba ben Judah Loeb (JE | wp gwp g) A German rabbi, who lived at Lehren-Steinsfeld, Württemberg, in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He wrote "Ha-Ohel&#39...
  17. Akiba ha-Kohen, of Ofen (JE | wp gwp g) An eminent scholar, who lived in Hungary and Bohemia in the second half of the fifteenth century; died at Prague 1496. His...
  18. Akiba Trani b. Elijah of Metz (JE | wp gwp g) Glossarist who lived in the eighteenth century. A collection of his casuistic glosses to the Talmudic treatises Zeba&#7717...
  19. Akkad (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A716: Accad
  20. Akkerman (JE | wp gwp g) District, town, and village in the government of Bessarabia, Russia, on the right bank of the Dniester estuary, twenty-seven...

1041 – 1060[edit]

  1. Akkez (JE | wp gwp g) -- See H101: Hakkoz
  2. Akkub (JE | wp gwp g) 1. Son of Elioenai, of the Judean royal family (I Chron. iii. 24). 2. A Levite, porter at the east gate of the Temple (I Chron...
  3. 'Akkum (JE | wp gwp g) An abbreviation formed by the initial letters of ("worshiper of stars and constellations"). 'Akkum therefore came to...
  4. Joseph ben Judah ibn Aknin (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1044: Joseph ben Judah ibn Aknin
  5. Abraham ibn Akra JE (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A588: Abraham ben Solomon Akra
  6. Akrabah (JE | wp gwp g) A city situated one day's journey north from Jerusalem (Ma'as Sheni, v. 2; Beẓah, 5a, where the spelling is...
  7. Akrabbim (JE | wp gwp g) This is mentioned in connection with the southeastern boundary of Judah (Num. xxxiv. 4; Josh. xv. 3; Judges, i. 36). It is...
  8. Isaac b. Abraham Akrish (JE | wp gwp g) Scholar, bibliophile, and editor; born in Spain about 1489; died after 1578. The Arabic form of the name, as Steinschneider...
  9. Akron, Ohio (JE | wp gwp g) Capital of Summit county, forty miles from Cleveland. This city was first settled by Jews in 1850. The Akron Hebrew Congregation...
  10. Aksai (Tashkicha) (JE | wp gwp g) A village in the province of Tersk, in the Caucasus, which has a Jewish community of about 1,000 persons. These Jews claim...
  11. Ivan Sergyeyevich Aksakov (JE | wp gwp g) Russian Panslavist leader; born October 7, 1823; died at Moscow, February 8, 1886. Aksakov was one of the founders at Moscow...
  12. Israel Aksenfeld (JE | wp gwp g) A Judæo-German writer; born in Russia in the last quarter of the eighteenth century; died about 1868. He passed the first...
  13. Akylas (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1674: Aquila
  14. Alabama (JE | wp gwp g) One of the southern states of the United States; admitted Dec. 14, 1819; seceded Jan. 11, 1861; and was readmitted July, 1868...
  15. Alabarch JE (JE | wp gwp g) the title of an official who stood at the head of the Jewish population of Alexandria during the Grecian period. The etymology...
  16. Alabaster (JE | wp gwp g) the Alabaster of the ancients was the stalagmitic variety of carbonate of lime, and differed from what now is commonly known...
  17. Alaish (JE | wp gwp g) the name of a Spanish-Jewish family, which occurs in various forms; usually preceded by "abu." Abu-al-'aish means in Arabic...
  18. Ashkenazi Alaman (JE | wp gwp g) Name of a many-branched and wide-spread Jewish family in the Turkish empire, whose ancestor, Joseph ben Solomon of Ofen (Buda)...
  19. Alameth (JE | wp gwp g) Son of Becher and grandson of Benjamin (I Chron. vii. 8). G. B. L. This...
  20. Solomon Alami JE (JE | wp gwp g) An ethical writer who lived in Portugal in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; contemporary of Simon ben Zema&#7717...

1061 – 1080[edit]

  1. Alashkar >> Moses Alashkar JE (JE | wp gwp g) A Spanish-Jewish family whose name was probably derived from an Arabic word meaning "red."The first member of the Alashkar...
  2. Alatino (JE | wp gwp g) A notable family of Jews that settled in Italy in the second half of the sixteenth century, and occupied an important position...
  3. Crescenzo Alatri JE (JE | wp gwp g) Italian writer; born at Rome, 1825; died February 12, 1897. He was educated in the Talmud Torah of his native city, and graduated...
  4. Giacomo Alatri JE (JE | wp gwp g) Italian banker and philanthropist; son of Samuel Alatri; born at Rome in 1833; died there March 9, 1889. He was for several...
  5. Samuel Alatri JE (JE | wp gwp g) Italian politician, communal worker, and orator; born at Rome in 1805; died there May 20, 1889. For more than sixty years...
  6. Alatrini (JE | wp gwp g) Name of a distinguished Jewish family in Italy, derived from the name of the town Alatri. It has been often transcribed as...
  7. Jacob di Alba (JE | wp gwp g) Italian rabbi; lived at the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth century. He was rabbi in Florence, and author...
  8. Solomon ibn Albagal (JE | wp gwp g) A Spanish farmer of taxes who lived in Villa-Real or Ciudad-Real, and held office during the reign of Maria de Molina (1300-10)...
  9. Isaac Albalag JE (JE | wp gwp g) A philosopher of the second half of the thirteenth century, who, according to Steinschneider ("Hebr. Uebers." pp. 299-306)...
  10. Albalia (JE | wp gwp g) Name of one of the more ancient Jewish families in Spain. The tradition among its members was that they were descended from...
  11. Albany, New York (JE | wp gwp g) Capital of the state of New York and of Albany county, situated on the west bank of the Hudson river. As early as 1661, when...
  12. Abrahamben Hiyya Albargeloni (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A449: Abraham bar Ḥiyya ha-Nasi
  13. Isaac ben Reuben Albargeloni JE (JE | wp gwp g) See Isaac ben Reuben.
  14. Judah ben Barzilai Albargeloni (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1074: Judah ben Barzilai
  15. Moses ben Maimon Albas (JE | wp gwp g) Cabalist of the sixteenth century; lived in northwest Africa. He was the author of the cabalistic work "Hekal ha-Kodesh"...
  16. Samuel Albas (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi at Fez; born 1697; died 1749. He was well read in the Talmud and in rabbinical literature, and was highly esteemed by...
  17. Al-Bataljusi (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1077: Bataljusi, Al-
  18. Albelda (JE | wp gwp g) A town of Old Castile, in the vicinity of Logroño, which was inhabited by Jews as early as the eleventh century. The...
  19. Albelda (JE | wp gwp g) A Bible commentator (died 1549) who took his name from the town of Albelda, whence it is thought he or his ancestors must...
  20. Moses ben Jacob Albelda (JE | wp gwp g) Preacher and philosopher, grandson of the preceding; flourished in Turkey in the sixteenth century. He was a distinguished...

1081 – 1100[edit]

  1. Conrad Alberti (JE | wp gwp g) German novelist, dramatist, critic, and actor; born at Breslau, July 9, 1862. Having finished his education in his native...
  2. Albertus Magnus (JE | wp gwp g) the most eminent German philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages and the real founder of the scientific tendency within...
  3. Albinus (JE | wp gwp g) Roman procurator of Judea from 61 to 64 (Jos. "Ant." xx. 9, § 1). While on his way from Alexandria to his new post he...
  4. Joseph Albo (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish preacher and theologian of the fifteenth century; known chiefly as the author of the work on the fundamentals of Judaism...
  5. Alby (Albi) (JE | wp gwp g) Ancient cathedral town, capital of the department of Tarn, France, forty-two miles northeast of Toulouse. It gave its name...
  6. Alcalá de Guadaira (JE | wp gwp g) A town seven miles east of Seville, Spain. At one time it had a small Jewish community, whose synagogue was razed by order...
  7. Alcalá de Henares (JE | wp gwp g) A walled town in New Castile, Spain, situated on the right bank of the Henares, about seventeen miles from Madrid; birthplace...
  8. Alcalá la Real (JE | wp gwp g) A town in Jaen, Spain, which sheltered a few Jews in the Middle Ages, and was the birthplace of Alfonso de Alcalá, so...
  9. Eugène Alcan (JE | wp gwp g) French litterateur, painter, and poet, who embraced Christianity; born in Paris in 1811; died about 1898. He was a brother...
  10. Félix Alcan (JE | wp gwp g) French publisher and scholar; born at Metz, March 18, 1841; grandson of Gerson Lévy, author of "Orgue et Pioutim," and...
  11. Michel Alcan (JE | wp gwp g) French engineer, politician, and author; born at Donnelay, in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, France, 1801; died at...
  12. Moyse Alcan (JE | wp gwp g) French publisher and litterateur born in 1817; died in Metz, May 14, 1869; father of the Parisian publisher Félix Alcan...
  13. Alcañiz (JE | wp gwp g) A town in the province of Teruel, Aragon, Spain; situated sixty-three miles southeast of Saragossa. As early as the thirteenth...
  14. Alchemy >> Mary the Jewess JE (JE | wp gwp g) the undeveloped chemistry of the Middle Ages, characterized by belief in the transmutation of base metals into gold, the discovery...
  15. Alcimus (JE | wp gwp g) Leader of the antinational Hellenists in Jerusalem, under Demetrius I. Soter of Syria (Josephus, "Ant." xi. 9, § 7);...
  16. Alcoholism (JE | wp gwp g) the morbid condition resulting from the excessive or prolonged use of alcoholic beverages. Alcoholism and Nervous Disease...
  17. Alcolea (JE | wp gwp g) City in the province of Jaen, Andalusia, the Jewish congregation of which, like many others of the country, enjoyed special...
  18. Hanok ben Bahya Alconstantini (JE | wp gwp g) See Enoch (Ḥanok) ben Bachya, Alconstantini. This article is...
  19. Hanok ben Solomon Alconstantini (JE | wp gwp g) See Enoch (Ḥanok) ben Solomon, al-Constantini.
  20. Isaac ben Abram Ancona Alconstantini (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1100: Isaac ben Abraham Ancona, Alconstantini

