Wikipedia:Jewish Encyclopedia topics/A4

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1501 to 1600[edit]

1501 – 1520[edit]

  1. Andreas II (JE | WP GWP G) -- See H970: Hungary
  2. Andreas (JE | WP GWP G) A legendary Jewish pope. According to an old Spanish document discovered among some penitential liturgies by Eliezer Ashkenazi...
  3. Andreas Beltran (JE | WP GWP G) -- See B614: Beltran
  4. Johannes Andreas (JE | WP GWP G) of Xativa; a convert to Christianity in the sixteenth century; his Jewish name is unknown. In his conversionist zeal he addressed...
  5. Andreas Lucuas (JE | WP GWP G) -- See C949: Cyrene
  6. Richard Andree (JE | WP GWP G) German ethnographer and geographer; since 1890 editor of "Globus"; born 1835 at Brunswick. In 1881 he produced "Zur Volkskunde...
  7. Andrew (JE | WP GWP G) 1. Commonly known as Saint Andrew; one of the twelve apostles of Jesus; brother of Simon Peter. Both Andrew and Peter were...
  8. Androgynos (Hermaphrodite) (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbinical literature knows both the mythical and the real hermaphrodite: the former in the Haggadah, the latter in the Halakah...
  9. Andronicus Comnenus (JE | WP GWP G) Byzantine emperor; born in 1113; assassinated at Constantinople in 1185; reigned in 1183-85. He wrote a book against the Jews...
  10. Andronicus, son of Meshullam JE (JE | WP GWP G) Lived in the second century B.C. According to Josephus ("Ant." xiii. 3, § 4), he was the representative of the Jews in...
  11. Anecdotes (JE | WP GWP G) One of the many links that help to bind Jews together throughout the world is the number of Anecdotes dealing with Jewish...
  12. Aner (JE | WP GWP G) One of the three Amorite lords of the hill-country of western Palestine confederate with Abram (Gen. xiv. 13). When a fugitive...
  13. Abraham Angel (JE | WP GWP G) A Turkish Talmudist and author who flourished at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He published "Pittuche &#7716...
  14. Baruch Angel (JE | WP GWP G) A Talmudic author and principal of the Talmudic colleges of Salonica and Smyrna in the first half of the seventeenth century...
  15. Angel ben Hayyim (JE | WP GWP G) A Turkish commentator on the Bible; lived at Salonica in the last half of the eighteenth century. He wrote "'Eẓ...
  16. Hayyim Vidal ben Shabbethai Angel (JE | WP GWP G) Turkish rabbi and preacher, who flourished at Salonica about the middle of the eighteenth century. He wrote: "Sippur ha-&#7716...
  17. Meir ben Abraham Angel, of Belgrade (JE | WP GWP G) A renowned preacher who lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and died in Safed (Palestine) after having traveled...
  18. Moses Angel (JE | WP GWP G) Headmaster of the London Jews' Free School; born April 29, 1819, and died at London, in 1898. He received his early training...
  19. Shemaiah Angel JE (JE | WP GWP G) Banker and philanthropist of Damascus; died in 1874. He was a great benefactor to his brethren in Syria and to the inhabitants...
  20. Angelo di Manuele (JE | WP GWP G) See Manuele.

1521 – 1540[edit]