1101 to 1200[edit]

1101 – 1120[edit]

  1. Jacob ben Isaac al-Corsono (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1101: Corsono, Al-, Jacob ben Isaac
  2. Meir ibn Aldabi JE (JE | wp gwp g) Writer of the fourteenth century; son of Isaac Aldabi, "He-Ḥasid" (The Pious); grandson of Asher ben Jehiel, and a descendant...
  3. Aldeas de los Judíos (JE | wp gwp g) the name given to the villages Aznalfarache, Aznalcazar, and especially Paterna, situated in the neighborhood of Seville,...
  4. Alfred-Philibert Aldrophe (JE | wp gwp g) A French architect; born in Paris, February 7, 1834. He attended the National School of Design and was a favorite pupil of...
  5. Abraham ben Ismail Aldubi (JE | wp gwp g) Talmudic scholar and author, who flourished in Spain in the first half of the fourteenth century. He was a pupil of Solomon...
  6. Aldus Manutius (JE | wp gwp g) Italian publisher; born at Bassiano in 1449 or 1450; died at Venice, Feb. 6, 1515. Aldus studied the Latin classics at Rome...
  7. Aleksandria (JE | wp gwp g) District, town, and village in the government of Kherson, Russia, on the Inguletz river. In 1897 the Jewish population was:...
  8. Aleksandrovsk (JE | wp gwp g) District and town in the government of Ekaterinoslav, Russia, on the left bank of the Dnieper, below the rapids. In 1897 the...
  9. Aleksei JE (JE | wp gwp g) Russian archpriest; convert to Judaism; born probably in Novgorod, 1425; died in Moscow, 1488. In the last quarter of the...
  10. Aleksander Aleksyeyev (JE | wp gwp g) Author and convert to the Greek Catholic Church; born in 1820, at Nazarinetz, government of Podolsk, Russia, of poor Jewish...
  11. Alemeth (JE | wp gwp g) 1. Son of Jehoadah, in the genealogy of Benjamin (I Chron. viii. 36). In I Chron. ix. 42 he is called the son of Jarah. 2...
  12. 'Alenu (JE | wp gwp g) the last prayer of the daily liturgy in most congregations, so called from its initial word, "'Alenu," which means "It...
  13. Music of 'Alenu (V01p338001jpg) (JE | wp gwp g) the traditional melody to which the 'Alenu prayer is chanted, while of comparatively late origin, is of suitable breadth...
  14. Aleph (JE | wp gwp g) the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. For its symbolic meaning, see Mishnah Shabbat, i. It was employed as a numeral to...
  15. Aleppo (JE | wp gwp g) Town of ancient and of modern Syria, and capital of a Turkish vilayet of the same name, between the Orontes and Euphrates...
  16. Alessandria (JE | wp gwp g) Fortified town, situated in a province of the same name, in northern Italy, and founded, in 1168, by citizens from Cremona...
  17. Arnold Aletrino (JE | wp gwp g) A Dutch physician and professor of criminal anthropology at the University of Amsterdam; also served officially as surgeon...
  18. Ephraim Alex (JE | wp gwp g) Founder of the Jewish Board of Guardians, London; born in Cheltenham, 1800; died in London, Nov. 13, 1882. He was a successful...
  19. Alexa (JE | wp gwp g) 1. A foreign jurist of the third century, who discussed with the Palestinian amora R. Mana II. the question of collecting...
  20. Alexander the Great (JE | wp gwp g) the celebrated conqueror of the East, 356-323 B.C. By introducing Hellenic culture into Syria and Egypt, he had probably more...

1121 – 1140[edit]

  1. Alexander I of Judea (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1144: Alexander Jannæus
  2. Alexander II of Judea JE (JE | wp gwp g) Born about 100 B.C.; died 47 B.C. He was the eldest son of Aristobulus II. and son-in-law of Hyrcanus. Upon the conquest of...
  3. Alexander, son of Herod (JE | wp gwp g) Born about 35 B.C.; died about 7 B.C. His mother was the Hasmonean princess Mariamne. The unfortunate fate which persistently...
  4. Pope Alexander II (JE | wp gwp g) Family name Anselmo Baggio; born at Milan; died April 20, 1073. He became pope in 1061, succeeding Nicholas II., and ruled...
  5. Pope Alexander III (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P438: Popes, Attitude of
  6. Pope Alexander IV (JE | wp gwp g) Was Count Rinaldo di Segni prior to his elevation to the pontifical throne in 1254, at a time of great turbulence; he ruled...
  7. Pope Alexander VI (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P438: Popes, Attitude of
  8. Pope Alexander VII (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P438: Popes, Attitude of
  9. Pope Alexander VIII (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P438: Popes, Attitude of
  10. Alexander I, Pavlovich, Emperor of Russia (JE | wp gwp g) Born at St. Petersburg, Dec. 23, 1777; died at Taganrog, Dec. 1, 1825. During his reign (1801-25) more measures for internal...
  11. Alexander II, Nikolaievich, Emperor of Russia (JE | wp gwp g) Born at St. Petersburg, April 29, 1818; assassinated there March 13, 1881. He succeeded his father, Nicholas I., March 2,...
  12. Alexander III, Alexandrovich, Emperor of Russia (JE | wp gwp g) Born at St. Petersburg, March 10, 1845; died at Livadia, Nov. 1, 1894. He ascended the throne March 14, 1881, the day after...
  13. Alexander (JE | wp gwp g) An English family of printers and translators that flourished during the latter part of the eighteenth century and at the...
  14. Alexander (JE | wp gwp g) An amora. See Alexandri (Alexandra) - Hebrew wikipedia.
  15. Alexander of Aphrodisias (JE | wp gwp g) Greek commentator on Aristotle; flourished at the end of the second century and at the beginning of the third, in the reign...
  16. Alexander Balas, King of Syria (JE | wp gwp g) Date of birth unknown; died 145 B.C. A youth of lowly origin, he was set up as a pretender to the throne of Syria as being...
  17. Bernhard Alexander (JE | wp gwp g) Hungarian writer and professor of philosophy and esthetics; born at Budapest April 13, 1850. He was educated in his native...
  18. The False Alexander (JE | wp gwp g) A pretender to the throne of Judea. About 4 B.C., a Jewish youth living in Sidon and reared by a Roman freedman claimed the...
  19. Alexander de Franciscis, Hebraeus (JE | wp gwp g) Author and bishop at Forli; lived in Rome in the sixteenth century. His Jewish name was Elisha de Roma. After his baptism...
  20. Alexander the Great (JE | wp gwp g) See page 341.

1141 – 1160[edit]

  1. Alexander of Hales (Alexander Alensis) (JE | wp gwp g) An English theologian and a member of the Franciscan order; born in the county of Gloucester; died in Paris, 1245. He was...
  2. Isaac Alexander (JE | wp gwp g) German author; lived in South Germany in the second half of the eighteenth century, and wrote on philosophical subjects from...
  3. Alexander Jagellon (JE | wp gwp g) Grand duke of Lithuania and king of Poland; born 1460; died at Wilna, 1506. He was the son of King Casimir IV. He ascended...
  4. Alexander Jannaeus (Jonathan) (JE | wp gwp g) King of Judea; born about 126 B.C.; died 76 B.C. He was the third son of John Hyrcanus, by his second wife, and ascended the...
  5. Lionel Lindo Alexander (JE | wp gwp g) Political and communal worker; born in London May 14, 1852; died Jan. 31, 1901. He was educated at the St. Marylebone&#39...
  6. Alexander Lysimachus (JE | wp gwp g) Alabarch; brother of the philosopher Philo, and father of Julius Alexander and Tiberius Julius Alexander. He held office under...
  7. Maurice Alexander (JE | wp gwp g) An Australian politician; born in London, Nov. 30, 1820; died in Sydney, N. S. W., January 27, 1874. He arrived in Sydney...
  8. Michael Solomon Alexander (JE | wp gwp g) First Anglican bishop of Jerusalem; born of Jewish parents at Schönlanke, in the grand duchy of Posen, May, 1799; died...
  9. Alexander of Miletus JE (JE | wp gwp g) Flourished between 105 and 40 B.C. He was the author of a book entitled Περὶ Ιον&#948...
  10. Alexander (Sender) ben Mordecai (JE | wp gwp g) Associate rabbi of Prague in the second half of the seventeenth century. His work, "Shechiṭot u-BediḲot,"...
  11. Alexander ben Moses Ethausen (JE | wp gwp g) -- See E496: Ethausen
  12. Samuel Alexander (JE | wp gwp g) Metaphysician and psychologist; born in Sydney, New South Wales, July 6, 1859. He was educated at Wesley College, Melbourne...
  13. Alexander Severus (JE | wp gwp g) Roman emperor from 222 to 235; was especially friendly to both Jews and Christians. It was on this account, and not because...
  14. Alexander (Sender) Shor (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1120: Shor, Alexander
  15. Alexander Suslin ha-Kohen of Frankfurt JE (JE | wp gwp g) One of the most important Talmudists of his time; flourished in the first half of the fourteenth century. He was rabbi first...
  16. Alexander Üsskind ben Moses of Grodno (JE | wp gwp g) A great cabalist of the eighteenth century; died at Grodno, Lithuania, in 1794. He wrote "Yesod we-Shoresh ha-'Abodah"...
  17. Alexander Süsskind ben Moses Kantshiger (JE | wp gwp g) Biblical scholar of the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Miẓnefet Bad" (The Linen Miter), Zolkiev, 1747, a...
  18. Alexander Süsskind ben Samuel Zanwil (JE | wp gwp g) A grammarian and cabalist; born at Metz about the end of the seventeenth century. In 1717-18 he published at Köthen (Anhalt...
  19. Tiberius Julius Alexander (JE | wp gwp g) Roman general of the first century; son of the alabarch Alexander, who gave him the name of Tiberius, probably in honor of...
  20. Alexander Zabinas (JE | wp gwp g) King of Syria, 124-122 B.C. He was the young son of a merchant, but he allowed himself to be proclaimed by the Egyptian king...

1161 – 1180[edit]

  1. Alexander the Zealot (JE | wp gwp g) One of the chiefs of the political party of Zealots about the year 50 of the common era. Led by him and his colleague Eleazar...
  2. Jonathan Alexandersohn (JE | wp gwp g) German rabbi; born at Grätz, in Posen, about the beginning of the nineteenth century; died at Altofen (Old Buda), Hungary...
  3. Daniel Alexanderson (Ben Alexander) (JE | wp gwp g) Theological writer of the seventeenth century. He embraced the Christian faith at Rouen (France) on April 21, 1621, and wrote...
  4. Alexandra DAB (JE | wp gwp g) Daughter of King Aristobulus II.; brought to Rome with her parents and brothers as prisoners of war by Pompey in the year...
  5. Alexandra JE (JE | wp gwp g) Daughter of Hyrcanus II., and wife of Alexander, son of Aristobulus II. She was one of the strongest and shrewdest supporters... -- needs expansion 2010-04-27
  6. Alexandra DAB (JE | wp gwp g) Palestinian haggadist of the fourth century, contemporary of R. Levi. Commenting on Cant. iii. 1, R. Levi observes: "The congregation...
  7. Alexandra JE (JE | wp gwp g) the only Jewish queen regnant with the exception of the usurper Athaliah; born 139 B.C.; died 67 B.C.; she was the wife of...
  8. Albert Alexandre (JE | wp gwp g) Chess-player; born at Hohenfeld-on-the-Main, Germany, about 1766; died in London, Nov. 16, 1850. Most of his life was spent...
  9. Édouard Alexandre (JE | wp gwp g) French organ manufacturer and inventor; born in Paris December 4, 1824; died, 1888. He learned his trade in the factory established...
  10. Alexandri (JE | wp gwp g) There were probably two amoraim of this name, unaccompanied either by patronymic or cognomen; and as both were Palestinians...
  11. Ancient Alexandria, Egypt (JE | wp gwp g) Historic city situated on the Mediterranean sea; fourteen miles west of the Canopic mouth of the Nile.The history of the Jews...
  12. Alexandria, Egypt (JE | wp gwp g) the Jewish community of Alexandria, numbering (in 1900) 10,000 persons, is governed by an elective body of prominent men called...
  13. Alexandria, Louisiana (JE | wp gwp g) City on the south bank of the Red river, 360 miles northwest of New Orleans. The foundation of a Jewish community in Alexandria...
  14. Alexandrian philosophy (JE | wp gwp g) While there were many earlier settlements of Jewish immigrants in Egypt, it was reserved for King Ptolemy I. to establish...
  15. Alexandrian ships (JE | wp gwp g) the ships of the Alexandrians are mentioned several times in the Mishnah as used by Jews (Kelim, xv. 1; Ohalot, viii. 1, 3)...
  16. Alexandrians in Jerusalem (JE | wp gwp g) in consequence of the active relations of the Alexandrian Jews with Palestine, many of them made their permanent home in Jerusalem...
  17. Alexandrium REF:JE (JE | wp gwp g) A fortified castle in Palestine, situated on one of the mountains between Scythopolis and Jerusalem, and, judging from its...
  18. Alexis Mikhailovich (JE | wp gwp g) Second czar of the Romanof dynasty; born at Moscow, March 29, 1629; died February 9, 1676. He succeeded his father, Michael...
  19. Alexius (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1109: Aleksei
  20. Don Zulema (Solomon) Alfahan (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish chief rabbi over the communities under the jurisdiction of the archiepiscopal see of Toledo. Don Pedro Tonorio, the...

1181 – 1200[edit]

  1. Alfakar (JE | wp gwp g) the name of one of the oldest Spanish-Jewish families, distinguished for its social position and scholarship; originally of...
  2. Moses Alfalas (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1305: Alpalas, Moses
  3. Alfandari JE >> Aaron ben Moses Alfandari JE, Elijah Alfandari JE, Ḥayyim ben Isaac Raphael Alfandari the Younger JE, Ḥayyim ben Jacob Alfandari the Elder JE, Isaac Raphael Alfandari JE, Jacob ben Ḥayyim Alfandari JE (JE | wp gwp g) A family of eastern rabbis prominent in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, found in Smyrna, Constantinople, and Jerusalem...
  4. Alfaquin (JE | wp gwp g) A surname given in Spain generally to the physician, and also to the secretary and interpreter, of the king. In Spain, Portugal...
  5. Aaron Alfaquin (JE | wp gwp g) A physician at Pamplona, who received from Charles III. of Navarre in 1413 a monthly stipend of 9 florins, as a reward for...
  6. Joseph Alfaquin (JE | wp gwp g) A physician to Don Sancho of Navarre in the twelfth century, and colleague of Don Moses ben Samuel. In gratitude for his services...
  7. Mosse (Moses) Alfaquin (JE | wp gwp g) A physician of Perpignan; mentioned in 1377.Bibliography: Rev. Ét. Juives, xv. 37, xvi. 180.M. K. ...
  8. Samuel Alfaquin, of Pamplona (JE | wp gwp g) A physician who, in 1379, treated an English knight, Sir Thomas Trivet, with such skill and success, that at the instance...
  9. Solomon Alfaquin (JE | wp gwp g) A physician to King Sancho the Wise of Navarre, who valued the former's art so highly that he presented him with seven...
  10. Abu Nasr Mohammed Alfarabi (JE | wp gwp g) Arabian philosopher; born in Farab, Turkestan, about 870; died in Damascus about 950. He studied at Bagdad, then the seat...
  11. Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi (JE | wp gwp g) Eminent Talmudist; born in 1013 at Kala't ibn Ḥamad, a village near Fez, in North Africa (whence his surname, which...
  12. Isaac ben Joseph Alfasi (JE | wp gwp g) Descendant of a Spanish family; flourished in Adrianople in the sixteenth century. He translated Ghazzali's work, "Mishkat...
  13. Isaac ben Reuben Alfasi (JE | wp gwp g) Sometimes stated to be a grandson of Isaac Alfasi. He is frequently cited as the author of "Sha'are Shebu'ot," a work...
  14. Masa'ud Raphael Alfasi (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi in Tunis at the end of the eighteenth century; died in 1776. He is the author of "Mishcha de-Rabuta" (Oil of Anointing)...
  15. Petrus Alfonsi JE (JE | wp gwp g) A controversialist and physician in ordinary to King Alfonso VI. of Castile; born at Huesca, Aragon, in 1062, and died in...
  16. Alfonsine Tables (JE | wp gwp g) A series of astronomical tables giving the exact hours for the rising of the planets and fixed stars; compiled at Toledo at...
  17. Alfonso III of Portugal (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P464: Portugal
  18. Alfonso V of Portugal (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P464: Portugal
  19. Alfonso IX of Leon (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S992: Spain
  20. Alfonso (JE | wp gwp g) A mathematician of uncertain date, author of a treatise on squaring the circle, extant in a manuscript in the British Museum...

1201 to 1300[edit]

1201 – 1220[edit]

  1. Alfonso de Alcala (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1206: Alfonso de Zamora
  2. Alfonso Burgensis (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A341: Abner of Burgos
  3. Alfonso Complutensis (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1206: Alfonso de Zamora
  4. Alfonso de Spina (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1204: Spina, Alfonso de
  5. Alfonso of Valladolid (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A341: Abner of Burgos
  6. Alfonso de Zamora (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish Marano of the sixteenth century; Hebraist and polemical writer; born in Zamora about 1474, and baptized in the Catholic...
  7. Alfonsus Bonihominis (JE | wp gwp g) the name taken by the Latin translator or adapter of an anti-Jewish pamphlet, originally written in Arabic by Samuel abu Na&#7779...
  8. Alfual (JE | wp gwp g) the family name of a number of Spanish Jews (Steinschneider, "Jew. Quart. Rev." xi. 587), of whom the following are known:Abraham...
  9. Jacob b. Moses Di Algaba (JE | wp gwp g) Translator into Hebrew of the celebrated medieval romance, "Amadis de Gaul." the translation probably appeared at Constantinople...
  10. Abraham ben Solomon Algazi (JE | wp gwp g) Supposed to have lived at Smyrna in 1659, and to have been the son of the author of the book, "Shema' Shelomoh" (Solomon&#39...
  11. Hayyim Algazi (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi in Constantinople in the seventeenth century. He was a disciple of Joseph di Trani, and the author of a commentary on...
  12. Hayyim Isaac Algazi (JE | wp gwp g) Author of the books: "Derek Eẓ ha-Ḥayyim" (The Way of the Tree of Life), "'En Yamin" (The Right Eye), "Sha&#39...
  13. Hayyim ben Menahem Algazi (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi of the island of Rhodes and Smyrna; lived in the seventeenth century; author of "Bene Ḥayyai" (Sons of My Life)...
  14. Israel Jacob Algazi (JE | wp gwp g) Great-grandson of Solomon Algazi the elder, and rabbi in Jerusalem in the eighteenth century. Besides contributing to dialectical...
  15. Moses ben Abraham Algazi (JE | wp gwp g) A rabbinical writer who flourished in Smyrna in the seventeenth century. He was the brother of Solomon Algazi the elder, and...
  16. Moses Joseph Algazi (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi at Cairo, Egypt; born 1764; died after 1840, in which year he became prominent through the energetic support which he...
  17. Samuel ben Isaac ben Joseph Algazi (Alghasi), of Candia (Crete) (JE | wp gwp g) Talmudical commentator and historian, died shortly before 1588. He came of a family of scholars, both father and grandfather...
  18. Solomon Nissim Algazi, the Elder JE (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi in Smyrna and in Jerusalem in the seventeenth century. He must not be confused with his grandson and namesake, a rabbi...
  19. Yom-Tob ben Israel Jacob Algazi (JE | wp gwp g) Commentator; lived at Jerusalem in the eighteenth century; author of a commentary on Nachmanides' "Hilkot Bekorot"...
  20. Science of Algebra (JE | wp gwp g) -- See M259: Mathematics