  1. Angelology REF:JE >> Ophite Diagrams REF:JE JE Angelology is that branch of theology which treats of angels. Angels (from αγγελōς = messenger...
  2. Angelus (JE | WP GWP G) A Jewish merchant in Rome in the thirteenth century, who, with other merchants— Sabbatinus, Museus, Salamon, and Consiliolus&#8212...
  3. Anger (JE | WP GWP G) A violent passion aroused by some wrong experienced; vengeance is sought upon the one who committed or caused it. It includes...
  4. Anglo-Israelism (JE | WP GWP G) A theory which identifies the Anglo-Saxon race with the Lost Ten Tribes. Its adherents, who claim that the promises given...
  5. Anglo-Jewish Association (JE | WP GWP G) An organization formed by Jews of the British empire having for its objects the promotion of social, moral, and intellectual...
  6. Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition (JE | WP GWP G) An exposition held at the Royal Albert Hall, London, England, during April, May, and June, 1887, in which were collected and...
  7. The Anglo-Jewish Magazine (JE | WP GWP G) -- See P199: Periodicals
  8. Angoulême (JE | WP GWP G) Town in the department of Charente, France, where, about 1240, a controversy took place between Nathan ben Joseph Official...
  9. Angro-mainyush (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1003: Ahriman
  10. Anna Angyal (Engel) (JE | WP GWP G) Hungarian author; born at Veszprim, 1848, died 1874; the daughter of a teacher in the town of Hód-Mezö-Vásárhely.
  11. David Angyal (Engel) (JE | WP GWP G) Hungarian writer; born November 30, 1857. After graduating from the University of Budapest he was appointed high-school teacher...
  12. Anhalt (JE | WP GWP G) An ancient principality of Germany, now a state of the German empire; formerly divided into four duchies: Anhalt-Bernburg...
  13. Anida, Ani (JE | WP GWP G) Among Spanish Jews, a dish composed of beans, peas, fat meat, and eggs, placed in an oven over Friday night, and eaten at...
  14. Anilai JE (JE | WP GWP G) Robber chieftains. Two Jewish boys of Nehardea in Babylonia were apprenticed by their widowed mother to a weaver. Having been...
  15. Animal Fables in Talmud and Midrash (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A874: Æsop's Fables
  16. Animal Offerings (JE | WP GWP G) -- See S35: Sacrifice
  17. Animal Worship (JE | WP GWP G) This is an expression which needs careful definition, since it is understood and explained in various ways. A distinction...
  18. Clean and Unclean Animals (JE | WP GWP G) -- See D351: Dietary Laws
  19. Animals of the Bible (JE | WP GWP G) to contrast them with plants and minerals, animals are called in Hebrew (living soul): used always collectively in Gen. i...
  20. An'im Zemirot (JE | WP GWP G) A mystical hymn, known as the "Shir ha-Kabod" (Hymn of Glory), ascribed to R. Judah, the saint of Speyer (Landshuth, "Hegyon...

1541 – 1560[edit]

  1. Anise (JE | WP GWP G) See Dill. This article has not yet been rated. ...
  2. Ilia Sharbatovich Anisimov (JE | WP GWP G) Russian civil engineer; born in Daghestan, 1853; received his first education in the house of his father, Dr. Sharbat ben...
  3. Anjou (JE | WP GWP G) Ancient province of France, bounded by Poitou, Brittany, Maine, and Touraine. It now includes the whole of the department...
  4. Ankava (Ankoa) JE (JE | WP GWP G) See Alnaqua, Ephraim ben Israel.
  5. Abraham ben Mordecai Ankava (JE | WP GWP G) North-African Talmudist, author, and liturgical poet; born at Fez, Morocco, about the beginning of the nineteenth century...
  6. Jacob ben Amram Ankava (JE | WP GWP G) Translator; lived in Algeria in the nineteenth century. He translated from Spanish into Arabic a treatise onthe laws to be...
  7. Anklet (JE | WP GWP G) An ornament for the ankle, alluded to by Isaiah (iii. 18) in the list of articles of jewelry that the women of that day were...
  8. Anna (JE | WP GWP G) 1. Tobit's wife, of his own kindred (Tobit i. 9), consanguineous marriages being regarded by the pious Jews of old as...
  9. Anna (JE | WP GWP G) Daughter of Rabbi Eleazar of Worms; lived at Erfurt, where she died as martyr by the hand of Crusaders, Dec. 6, 1213 or 1214...
  10. Anna (JE | WP GWP G) Daughter of R. Meir of Ramerupt, sister of Rabbenu Tam and Rashbam, and granddaughter of Rashi; a learned woman of Champagne...
  11. Anna (JE | WP GWP G) -- See H141: Hallel
  12. Anna Bekorenu (JE | WP GWP G) A Pizmon for the Eve of Atonement, according to the Sephardic ritual, taking the place occupied by "Omnam Ken" and "Ki Hinneh...
  13. Anna Ivanovna (JE | WP GWP G) Empress of Russia; born Feb. 8, 1693; crowned 1730; died Oct. 28, 1740. After the death of Peter the Great (Feb. 8, 1725)...
  14. Annas (JE | WP GWP G) Son of Sethi, or Seth (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 2, § 1), a Jewish high priest. He was appointed to the office by Quirinus...
  15. Annius Rufus (JE | WP GWP G) Procurator of Judea from the year 12-15 (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 2, § 2).A. Bü. ...
  16. Anniversary of Death (JE | WP GWP G) -- See J139: Jahrzeit
  17. The Annual Hebrew Magazine (JE | WP GWP G) -- See P199: Periodicals
  18. The Anointed of the Lord (JE | WP GWP G) -- See M510: Messiah
  19. Anointing (JE | WP GWP G) Two words are employed in the Old Testament for Anointing, and . The former designates the private use of unguents in making...
  20. Anonymous Works (JE | WP GWP G) Hebrew anonymous literature is coeval with the literature of the nation. The Bible mentions two anonymous historical works:...

1561 – 1580[edit]

  1. Ansbach (JE | WP GWP G) Ancient town of Bavaria, Germany; the capital of Middle Franconia, situated on the Rezat, twenty-five miles southwest of Nuremberg...
  2. Anschel (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi at Cracow; flourished in the first half of the sixteenth century. He was the author of "Mirkebet ha-Mishneh" (The Second...
  3. Anschel Norden de Lima (JE | WP GWP G) -- See L423: Lima
  4. Solomon Anschel (JE | WP GWP G) German author; lived in southern Germany at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. He wrote...
  5. Worms Anschel (JE | WP GWP G) See Asher ben Wolf.
  6. Anschelm (JE | WP GWP G) Chief rabbi of several German provinces. He was appointed to the office of chief rabbi in the year 1435 by Conrad of Weinsberg...
  7. Anshe Keneset ha-Gedolah (JE | WP GWP G) -- See B1002: Synagogue, Great
  8. Joel Anspach (JE | WP GWP G) French religious writer; born about 1800; died September, 1872. He was the only brother of Philippe Anspach. Joel was the...
  9. Philippe Anspach (JE | WP GWP G) Honorary counselor to the French Court of Cassation (court of appeal) and officer of the Legion of Honor; born in Metz, 1800...
  10. The Ant in Jewish Literature (JE | WP GWP G) in Hebrew , so also in Arabic naml (etymology doubtful); in Aramaic (Targum, Peshito, and Talmud) , which has its equivalent...
  11. Book of Antediluvians (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1644: Apocrypha
  12. Antelope (JE | WP GWP G) One of a variety of ruminants resembling the deer in many respects. The Revised Version of the Bible has the word "Antelope"...
  13. Anthropology (JE | WP GWP G) the science of man, especially in his physical aspects, and of the climatic and social environments determining those aspects...
  14. Anthropomorphism (JE | WP GWP G) the ascription to the Deity of human forms or modes and of human feelings or moods, respectively. Such ascription is as old...
  15. Antibi (JE | WP GWP G) Chief rabbi at Aleppo; died March 13, 1858. His book of responsa, "Ohel Yesharim" (The Tent of the Righteous), arranged according...
  16. Antibla (JE | WP GWP G) A family of proselytes living at Jerusalem in the first century B.C., which had been in prosperous circumstances, but was...
  17. Antichrist (JE | WP GWP G) Counterpart of the Messiah and opponent of God Himself; one of the most important personages in Christian eschatology. The...
  18. Antigonus (Antoninus) (JE | WP GWP G) Palestinian scholar of the last tannaitic generation (second and third centuries). Only two Haggadot (Mek., Beshalla&#7717...
  19. Antigonus, son of John Hyrcanus (JE | WP GWP G) Born about 135 B.C., died 103. He was Hyrcanus' second son, and, though young, proved an able soldier during his father&#39...
  20. Antigonus Mattathias (JE | WP GWP G) the last Hasmonean king of Judea; died 37 B.C. He was the second son of Aristobulus II., and together with his father was...