1221 – 1240[edit]

  1. Algeria (JE | wp gwp g) Country on the coast of North Africa, now a French colony, but formerly belonging successively to Carthage, Rome, the Saracens...
  2. Algiers (JE | wp gwp g) A seaport of northern Africa; capital of the French colonial province of Algeria. The origin of its Jewish community, like...
  3. Meir b. Solomon Alguadez (JE | wp gwp g) A Castilian court physician and chief rabbi of the fifteenth century; exact dates of birth and death unknown. He was presumably...
  4. Algum (JE | wp gwp g) A tree, the identity of which is uncertain. Jastrow, "Dict." s.v., suggests that it may be coral-wood; others, that it may...
  5. Alhadib (JE | wp gwp g) Name of a family of which representatives are known from the beginning of the fourteenth to the end of the seventeenth century...
  6. 'Al ha-Rishonim (JE | wp gwp g) A passage in the Morning Prayer coming between the Shema' and the 'Amidah. In the Northern rituals a variant is substituted...
  7. Judah b. Solomon b. Hophni al-Harizi (JE | wp gwp g) A celebrated Hebrew poet of the early part of the thirteenth century, who lived in Spain and traveled in the Orient. Neither...
  8. 'Al Het (JE | wp gwp g) the longer confession of sin (Widdui), each sentence of which begins with the formula, "Forgive us for the sin we have committed...
  9. Ali b. Abraham al-Tawil (JE | wp gwp g) Karaite scholar; flourished at Ramleh, Egypt, in the twelfth century. He was the author of a commentary on the Bible, no longer...
  10. Ali ha-Levi ben Solomon (JE | wp gwp g) Gaon; head of the academy at Bagdad in the first half of the twelfth century. His name occurs in an old Arabic responsum (Harkavy...
  11. Ali ibn Sahl ibn Rabban Altabari (Abu al-Hasan) (JE | wp gwp g) Physician and writer on medical subjects in Irak about the middle of the ninth century; born in Taberistan. His father, Sahl...
  12. Ali Sulaiman (JE | wp gwp g) -- See D102: David of Fez
  13. Alibi (JE | wp gwp g) A form of defense by which the accused undertakes to show that he was elsewhere when the crime was committed. Such a defense...
  14. Alienation and Acquisition (JE | wp gwp g) the act of causing a thing to become the property of another—Alienation—is, in Roman and English law, the general...
  15. Aliens (JE | wp gwp g) There are several designations for Aliens in the Old Testament. Of these, and mean specifically "foreign," a person outside...
  16. Alimony (JE | wp gwp g) "The allowance made to a woman by an order of court, from her husband's estate or income, for her maintenance after her...
  17. Isaac ben Moses Alisch (JE | wp gwp g) -- See E306: Elles, Isaac ben Moses
  18. Alityros (Aliturus) (JE | wp gwp g) Actor, of Jewish birth, at the court of Nero. Through him Josephus became acquainted with the empress Poppæa—whose...
  19. 'Aliyah (JE | wp gwp g) in synagogal services, the going up, or being called up, to the reading-desk (almemar), for the reading of a portion of the...
  20. Aljama JE (JE | wp gwp g) A Spanish term of Arabian origin used in old official documents to designate the self-governing communities of Moors and Jews...

1241 – 1260[edit]

  1. Moses ben Solomon Alkabiz (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1241: AlḲabiẓ, Solomon ben Moses ha-Levi
  2. Solomon ben Moses ha-Levi Alkabiz (JE | wp gwp g) A cabalist and liturgical poet born in Safed, who flourished in the first half of the sixteenth century and who was a contemporary...
  3. Abraham Alkabizi (JE | wp gwp g) Editor at Constantinople during the first quarter of the sixteenth century. In 1516 he, together with Judah Sason and Joseph...
  4. Abraham ben Samuel Alkalai (JE | wp gwp g) Casuist, who lived in Turkey in the latter part of the eighteenth century and beginning of the nineteenth. He wrote "Zekor...
  5. Isaac ben Joseph Alkalai (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1192: Alfasi, Isaac ben Joseph
  6. Joseph ben David Alkalai (JE | wp gwp g) Lived in Turkey in the early part of the nineteenth century. Author of "Amar Yoseph," containing notes to Maimonides and alphabetically...
  7. Judah ben Solomon Hai Alkalai JE (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi in Semlin, Croatia; died October, 1878. He became noted through his propaganda in favor of the restoration of the Jews...
  8. Moses ben David Alkalai (JE | wp gwp g) Judæo-Spanish translator, and writer of Hebrew textbooks; lived in Turkey in the nineteenth century. With his father...
  9. Alphonse Alkan (JE | wp gwp g) French printer, bibliographer, and author; born in Paris, 1809, died at Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1889. He first worked as a practical...
  10. Charles Henri Valentin Alkan (JE | wp gwp g) French pianist and composer; born in Paris, Nov. 30, 1813; died there, March 29, 1888. On attaining his sixth year he was...
  11. Napoléon Alexandre (Morhange) Alkan (JE | wp gwp g) French pianist and composer; born in Paris, 1826. He was a brother of Charles Valentin Alkan, and, like him, entered the Conservatory...
  12. Alkimus Jakim (JE | wp gwp g) High priest, leader of the Hellenists. See Alcimus.
  13. Allariz (JE | wp gwp g) A Spanish town in the province of Orense, Galicia, in which, as in Coruña, Ferrol, and Pontevedra, there were Jews as...
  14. Isaac ben Abraham ibn Latif Allatif (JE | wp gwp g) See Latif, Ibn.
  15. 'Alle Hadas (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P199: Periodicals
  16. Allegorical Interpretation (JE | wp gwp g) That explanation of a Scripture passage which is based upon the supposition that its author, whether God or man, intended...
  17. Allegory in the Old Testament (JE | wp gwp g) Allegory is a sustained description or narration, treating directly of one subject, but intended as an exposition of another...
  18. Abraham Allegri (JE | wp gwp g) A contemporary of Moses Benveniste; lived at Constantinople about the middle of the seventeenth century. He wrote a commentary...
  19. Johanan Allemanno JE (JE | wp gwp g) A cabalist who flourished in the second half of the fifteenth century; born in Constantinople. He migrated to Italy, and became...
  20. John Allen (JE | wp gwp g) English dissenting minister, educator, and author; born at Truro in 1771 and educated in the city of his birth by Dr. Cardue...

1261 – 1280[edit]

  1. Allenstein (JE | wp gwp g) Town in the district of Königsberg, eastern Prussia. The small Jewish community there was established Feb. 25, 1862....
  2. Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums JE (JE | wp gwp g) A German journal devoted to Jewish interests; founded in 1837 by Dr. Ludwig Philippson(1811-89); published first in Leipsic...
  3. Allgemeines Archiv des Judenthums (JE | wp gwp g) A monthly publication, devoted, as its title indicates, to the general history of the Jews. It was founded and edited by Jeremiah...
  4. Alliance Israélite Universelle (JE | wp gwp g) A society founded in 1860 for the protection and improvement of the Jews in general, but mainly devoted to the interests of...
  5. Alliance (JE | wp gwp g) New Jersey: An agricultural colony situated in the southeastern part of Salem county, New Jersey, four miles from Vineland...
  6. Alliteration and Kindred Figures (JE | wp gwp g) Successive use or frequent recurrence of the same initial letter or sound at the beginning of two or more words; specifically...
  7. Allon (JE | wp gwp g) 1. Son of Jedaiah, in the genealogy of Simon (I Chron. iv. 37). 2. One of those who returned with Zerubbabel (I Esd. v. 34)...
  8. Allon Bachuth (JE | wp gwp g) An oak near Bethel, at the foot of which Deborah, the nurse of Rebekah, was buried (Gen. xxxv. 8). In Judges, iv. 5 a tree...
  9. Joshua ben Joseph ibn Vives Allorqui (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1269: Ibn Vives Allorqui, Joshua ben Joseph
  10. Alluf (JE | wp gwp g) in the Babylonian colleges, title of the chief judge, third in rank below the gaon. As a special distinction it was granted...
  11. Allufe ha-Kehillah (JE | wp gwp g) A general name for prominent members of any congregation, and typically used in regard to the leaders of the community in...
  12. Almagest (JE | wp gwp g) the Arabic title of the astronomical work of Claudius Ptolemy (flourished 150), entitled by him μαθη&#956...
  13. Joseph Almalia (JE | wp gwp g) Italian rabbi, of the beginning of the nineteenth century, whose responsa "ToḲfo shel Yosef" (The Strength of Joseph)...
  14. Joseph b. Aaron Almalih (JE | wp gwp g) One of the patrons mentioned by Abraham Ankawa in the preface to his responsa, "Kerem Ḥemed" (Leghorn, 1869-71). Kaufmann...
  15. Almanac (JE | wp gwp g) An annual table, book, or the like, comprising a calendar of days, weeks, and months. Among the Jews it was the holy prerogative...
  16. Aron de Almanza (JE | wp gwp g) A Marano born at Salamanca, Spain, of Jewish parents. His first wife was Leonore de los Rios Sotte, whom he married in 1696...
  17. Almanzi (JE | wp gwp g) A family that, according to Luzzatto, derives its name from the city of Almansa in Murcia, Spain. The earliest member of the...
  18. Joseph Almanzi (JE | wp gwp g) Bibliophile and poet; born at Padua, March 25, 1801; died at Triest, March 7, 1860. The eldest son of Baruch Ḥayyim...
  19. Miguel de Almazan (Almaçan) (JE | wp gwp g) A Marano of Saragossa, and private secretary to King Ferdinand of Aragon. He was burned at the stake on the accusation of...
  20. Pedro de Almazan (JE | wp gwp g) One of the conspirators against the inquisitor Pedro d'Arbuez. He escaped death by flight, but his wife Isabella, together...

1281 – 1300[edit]

  1. Isaac Almeida (JE | wp gwp g) Turkish rabbi and author; born in the latter half of the seventeenth century; died between 1723 and 1739. He was associate...
  2. Lopez d'Almeida (JE | wp gwp g) Head of the embassy sent by Alfonso V. of Portugal to Pope Sixtus IV., in the year 1472. His mission was twofold: to congratulate...
  3. Almemar (JE | wp gwp g) Corrupted from the Arabic al-minbar, "the chair," "the pulpit," is an elevated platform in the synagogue, on which the desk...
  4. Jose Henriques de Almeyda (JE | wp gwp g) A writer in Amsterdam in the early part of the eighteenth century. He published in Portuguese: "Anagrama Achrostica do Sagrado...
  5. Adam Almiliby (JE | wp gwp g) A Portuguese Jew who, together with Isaac Belamy, was appointed a farmer of the royal taxes in 1353 by King Alfonso IV. By...
  6. Almodad (JE | wp gwp g) the eldest son of Joktan (Gen. x. 26, I Chron. i. 20). The meaning of the name is uncertain. The first element, "Al," may...
  7. Almohades (JE | wp gwp g) A Moorish dynasty in north-western Africa and in Spain during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. With the rise of the Almohades...
  8. Almoli, Almuli >> Solomon Almoli JE (JE | wp gwp g) A Spanish-Jewish family name derived from the Arabic al-mu'alli ("the one who raises up"). In addition to those referred...
  9. Abraham ben Judah Elimelech Almolik (Almalik) (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A487: Abraham ben Judah Elimelech
  10. Almon (JE | wp gwp g) A city in the territory of Benjamin given to the priests (Josh. xxi. 18); now called 'Almit. Found also in the corresponding...
  11. Almond (JE | wp gwp g) A term applied to a tree (Jer. i. 11, Eccl. xii. 5), to a fruit (Gen. xliii. 11, Num. xvii. 23 [A. V. 8]), and to a bud or...
  12. Almon Diblataim (JE | wp gwp g) A stopping-place in Moab in the Israelites' journey from Egypt (Num. xxxiii. 46, 47). Called Beth Diblataim in Jer. xlviii...
  13. Almoravides (Al-Murabatin) (JE | wp gwp g) A Moorish dynasty in northwestern Africa and in Spain in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The rise of this dynasty marked...
  14. Almosnino >> Moses Almosnino JE, Joseph Almosnino JE (JE | wp gwp g) A distinguished Jewish family originally dwelling in Aragon. The name, according to Jellinek (see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl...
  15. Alms (JE | wp gwp g) A word derived from the Greek ἐλεημοσύνη (mercifulness), used by Greek-speaking...
  16. Almug (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1224: Algum
  17. Alnaharwanai (JE | wp gwp g) A Hebrew scholar of the gaonic period; probably of Nehardea. He is the author of a rimed alphabetical treatise in Hebrew on...
  18. Isaac ben Joseph Alnakif (JE | wp gwp g) Liturgical poet of the thirteenth century (in Spain?), who composed a zulat (liturgical poem between the Shema' and &#39...
  19. Alnaqua ((redirects to Israel Alnaqua JE; we also write up Ephraim Alnaqua JE)) (JE | wp gwp g) An important family of Spanish Jews, the first mention of whom occurs late in the twelfth century. In Hebrew the name is written...
  20. Ephraim Alnucawi (JE | wp gwp g) See Alnaqua, Ephraim.

1301 to 1400[edit]

1301 – 1320[edit]

  1. Aloes (JE | wp gwp g) Translation of , occurring four times in the Old Testament (Num. xxiv. 6, Ps. xlv. 8, Prov. vii. 17, Cant. iv. 14), and of...
  2. Alonzo de la Calle (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1385: America, Discovery of
  3. Alonzo de Cartagena (JE | wp gwp g) Marano; born in Burgos, Spain, in 1385. Alonzo, together with his father, Salomon ha-Levi, or Paul de Burgos, and his brothers...
  4. Alonzo de Herrera (JE | wp gwp g) Cabalist, philosopher. See Herrera, Alonzo de.
  5. Moses Alpalas (Alfalas) (JE | wp gwp g) A Jewish preacher at Salonica about the middle of the sixteenth century. Of his many homiletic and theological writings, there...
  6. Alpha (JE | wp gwp g) the Greek name for Aleph was, according to the older tradition of R. Ishmael (SheḲalim, iii. 2; compare Aleph), used...
  7. Alpha and Omega (JE | wp gwp g) An expression found in several places in the Revelation of John (xxi. 6, xxii. 13, i. 8), a book which is to-day almost universally...
  8. The Hebrew Alphabet >> Cursive Hebrew JE, Rashi script JE (JE | wp gwp g) the characters of the Hebrew Alphabet are derived from the so-called Phenician or Old Semitic letters, to which almost all...
  9. Alphabetum Siracidis (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B654: Ben Sira, Alphabet of
  10. Jacob Alpron (JE | wp gwp g) Italian translator; died Dec. 22, 1622. He adapted and translated into Italian Benjamin ben Abraham of Solnik's "Mi&#7827...
  11. Al-Rabi ibn Abu al-Hukaik JE (JE | wp gwp g) Jewish poet of the Banu al-Nadhir in Medina, who flourished shortly before the Hegira (622). His family was in possession...
  12. Alroy JE (JE | wp gwp g) A pseudo-Messiah who lived about 1160; born at Amadia in Kurdistan. He became thoroughly proficient in Biblical and Talmudic...
  13. Alsace (JE | wp gwp g) A German territory which, together with Lorraine, forms a Reichsland, or imperial territory. It lies between the River Rhine...
  14. Al-Sameri (JE | wp gwp g) the man who made the golden calf in the wilderness.See Sameri. This article...
  15. Jacob Alsari (JE | wp gwp g) Teacher of Hebrew and grammarian, who for eighteen years lectured in Hebrew in Zerkowo, Prussian Poland, near the Russian...
  16. Joseph Alsari (JE | wp gwp g) -- See F459: Fürst, Julius
  17. Alshech JE (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi in Safed, Palestine, in the second half of the sixteenth century, and son of Ḥayyim Alshech. He was a disciple...
  18. Levi b. Jacob ibn al-Tabban (JE | wp gwp g) Grammarian and poet, flourished at Saragossa in the beginning of the twelfth century. He was the friend and elder contemporary...
  19. Abraham al-Tabib (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish physician who lived in Castile in the first half of the fourteenth century. He was the contemporary of Abraham ibn...
  20. Altar (JE | wp gwp g) in the book of Genesis it is often said that altars were erected (viii. 20, xii. 7, xiii. 8, xxvi. 25, xxxiii. 20, etc.)....