1581 – 1600[edit]

  1. Antigonus of Soko JE (JE | WP GWP G) the first scholar of whom Pharisaic tradition has preserved not only the name but also an important theological doctrine....
  2. L' Anti-Juif (JE | WP GWP G) A name assumed by nine different publications issued in France and Algiers and directed against the Jews. In nearly every...
  3. The Anti-maimonists (JE | WP GWP G) -- See M84: Maimonists
  4. Antinoë (JE | WP GWP G) City in the South of Middle Egypt, on the eastern bank of the Nile; founded by the emperor Hadrian in the year 122. Jews seem...
  5. Antinomianism (JE | WP GWP G) A term generally used to denote the opposition of certain Christian sects to the Law; that is, to the revelation of the Old...
  6. Antioch (JE | WP GWP G) Ancient capital of Syria, situated in the northern part of that country, fifty-seven miles west of Aleppo, on the left bank...
  7. Antiochus II (JE | WP GWP G) King of Syria (261-246 B.C.); date of birth unknown, but set by some chronologists at 286 B.C.; died 246. He is the first...
  8. Antiochus III the Great (JE | WP GWP G) King of Syria; born about 242 B.C.; reigned from 223; died 187. Eleven verses of Daniel (xi. 10-21) are supposed by critics...
  9. Antiochus IV Epiphanes (JE | WP GWP G) ("the Illustrious"): King of Syria; reigned from 175 B.C.; died 164. He was a son of Antiochus the Great, and, after the murder...
  10. Antiochus V Eupator (JE | WP GWP G) ("Well-born"): King of Syria, son of Antiochus IV.; born 173 B.C.; died 162. He succeeded his father at the age of twelve...
  11. Antiochus VI (JE | WP GWP G) King of Syria, son of Alexander Balas; died 142 B.C. Like his predecessor, Antiochus VI. was king only in name. He was proclaimed...
  12. Antiochus VII Sidetes (JE | WP GWP G) King of Syria, son of Demetrius 1; born 164; died 129 B.C. In 138 B.C. he declared against the usurper Tryphon, who had taken...
  13. Antiochus VIII Gryphus (JE | WP GWP G) King of Syria from 125 to 113 and from 111 to 96 B.C. Born in the year 141; died 96 B.C. For the first three years of his...
  14. Antiochus IX Cyzicenus (JE | WP GWP G) King of Syria; died 95 B.C. He was the half-brother of Antiochus VIII., the preceding king. He rose against him in 113, and...
  15. Antiochus XII Dionysus (JE | WP GWP G) King of Syria. He was the youngest son of Grypos, and the last of the Seleucids to come in contact with Jews. In a campaign...
  16. Scroll of Antiochus JE (JE | WP GWP G) Name of a pseudepigraph, written in Hebrew, describing the revolt of the Maccabees, and depicting its glorious course. Saadia...
  17. Antipas (Herod Antipas) (JE | WP GWP G) Seventh (not sixth, as stated in Graetz, nor third, as in Dean Farrar's biography of the Herods) and, at the time of...
  18. Antipater (JE | WP GWP G) Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the...
  19. Antipater (JE | WP GWP G) Eldest son of Herod the Great and of the Idumean Doris, who soon after Antipater's birth was discarded by her husband...
  20. Antipater, son of Jason (JE | WP GWP G) See Jonathan the Hasmonean.

1601 to 1700[edit]

1601 – 1620[edit]

  1. Antipatris (JE | WP GWP G) City founded about the year 10 B.C. by Herod the Great in the plain of Kefar Saba. From a passage in Josephus it appears that...
  2. Antiphony (JE | WP GWP G) -- See C471: Choir
  3. Anti-semitism (JE | WP GWP G) A modern word expressing antagonism to the political and social equality of Jews.The term "Anti-Semitism" has its origin in...
  4. Anti-shabbethians (JE | WP GWP G) -- See S531: Shabbethai Ẓebi
  5. Antislavery Movement in America (JE | WP GWP G) the institution of negro slavery in America has been traced back to the suggestion of a pillar of the Church, Las Casas, who...
  6. Antislavery Movement and the Jews (JE | WP GWP G) the movement against slavery is one of the most important efforts in the development of civilization; and the relation of...
  7. Anti-talmudists (JE | WP GWP G) -- See F342: Frankists
  8. Nicolas Antoine JE (JE | WP GWP G) French-Christian theologian who became converted to Judaism; born of Catholic parents in 1602 or 1603 at Briey, a small town...
  9. Mark Matveyevich Antokolski (JE | WP GWP G) Russian sculptor; born in Wilna in 1842. As a young child he displayed a talent for art, and after a short term in the &#7717...
  10. Antoli (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1479: Anatoli
  11. Sanchez Anton (JE | WP GWP G) -- See S219: Sanchez Antonio
  12. Carl Anton (JE | WP GWP G) Author; born in Mitau (Courland), of Jewish parentage; lived in the eighteenth century. He claimed descent from Ḥayyim...
  13. Anton de Mortoro Ropero (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1613: Ropero, Anton de Mortoro
  14. Antonia (JE | WP GWP G) the name given by Herod the Great to a fortress on the north side of the Temple at Jerusalem. It formed a projection on the...
  15. Antonia (JE | WP GWP G) the younger daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony and sister-in-law of Tiberius. She was on friendly terms with Berenice (the...
  16. Antonia, Princess of Würtemberg (JE | WP GWP G) A Christian Hebraist and cabalistic scholar, born in the first half of the seventeenth century; died 1679. One of the effects...
  17. Antoninus in the Talmud (JE | WP GWP G) A Roman emperor, and the hero of Jewish legends that recount wonderful things about his attitude toward Jews and Judaism, and more particularly concerning ...
  18. Antoninus Pius (Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus) (JE | WP GWP G) Roman emperor; born in the year 86; died in 161; ruled from 138 until his death. The reign of this just and humane emperor...
  19. Diogo Antonio (JE | WP GWP G) A physician who lived in Lisbon in the first half of the sixteenth century. In 1539 he succeeded Duarte de Paz as representative...
  20. Dom Antonio (JE | WP GWP G) Prior of Crato, pretender to the throne of Portugal; died 1595. He was a natural son of Dom Luis, brother of King Henry of...

1621 – 1640[edit]

  1. Hector Antonio (JE | WP GWP G) Brother of Diogo Antonio. He was the representative of the Portuguese Maranos in Rome about the middle of the sixteenth century...
  2. Antonio José da Silva (JE | WP GWP G) -- See S714: Silva, Antonio, José da
  3. Antonio de Mendes (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1623: Mendes, Antonio de
  4. Antonio de Verona (JE | WP GWP G) Italian Jew, resident in England from 1623-25, who seems to have been a teacher—probably of Hebrew—at King&#39...
  5. Antunes (JE | WP GWP G) Family name of several prominent Jews. Aaron Antunes: Ḥakam of Amsterdam; lived about the year 1715. He is known...
  6. Antwerp (JE | WP GWP G) Chief seaport of the kingdom of Belgium; capital of the province bearing the same name.It is impossible to say at what time...
  7. Anusim (JE | WP GWP G) -- See M169: Maranos
  8. Apamea >> Apamea (Syria) JE, Apamea (Phrygia) JE, Apamea (Babylonia) JE, (JE | WP GWP G) Among the many towns bearing this name, the following are of importance with reference to Jews:1. Capital of the province...
  9. Apella UNR (JE | WP GWP G) A real or fictitious name of a Jew referred to by Horace as extremely credulous. Credulity seemed to the Roman writers synonymous...
  10. Apelles of Ascalon (JE | WP GWP G) Counselor and companion of the emperor Caligula (37-41). After a career of debauchery he went on the stage and became a tragic...
  11. Apes (JE | WP GWP G) These animals are mentioned in I Kings, x. 22, and the parallel passage in II Chron. ix. 21, as having been brought, with...
  12. Apharsachites (JE | WP GWP G) A tribe living in Samaria, who objected to the building of the Temple by the Jews, and brought the matter to the attention...
  13. Apharsites (JE | WP GWP G) Assyrian subjects transplanted into Samaria by Asnapper. In Ezra, iv. 9, they are found intriguing against the Jews, and this...
  14. Aphek JE (JE | WP GWP G) the name of several places mentioned in the Old Testament, of which the most famous was the scene of a severe defeat of Ben-hadad...
  15. The Battle of Aphek (JE | WP GWP G) This event, described in I Kings, xx. 26-34, was one of the most notable in the prolonged warfare between northern Israel...
  16. Aphorisms (JE | WP GWP G) -- See M285: Maxims
  17. Aphraates, The Persian Sage (JE | WP GWP G) the name by which a Syrian homilist of the fourth century was known. His homilies, written between the years 337 and 345,...
  18. Aphraschus Rachmailowicz (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A878: Affras Rachmaelovich
  19. Aphrodite (JE | WP GWP G) Greek name for the goddess of love. Among Orientals, addicted to sensuality, she was worshiped under many forms and figures...
  20. Apikoros (JE | WP GWP G) in common Jewish parlance this word is used to signify that a man is a heretic, unsound in his belief, or lax in his religious...