1321 – 1340[edit]

  1. Jonas (Jonathan ha-Levi) Altar (JE | wp gwp g) Bohemian rabbi; born 1755; died March 25, 1855, in Goltsch-Jenikau. He represented the strictest orthodoxy as evidenced by...
  2. Meir ha-Levi Altar (JE | wp gwp g) Son of preceding; born in Goltsch-Jenikau, Bohemia, 1803; died there in 1868. He translated into German the Yoẓerot...
  3. Altaras (JE | wp gwp g) A family name variously spelled: and . It is not certain whether this is the same name as that borne by the Spanish Karaite...
  4. David ben Solomon Altaras (JE | wp gwp g) An Italian rabbi and editor who flourished at Venice, 1675-1714. He wrote the short Hebrew grammar in the quarto Bible (Venice...
  5. Jacques Isaac Altaras (JE | wp gwp g) French ship-builder and philanthropist; born in Aleppo, Syria, in 1786, and died at Aix (Department of Bouchesdu-Rhône...
  6. Moses Altaras (JE | wp gwp g) An Italian rabbi of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; known as the author of a translation into Judæo-Spanish...
  7. Solomon Altaras (JE | wp gwp g) Venetian rabbi of the eighteenth century, probably the son of David Altaras, edited among other works a collection of prayers...
  8. Alt-Breisach (JE | wp gwp g) Ancient fortified city in the grand duchy of Baden, Germany; the scene of Jewish persecution.In the fourteenth century, when...
  9. Altenkunstadt (JE | wp gwp g) See Burgkunstadt.
  10. Jacob (Koppel) ben Zebi Altenkunstadt (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi at Verbo, Hungary; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century. He wrote "Ḥiddushe Yabeẓ" (novell&#230...
  11. Alt Neu Synagogue, Prague (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P494: Prague
  12. Alt-Ofen (JE | wp gwp g) Old Hungarian city, now incorporated in Budapest as the third district. The earlier history of the Jews in AltOfen begins...
  13. Altona (JE | wp gwp g) City and port, situated on the Elbe, adjoining Hamburg, in Holstein, which was formerly a Danish duchy, but is now a part...
  14. Altruism (JE | wp gwp g) A term derived from the late Latin alter hic ("this other"); dative, alteri huic, contracted to alteruic. It seems to have...
  15. Altschul, Altschuler, Altschueler (JE | wp gwp g) Various forms of a family name borne by Ashkenazic Jews in many countries. Though each of these forms now represents groups...
  16. Alupka (JE | wp gwp g) Village on the southern shores of the Crimea, Russia; mentioned in the letter of Joseph, king of the Chazars, to Ḥasdai...
  17. Alushta (JE | wp gwp g) Village on the southeastern shore of the Crimea, in the district of Yalta, Russia. Some ruins exist of the fort Aluston built...
  18. Alva (JE | wp gwp g) Fernando Alvarez de Toledo: born, 1508; died at Thomar, Portugal, 1582. A famous Spanish general who fought in the various...
  19. Samuel Alvalensi (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish author; born, 1435; died, 1487. He was the son of the learned Abraham Alvalensi, of Toledo, and pupil of Isaac Campanton...
  20. Samuel Alvalensi (JE | wp gwp g) Perhaps the grandson of the above; was born in Spain at the end of the fifteenth century, was taken after the expulsion of...

1341 – 1360[edit]

  1. Alvarez (JE | wp gwp g) Name of a Hispano-Portuguese family which has included among its members many scholars, distinguished men, and martyrs. Branches...
  2. Alvaro de Luna (JE | wp gwp g) A gifted Spanish statesman of the fifteenth century who attained the highest military rank, that of Grand Constable. With...
  3. Jacob Alyashar (JE | wp gwp g) Talmudist; born at Wilna, Russia, about 1735; died in Safed about 1785. The congregation at Hebron in 1765 sent him as their...
  4. Jacob Saul Alyashar (JE | wp gwp g) Ḥakam Bashi (chief rabbi) of Jerusalem; born at Safed, June 1, 1817. He was taken to Jerusalem in 1823. His teacher...
  5. Alypius of Antioch (JE | wp gwp g) Eminent geographer of the fourth century; intimate friend of the Roman emperor, Julian the Apostate. Alypius, of noble and...
  6. Alzey (JE | wp gwp g) A town in Rhein-Hessen (Germany), on the Setez. While the first traces of the residence of Jews in the Palatinate, to which...
  7. Amadeo of Rimini (JE | wp gwp g) -- See J185: Jedidiah ben Moses of Recanati
  8. Amadia, Amadiah, Amadieh, Amadeeyah REF:JE (JE | wp gwp g) A town in Asiatic Turkey, vilayet of Bagdad, north of Mosul, the birthplace of the pseudo-Messiah, David Alrui (Alroy). In...
  9. Joshua Judah Amado (JE | wp gwp g) Talmudist, of a Spanish family settled at Salonica in the early part of the nineteenth century. He wrote "Ohole Yehudah" (The...
  10. José Amador de Los Rios (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish historian of the Jews in Spain and Portugal, and archeologist; born 1818; died at Seville, 1878. De los Rios was for...
  11. Amalek, Amalekites (JE | wp gwp g) Name of a nomadic nation south of Palestine. That the Amalekites were not Arabs, but of a stock related to the Edomites (consequently...
  12. Aman (JE | wp gwp g) 1. This name is found only in the Apocrypha, Tobit, xiv. 10. He is there mentioned as the persecutor of Achiacharus, but even...
  13. Amana (JE | wp gwp g) 1. River rising in Anti-Lebanon and flowing through Damascus, the modern Nahr Barada (II Kings, v. 12, where there is a variant...
  14. Isaac Bekor Amaragi (JE | wp gwp g) Translator and historical writer of the nineteenth century, who lived in Salonica. He translated, from the Hebrew into Jud&#230...
  15. Moses Amaragi (JE | wp gwp g) Physician in ordinary to the court of Sultan Murad IV. (1623-40) in Constantinople. He was rich and learned and a patron of...
  16. 'Am ha-Arez (JE | wp gwp g) A term used in common parlance in the sense of "ignoramus," applied particularly to one ignorant of Jewish matters. Compare...
  17. Amariah (JE | wp gwp g) 1. The great-grandfather of the prophet Zephaniah (Zeph. i.) 2. The son of Azariah, who was high priest-in Solomon's temple...
  18. Aaron ben Solomon Amarillo (JE | wp gwp g) Talmudic author of the eighteenth century. He was a descendant of the Amarillos, a family of scholars that gave several great...
  19. Abraham Amarillo (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi at Salonica about the beginning of the nineteenth century. His sermons on the Pentateuch were published under the title...
  20. Moses ben Solomon Amarillo (Hayyim) (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi at Salonica during the first half of the eighteenth century. He edited, and often annotated, the works of his father...

1361 – 1380[edit]

  1. Samuel Amarillo (JE | wp gwp g) Collector of royal taxes at Tudela, Navarre, from 1380 to 1391, particularly of the duties paid by the Jews and the Moors...
  2. Solomon ben Joseph Amarillo (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi at Salonica, who died in 1722. Amarillo was the father-in-law of Solomon Abdallah and an intimate friend of the learned...
  3. Amarkol (JE | wp gwp g) A title applied to "a Temple trustee superintending the cashiers" (Jastrow, "Dict."; see Shek. v. 2). While the three&#8212...
  4. Amasa (JE | wp gwp g) 1. According to II Sam. xvii. 25, the son of Ithra, an Israelite; I Chron. ii. 17 calls his father Jether, the Ishmaelite...
  5. Amasai (JE | wp gwp g) 1. Son of Elkanah, a Levite of the Kohathite family (I Chron. vi. 10, 20; II Chron. xxix. 12). 2. Chief of the captains who...
  6. Amashai (JE | wp gwp g) A priest who dwelt at Jerusalem (Neh. xi. 13). G. B. L. This article is...
  7. Amasia, Amasieh (JE | wp gwp g) City in Asia Minor, on the Yeshil-Irmak (the ancient Iris). The population in 1900 was 23,000. The city is now of little importance...
  8. Amathus (JE | wp gwp g) A fortress near the Jordan, north of the river Jabbok and 21 miles south of Pella. At the beginning of the first century...
  9. Amatus (Habib) Lusitanus JE (JE | wp gwp g) Physician. See Juan Rodrigo de Castel-Branco.
  10. Amatuni (JE | wp gwp g) Members of one of the most powerful of the old Armenian clans, whose habitation was along the slopes of Mount Ararat. Their...
  11. Amaziah (JE | wp gwp g) 1. Priest at Beth-el in the reign of Jeroboam II. When the prophet Amos came to Beth-el, and there prophesied the death of...
  12. Amaziah, King of Judah (JE | wp gwp g) Son of Joash and father of Azariah (II Kings, xv. 1); came to the throne about 795 B.C. As soon as his kingdom was established...
  13. Amber (JE | wp gwp g) the Hebrew word Ḧashmal, rendered "amber" by the A. V., occurs only in Ezekiel (three times). Its meaning has puzzled...
  14. Amberg (JE | wp gwp g) A town in the district of the Upper Palatinate and Regensburg (Ratisbon), Bavaria; inhabited by Jews from the thirteenth century...
  15. Ambron, Ambran (JE | wp gwp g) An Italian family, prominent since 1492, at which period they emigrated from Spain ("Rev. Ét. Juives," ix. 70, 74). Of...
  16. Shabbethai Ambron (JE | wp gwp g) A philosophical writer; lived in Rome in the first half of the eighteenth century. His life-work was a book on the universe...
  17. Ambrose (JE | wp gwp g) Church father and author; born about 340 at Treves; died 397 in Milan. This audacious prelate—who as bishop of Milan...
  18. Moses Ambrosius (JE | wp gwp g) One of the earliest Jewish settlers in New York, then called New Amsterdam. He was one of a party of twenty-three Jews who...
  19. Ambrosoli (JE | wp gwp g) An ecclesiastic dignitary of Rome, the events of whose life touched the history of the Jews of that city in 1848. He distinguished...
  20. Menahem Mann ben Solomon ha-Levi Amelander (Amlander) (JE | wp gwp g) A Dutch writer of the eighteenth century. He must have died before 1767, since in the edition of the Pentateuch published...