1641 – 1660[edit]

  1. Apion (JE | WP GWP G) A Greek grammarian and sophist of Alexandria, noted for his bitter hatred of the Jews; born in the Great Oasis of Egypt between...
  2. Apocalypse (JE | WP GWP G) An "Apocalypse," in the terminology of early Jewish and Christian literature, is a revelation of hidden things given by God...
  3. Neo-Hebraic Apocalyptic Literature (JE | WP GWP G) the Neo-Hebraic apocalyptic forms but one branch of Apocalyptic Literature, a species of literature exhibiting many ramifications...
  4. Apocrypha (JE | WP GWP G) the most general definition of Apocrypha is, Writings having some pretension to the character of sacred scripture, or received...
  5. Eduard Apolant (JE | WP GWP G) German physician; born at Jastrow, city in Westpreussen, Prussia, Aug. 21, 1847. He was educated at the gymnasium at Deutsch-Krone...
  6. Apollinaris (JE | WP GWP G) Bishop of Hierapolis, Phrygia, in 170; author of an "Apology for the Christian Faith," which he addressed to Emperor Marcus...
  7. Apollonius[disambiguation needed] (JE | WP GWP G) One of the Judeans who, about 130 B.C., went to Rome to make a covenant or league of friendship with the Romans. He was called...
  8. Appollonius + (JE | WP GWP G) Greek rhetorician and anti-Jewish writer; flourishedin the first century B.C. He is usually, but not always, designated by...
  9. Apollonius of Tyana (JE | WP GWP G) Pythagorean philosopher and necromancer; born about the year 3 B.C.; died, according to some sources, in the thirtyeighth...
  10. Apollos (JE | WP GWP G) A learned Jew of Alexandria, and colaborer of Paul. Of him the following is told (Acts xviii. 24-28): He came (about 56) to...
  11. Apologists (JE | WP GWP G) Men of pious zeal who defended both the Jewish religion and the Jewish race against the attacks and accusations of their enemies...
  12. Apôphis (JE | WP GWP G) the Egyptian king under whom, according to some early writers, Joseph came to Egypt, and who, according to Syncellus, flourished...
  13. Apoplexy (JE | WP GWP G) A sudden loss or diminution of sensation and of the power of motion, caused by the rupture or plugging up of a blood-vessel...
  14. Apostasy and Apostates from Judaism >> Apostasy in Judaism REF:JE (JE | WP GWP G) Terms derived from the Greek ἀποστασία ("defection, revolt") and ἀ&#960...
  15. Apostle and Apostleship (JE | WP GWP G) Apostle (Greek ἀπόστολοσ, from ἀποστήλ&#955...
  16. Apostles' Teaching (JE | WP GWP G) -- See D341: Didache
  17. Daniil Pavlovich Apostol (JE | WP GWP G) Hetman of the Cossacks on both sides of the Dnieper; born in South Russia in 1658; died Dec. 15, 1734. When Catherine I. expelled...
  18. Apostoli UNR, Apostolé (JE | WP GWP G) These two words, while similar in appearance, differ in signification. "Apostolé" was a term given to certain moneys...
  19. Apostolic Constitutions (JE | WP GWP G) -- See D343: Didascalia
  20. Apostomus JE (JE | WP GWP G) Among five catastrophes said to have overtaken the Jews on the seventeenth of Tammuz, the Mishnah (Ta'anit iv. 6) includes...

1661 – 1680[edit]

  1. Jewish Apothecaries (JE | WP GWP G) -- See M325: Medicine
  2. Abraham Ashkenazi Apotheker (JE | WP GWP G) An apothecary ("aptheker," according to the customary Polish-Jewish syncopated pronunciation) and writer, whose name betokens...
  3. David Apotheker (JE | WP GWP G) Judæo-German writer and printer at Philadelphia, Pa.; born in Ponievyezh, gov. Kovno, Russia, Aug. 28, 1855. In 1868...
  4. Appeal (JE | WP GWP G) "The carrying of a cause from a lower to a higher tribunal for a rehearing on the merits" is practically unknown to Jewish...
  5. Appellanten (JE | WP GWP G) A German word used to designate the assistants of the chief rabbi of Prague; called also "Oberjuristen"; generally three...
  6. Apple (JE | WP GWP G) the word "apple" is the commonly accepted translation of tappuaḦ, from the root napaḦ (to exhale = the sweet-scented)...
  7. Apple of Sodom (JE | WP GWP G) A fruit described by Josephus ("B. J." iv. 8, § 4) and Tacitus ("Hist." v. 6) as growing near the site of Sodom, "externally...
  8. Appraisement (JE | WP GWP G) the setting of a value by a court of justice either upon property, or upon damage done to person or property. It differs...
  9. Approbation (JE | WP GWP G) Primarily, a favorable opinion given by rabbis or scholars as recommendation for a book composed wholly or partly in the...
  10. Apt (JE | WP GWP G) A small town, not far from Avignon, in the department of Vaucluse, France. In the Middle Ages it was inhabited by Jews, who...
  11. David Aptrod (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A648: Abterode
  12. Apulia (JE | WP GWP G) A district of southern Italy, the limits of which have varied. It is usually regarded as the region bounded by the Frentani...
  13. Aqueducts in Palestine (JE | WP GWP G) Palestine, in contradistinction to Egypt, was a land of natural waters rather than of irrigation (Deut. xi. 10, 11), and there...
  14. Aquila (Ακύλας, V02p034001jpg) (JE | WP GWP G) Translator of the canonical Scriptures from Hebrew into Greek. He was by birth a Gentile from Pontus, and is said by Epiphanius...
  15. Raffaele Aquilino (JE | WP GWP G) Italian apostate who renounced his religion in 1545—eight years before the public burning of the Talmud in Rome (1553)&#8212...
  16. Louis-Henri D'Aquin (JE | WP GWP G) Writer and translator of the seventeenth century; son of Philippe D'Aquin. He was converted to Christianity at Aquino...
  17. Philippe D'Aquin (JE | WP GWP G) Hebraist; born at Carpentras about 1578; died at Paris in 1650. Early in life he left his native town and went to Aquino,...
  18. Thomas Aquinas (JE | WP GWP G) Most eminent of the Christian theological philosophers of the Middle Ages; born 1227 at Aquino, kingdom of Naples; died 1274...
  19. Ar (JE | WP GWP G) Occurs as follows in the Old Testament: Num. xxi. 15, 28; Deut. ii. 9, 18, 29; Isa. xv. 1. It is generally identified with...
  20. Arabah (JE | WP GWP G) the Hebrew word Arabah () denotes desert, steppe. With the article, it refers especially to that extensive depression the...

1681 – 1700[edit]