1381 – 1400[edit]

  1. Amemar (JE | wp gwp g) A compound word, of which the first element is the prenomen, the second a title often found among the Jewish sages in Babylonia...
  2. Amemar b. Mar Yanuka (Yanka) (JE | wp gwp g) A Babylonian teacher of the fifth and sixth amoraic generations, who, together with the exilarch (Resh Galuta) Huna Mar II...
  3. Amen (JE | wp gwp g) A word used at the conclusion of a prayer, or in other connections, to express affirmation, approval, or desire. It is derived...
  4. America (JE | wp gwp g) the name "America" is used in this article in its broadest signification, as applied to the entire western world; that is...
  5. The Discovery of America (JE | wp gwp g) Among the various discoveries of the fifteenth century, none is more intimately connected with the Jews and their history...
  6. Judaism in America (JE | wp gwp g) Judaism in America—by its logical and historical development of Judaism in its most recent sphere of activity&#8212...
  7. The American Hebrew (JE | wp gwp g) A weekly journal, the first number of which was published in New York city, Nov. 21, 1879. It was founded chiefly through...
  8. The American Israelite ((under History of the Jews in Cincinnati JE)) (JE | wp gwp g) A weekly journal established in Cincinnati, O., in July, 1854, by Isaac Mayer Wise under the title of "The Israelite." It...
  9. The American Jewess (JE | wp gwp g) A monthly (afterward quarterly) magazine printed in Chicago and New York. There were nine volumes, the first appearing in...
  10. American Jewish Historical Society (JE | wp gwp g) A society organized at New York city, June 7, 1892, at a meeting convened by Cyrus Adler, of Washington, D. C. About forty...
  11. American Jewish Publication Society (JE | wp gwp g) A society formed for the dissemination of Jewish literature, and the first of its kind in the United States; founded at Philadelphia...
  12. American Jewish Publication Society (JE | wp gwp g) An association founded in 1873 by a number of New York Jews: Leopold Bamberger, Benjamin I. Hart, Myer Stern, Edward Morrison...
  13. Sadie American (JE | wp gwp g) Corresponding secretary of the Council of Jewish Women; born at Chicago, March 3, 1862.Miss American has been connected with...
  14. Amethyst (JE | wp gwp g) A variety of quartz of a clear purple or bluish violet color, much used as a precious stone. It is generally accepted that...
  15. Ami (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1407: Ammi
  16. L' Ami Des Israélites (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P199: Periodicals
  17. Joseph Amico (JE | wp gwp g) Learned and influential rabbi born in Tunis (?); who went to Italy after the year 1550, when Moses Provençal was chief...
  18. 'Amidah (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S612: Shemoneh 'Esreh
  19. Abraham Amigo JE (JE | wp gwp g) A noted rabbi of Palestine; flourished about the middle of the seventeenth century. He was a contemporary of Moses ben Nissim...
  20. Meir Amigo (JE | wp gwp g) A Spanish Jew, who lived in the second half of the eighteenth century at Temesvar (Hungary). He was nicknamed "Re chico" (the...

1401 to 1500[edit]

1401 – 1420[edit]

  1. Amiltai (JE | wp gwp g) in Greek mythology, the goat, whose horn overflowing with nature's riches has become the symbol of plenty (the cornucopia)...
  2. Amittai (JE | wp gwp g) Father of the prophet Jonah (II Kings, xiv. 25; Jonah, i. 1). According to rabbinical sources (Yer. Suk. v. 55a; Gen. R. xcviii...
  3. Amittai ben Abida Ahizadek (JE | wp gwp g) -- See C183: Caro, David
  4. Amittai ben Shephatiah (JE | wp gwp g) A wellknown liturgical poet, who flourished at Oria, Italy, in the beginning of the tenth century. The time of his activity...
  5. 'Ammi, 'amm (JE | wp gwp g) A name applied to Semitic gods and found in Biblical names like Amminadab, Ammiel, Ammishaddai. The word 'amm, 'am...
  6. David b. Samuel Ammar (JE | wp gwp g) An author of Leghorn, who wrote "Tefilah le-David" (A Prayer of David) on the hundred daily benedictions (Salonica, 1777;...
  7. Ammi JE (JE | wp gwp g) the name of several amoraim. In the Babylonian Talmud the first form only is used; in the Palestinian Talmud all three forms...
  8. Ammianus Marcellinus (JE | wp gwp g) Roman historian; born at Antioch, Syria, about 320; died about 395. He wrote a history of Rome, from Nerva to Valens, in which...
  9. Ammiel (JE | wp gwp g) A name of the following persons in the Old Testament: 1. A Danite (Num. xiii. 12). 2. Father of Machir, of Lodebar (II Sam...
  10. Ammihud (JE | wp gwp g) 1. Father of Elishama, the chief of Ephraim in the second year after the exodus (Num. i. 10, ii. 18); appears also in the...
  11. Ammihur (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1410: Ammihud
  12. Amminadab (JE | wp gwp g) 1. The father of Aaron's wife Elisheba (Ex. vi. 23) and of Nahshon, the "head of the tribe of Judah" (Num. i. 7, ii....
  13. Ammishaddai (JE | wp gwp g) Name of the father of the Danite Ahiezer, in Num. i. 12, ii. 25, etc. Gray, "Hebrew Proper Names," pp. 194 et seq., 245,...
  14. Ammon, Ammonites JE (JE | wp gwp g) A nation in eastern Palestine. As to their origin from Lot, compare Gen. xix. 38, in which "Ben-ammi" (son of my paternal...
  15. Amnon (JE | wp gwp g) 1. The eldest son of David and Ahinoam, the Jezreelitess (II Sam. iii. 2). As heir presumptive to the throne he was an object...
  16. Amnon of Mayence (Amnon of Mainz) (Mentz) JE (JE | wp gwp g) Subject of a medieval legend that became very popular. It treats of R. Amnon, a wealthy and respected Jew of Mayence, whom...
  17. Amolo, Bishop of Lyons (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1446: Amulo
  18. Amon (JE | wp gwp g) An Egyptian god, whose name occurs in Jer. xlvi. 25 ("Amon of No," R. V.) and in Nahum, iii. 8 (No-Amon). He was originally...
  19. Amon (JE | wp gwp g) 1. Governor of Samaria during the reign of Ahab (I Kings, xxii. 26; II Chron. xviii. 25). To him Ahab handed over Micaiah...
  20. Amon, King of Judah (JE | wp gwp g) the Biblical accounts of Amon are found in II Kings, xxi. 18-26 and in II Chron. xxxiii. 20-25; and he is mentioned in I Chron...

1421 – 1440[edit]

  1. Amora (JE | wp gwp g) A word signifying "the speaker," or "the interpreter," derived from the Hebrew and Aramaic verb amar ("to say," or "to speak")...
  2. Amorites (JE | wp gwp g) the descendants of the fourth son of Canaan (Gen. x. 16, I Chron. i. 14). They form part of the ancient inhabitants of Palestine...
  3. Amos (JE | wp gwp g) Jewish prophet of the eighth century B.C.; date of birth and death unknown. Among the minor prophets there is none whose personality...
  4. Book of Amos (JE | wp gwp g) This Biblical book, one of the twelve so-called "Minor Prophets," opens with the announcement of God's intention to punish...
  5. Amoz (JE | wp gwp g) Father of the prophet Isaiah. See Isaiah.
  6. Amram (JE | wp gwp g) One of the sons of Bani mentioned in Ezra x. 34, in the list of those having foreign wives (I Esd. ix. 34; Omærus; R...
  7. Amram, Father of Moses (JE | wp gwp g) A son of Kohath, and grandson of Levi. He married his own aunt, Jochebed, Kohath's sister, by whom he became the father...
  8. David Werner Amram (JE | wp gwp g) American lawyer; son of Werner David Amram; born at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1866; educated at the public schools and at the...
  9. Amram Hasida (The Pious) (JE | wp gwp g) A Babylonian amora of the third generation (fourth century), a contemporary of R. NaḦman (B. B. 151a). In addition...
  10. Hayyim Amram (JE | wp gwp g) Commentator who lived in Palestine in the first half of the nineteenth century. He published "Ḳorban PesaḦ" (Passover...
  11. Ibn Amram (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A654: Joseph ibn Amram
  12. Amram ben Isaac ibn Shalbib (JE | wp gwp g) Ambassador of Alfonso VI., of Leon and Castile, in the eleventh century. The position occupied by the Jews in Christian Spain...
  13. Amram of Jerusalem (JE | wp gwp g) Two scholars are known under this name. 1. A contemporary of Rashi (eleventh century), who maintained a learned correspondence...
  14. Amram of Mayence (Amram of Mainz) (Mentz) JE (JE | wp gwp g) A saint and rabbi of whom the following legend is told. After having been the head of a school at Mayence, his native place...
  15. Nathan ben Hayyim Amram (JE | wp gwp g) Palestinian scholar and author who flourished at Hebron in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Amram was selected...
  16. Rab Amram JE (JE | wp gwp g) A Babylonian amora of the third generation (fourth century); contemporary of Ḥisda, NaḦman, and Abba bar Memel...
  17. Amram ibn Salameh ibn Ghazal ha-Kohen ha-Levi JE (JE | wp gwp g) Samaritan liturgical poet. A number of prayers by him are incorporated in a liturgy, a fragment of which is in the Bodleian...
  18. Amram ben Sheshna JE (JE | wp gwp g) Head of the Sura Academy; died about 875. He was a pupil of Naṭronai II., Gaon of Sura, and was exceptionally honored...
  19. Amram b. Simon b. Abba (JE | wp gwp g) the son of a scholar, and the nephew of R. Ḥiyya ben Abba; he seems to have remained without distinction in the scholarly...
  20. Amraphel (JE | wp gwp g) A king of Shinar (Gen. xiv. 1, 9), who invaded the West in conjunction with Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and others, and destroyed...

1441 – 1460[edit]

  1. Amschel (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1562: Anschel
  2. Amsterdam (JE | wp gwp g) One of the capital cities of the Netherlands founded as a fishing village in the thirteenth century. No Jews lived there...
  3. Amsterdam, New York (JE | wp gwp g) City of Montgomery county, New York, on the Mohawk river, 33 miles northwest of Albany; population in 1900, 20,929.The earliest...
  4. Amu (JE | wp gwp g) the ancient Egyptian designation for the Semites, frequently quoted in popular literature. The correct form in Hebrew letters...
  5. Amulet (JE | wp gwp g) the word "Amulet" used to be considered as derived from an imaginary Arabic word "hamalet" (something hung on); but it is...
  6. Theodboldus Amulo (Amolon) (JE | wp gwp g) Archbishop of Lyons (841) in the reign of Charles the Bald; died 852. From his master and predecessor, Agobard, he learned...
  7. Amusements (JE | wp gwp g) See Games, Pastimes.
  8. Anab (JE | wp gwp g) A city in the hills of southern Judea, lying in the domain of Judah (Josh. xv. 50), from which Joshua exterminated the Anakim...
  9. Anacletus II (Pietro Pierleoni) (JE | wp gwp g) Antipope to Innocent II. from 1130 to 1138. By reason of his Jewish descent, which prompted Voltaire to call him ironically...
  10. Anagram (JE | wp gwp g) the letters of a word so transposed as to make a different word or phrase. The use of anagrams by the Jews dates back to...
  11. Anah (JE | wp gwp g) 1. Mother of Aholibamah, one of the wives of Esau and daughter of Zibeon (Gen. xxxvi. 2, 14, 18, 25). The Septuagint, the...
  12. Anaiah (JE | wp gwp g) 1. A supporter of Ezra (Neh. viii. 4), who is called Ananias in I Esd. ix. 43. 2. A prominent man who sealed the covenant...
  13. Anakim (JE | wp gwp g) A pre-Canaanite tribe, dwelling (according to Josh. xi. 21, 22, and Judges i. 10, 20) in the hill country of Judah and in...
  14. Analogy (JE | wp gwp g) Talmudic Rule of Interpretation. See Talmud, Hermeneutics of. This article...
  15. Anamim (JE | wp gwp g) A Mizraimite people, unidentified, mentioned in Gen. x. 13 and in I Chron. i. 11, who dwelt probably in Egypt or some neighboring...
  16. Anammelech (JE | wp gwp g) A god worshiped by the Sepharvites in Samaria under the Assyrian régime, along with the god Adrammelech (II Kings, xvii...
  17. Anan (JE | wp gwp g) Babylonian amora of the third century, disciple of Mar Samuel (Yeb. 83b, Ḳid. 39a), and contemporary of Rab Huna and...
  18. Anan, son of Anan (JE | wp gwp g) Born about the beginning of the common era (compare Josephus, "B. J." iv. 3, §§ 7 and 10); was appointed high priest...
  19. Anan, son of Ananias, the High Priest (JE | wp gwp g) He was strategus, or governor of the Temple at Jerusalem (Josephus, "B. J." ii. 12, § 6; "Ant." xx. 6, § 2), and...
  20. Anan ben David JE (JE | wp gwp g) in the second half of the seventh century and in the whole of the eighth, as a result of the tremendous intellectual commotion...

1461 – 1480[edit]

  1. Anan ben Marinus ha-Kohen (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbinical authority in Siponte; born probably about 1040. Conjointly with his somewhat older colleague, Kalonymus ben Shabbethai...
  2. Salvatore Anan (JE | wp gwp g) Italian writer, pamphleteer, and revolutionary leader; born at Ferrara, 1807; died at Genoa, 1874. In recognition of his patriotic...
  3. Anan, son of Seth (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1554: Annas
  4. Ananel (JE | wp gwp g) See Hananel.
  5. Ananel (Hananeel) Di Foligno (JE | wp gwp g) Baptized Jew; lived at the middle of the sixteenth century. Joseph ha-Kohen reports in his "'Emek ha-Baka" that...
  6. 'Anani ('Inani, 'Inyani, 'Ananie) b. Sason JE (JE | wp gwp g) A Palestinian amora of the third century, contemporary of R. Ammi. He rarely discussed Halakot, and his discussions of them...
  7. Ananias (JE | wp gwp g) This name stands in the Septuagint and New Testament as the equivalent for different Hebrew names, one (I.) with initial &#1495...
  8. Ananias of Adiabene (JE | wp gwp g) A Jewish merchant, probably of Hellenic origin, who, in the opening years of the common era, was prominent at the court of...
  9. Ananias, son of Nebedeus (JE | wp gwp g) High priest, appointed by Herod of Chalcis. He officiated from about 47 to 59, and was deprived of his office by Agrippa II...
  10. Ananias, son of Onias IV JE (JE | wp gwp g) On account of the persecutions under Antiochus IV., Onias IV. fled from Jerusalem to Egypt, won the favor of Ptolemy VI.,...
  11. Ananias, son of Zadok (JE | wp gwp g) According to Josephus ("B. J." ii. 17, § 10; "Vita," 66-67), one of the deputies of high rank from among the Pharisees...
  12. Ananyev (JE | wp gwp g) District, town, and village in the province of Kherson, Russia. In 1897 the Jewish population was: in the town 7,650 (50 per...
  13. Anapa (JE | wp gwp g) Town in the province of Kuban, Russia, on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. Jews are said to have lived here in the first...
  14. Anarchism (JE | wp gwp g) This term is used so loosely in the United States by writers and public speakers that a scientific definition appears to be...
  15. Anath (JE | wp gwp g) the name of an ancient war-goddess of the western group of Semites. The Egyptian way of writing the name of the Phenician-Israelitish...
  16. Anath (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S546: Shamgar
  17. Anathema (JE | wp gwp g) A term used both in the sense of consecration and of condemnation. The old Greek 'Aνάθημ&#945...
  18. Anathoth (JE | wp gwp g) A town in the territory of Benjamin in Palestine, included among the original Levitical cities (Josh. xxi. 18; compare I Chron...
  19. Anatoli ben David Casani (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1479: Casani, Anatoli ben David
  20. Jacob ben Abba Mari ben Simson Anatolio JE (JE | wp gwp g) Hebrew translator of Arabic scientific literature; flourished about 1194-1256 (see "Journal Asiatique," xiv. 34). Anatolio...

1481 – 1500[edit]

  1. Anatomy (JE | wp gwp g) the science dealing with the structure of organisms, especially that of the human body. The information given in the Bible...
  2. The Anavim (JE | wp gwp g) the name of a sect or party. See Ḥasidim.
  3. Anaw (JE | wp gwp g) the name of a Jewish family that settled in Italy, and which was originally resident at Rome. According to a family tradition...
  4. Abraham ben Jehiel ha-Rofe Anaw (JE | wp gwp g) Physician and rabbi in Rome at the beginning of the thirteenth century. He was the father of Zedekiah, author of "Shibbole...
  5. Benjamin b. Abraham Anaw JE (JE | wp gwp g) A liturgical poet, Talmudist, and commentator of the thirteenth century; older brother of Zedekiah b. Abraham. Perhaps the...
  6. Zedekiah b. Abraham Anaw JE (JE | wp gwp g) Author of ritualistic works; younger brother of Benjamin b. Abraham Anaw; lived at Rome in the thirteenth century; received...
  7. Anbal (Ambal) the Jassin (Ossete) (JE | wp gwp g) Among the many foreigners who held positions at the court of Prince Andrei Bogolyubski, in Kiev, toward the end of the twelfth...
  8. Ancestor Worship (JE | wp gwp g) the same homage and adoration paid to deceased parents and more remote ancestors as usually given to deities. Many anthropologists...
  9. Juan de Anchias (JE | wp gwp g) Associate and first private secretary of the Inquisition in Spain (1485-90). He was understood to be especially familiar with...
  10. Ancient of Days (JE | wp gwp g) A poetical epithet for God. It is an incorrect rendering of the Aramaic 'attik yomin (Dan. vii. 9) or 'atti&#7731...
  11. Ancona (JE | wp gwp g) Ancient city of Italy, capital of a province bearing its name, situated on the Adriatic; said to have been founded by Syracusan...
  12. Alessandro D'Ancona (JE | wp gwp g) Historian of Italian literature and philologist; born at Pisa (Tuscany), Feb. 20, 1835. He is the youngest of five brothers...
  13. Jacob ben Elia D'Ancona (JE | wp gwp g) Copyist; lived at the end of the fifteenth century. Steinschneider states ("Hebr. Bibl." xx. 126) that Ancona copied some...
  14. Andalusia (JE | wp gwp g) the largest of the ancient divisions of southern Spain, comprising the Moorish kingdoms of Seville, Cordova, and Granada,...
  15. Andernach (JE | wp gwp g) An ancient city in the Prussian governmental district of Coblenz. From very early times a Jewish community was sheltered within...
  16. Andi (JE | wp gwp g) One of the wild Lesghian tribes of the province of Tersk (Terek) and northern Daghestan. Like the Tabassarans and other Caucasian...
  17. Salvador d'Andrada (JE | wp gwp g) One of the earliest Jewish settlers in New York, his name being first encountered in 1655. He appears to have been more wealthy...
  18. Abraham Andrade (JE | wp gwp g) French rabbi; born in the last quarter of the eighteenth century; died at Bordeaux, 1836. During the Reign of Terror (1793-94)...
  19. Velosino Jacob de Andrade (JE | wp gwp g) Physician; born in Pernambuco 1657, of Portuguese parents, who had, like many other Maranos, fled to Brazil after it had become...
  20. Andrea de Monti (JE | wp gwp g) -- See J538: Joseph Ẓarfati
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