  1. Arabah (JE | WP GWP G) -- See B962: Beth-Arabah
  2. The Arabarch (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1055: Alabarch
  3. Arabia (JE | WP GWP G) Peninsula lying between the mainlands of Africa and Asia. It is separated from Africa on the south by the Red Sea and on the...
  4. Arabian Nights (JE | WP GWP G) Popular name of a collection of tales written in Arabic under the title "Alf Lailat wa Lailah" (One Thousand and One Nights)...
  5. General View of Arabic-Jewish Philosophy (JE | WP GWP G) So thoroughly were the writings of Arabic-speaking Jews influenced by what may be termed Mosaism, that it is necessary to...
  6. Use of Arabic Language Among Jews (JE | WP GWP G) the precise period of the first settlement of Jews in Arabia is unknown, and it is therefore impossible to say when the Arabic...
  7. Arabic Literature of the Jews (JE | WP GWP G) from the time that the Arabs commenced to develop a culture of their own, Jews lived among them and spoke their language....
  8. Arabic Philosophy—Its Influence on Judaism >> Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800–1400) JE (JE | WP GWP G) Arabic philosophy dates from the appearance of dissenting sects in Islam. A century had hardly elapsed after Mohammed revealed...
  9. Arabic Poetry (JE | WP GWP G) the poetic literature of the Arab Jews, to judge from the specimens handed down, must be about as old as Arabic Poetry in...
  10. Arabic Script (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1686: Arabic Language
  11. Arabic Versions of the Bible (JE | WP GWP G) -- See B1035: Bible Translations
  12. Arad (JE | WP GWP G) Son of Beriah in the genealogical list of Benjamin (I Chron. viii. 15).2. A Canaanite city in the wilderness of Judah (Judges...
  13. Arad (Alt-Arad) (JE | WP GWP G) A royal free city and market town of Hungary, on the Maros, 145 miles southeast of Budapest. Among the Jewish communities...
  14. Aradus (JE | WP GWP G) A Phenician city on the island now called Ruad, eighty miles north of Sidon. It is the Arvad of Ezek. xxvii. 8, 11, the Armad...
  15. Arag (Arak) (JE | WP GWP G) Village in the district of Kyurin, Daghestan, Transcaucasia, Russia. When the traveler Judah Chorny visited the place in...
  16. Aragon (JE | WP GWP G) An independent medieval kingdom, later a province of Spain, in the northeastern part of the Iberian peninsula. Its population...
  17. 'Arakin (JE | WP GWP G) A treatise of the Mishnah, the Tosefta, and the Babylonian Talmud in the order Ḳodashim. Analysis of the Mishnah. In...
  18. Aram (JE | WP GWP G) the name of a group of kindred tribes scattered over portions of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Arabia. It is not the name of a country...
  19. Aram-geshur (JE | WP GWP G) An Aramean district and a small kingdom near Maachah (II Sam. xv. 8) (see Aram-Maachah), and associated with it in Josh. xiii...
  20. Aram-maachah (JE | WP GWP G) (I Chron. xix. 6): A district south of Damascus, bordering on the trans-Jordanic territory of Manasseh. Maachah is said in...

1701 to 1800[edit]

1701 – 1720[edit]

  1. Aram-naharaim (JE | WP GWP G) A region somewhat ill-defined, mentioned six times in the Bible. In the title of Ps. lx., and in I Chron. xix. 6, it is used...
  2. Aram-rehob JE (JE | WP GWP G) A district of Syria, of which the chief city was Rehob or Beth-Rehob, associated with Aram-Zobah as hostile to David. Num...
  3. Aram-zobah JE (JE | WP GWP G) the capital of an Aramean state, at one time of considerable importance. The statement in I Sam. xiv. 47, that its king fought...
  4. David ben Abraham Arama (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbinical author, born in Turkey, 1525; lived in Salonica. When barely twenty years old, he published "Perush 'al Sefer...
  5. Isaac ben Moses Arama JE (JE | WP GWP G) Spanish rabbi and author; born about 1420; died in Naples 1494. He was at first principal of a rabbinical academy at Zamora...
  6. Meïr ben Isaac Arama (JE | WP GWP G) Philosopher and Biblical commentator; born at Saragossa at the end of the fifteenth century; died about 1556 in Salonica....
  7. Aramaic Language among the Jews (JE | WP GWP G) of all Semitic languages the Aramaic is most closely related to the Hebrew, and forms with it, and possibly with the Assyrian...
  8. Aramaic Versions (JE | WP GWP G) -- See B1035: Bible Translations
  9. Pedro de Aranda JE (JE | WP GWP G) Bishop of Calahorra and president of the council of Castile in the latter part of the fifteenth century; was a victim of the...
  10. Miksa Aranyi (JE | WP GWP G) Hungarian writer; born at Trencsén, May 13, 1858. He graduated from the university in Budapest, and was sent to Paris...
  11. Ararat (JE | WP GWP G) A district in eastern Armenia lying between the lakes Van and Urmia and the river Araxes. The Biblical name corresponds to...
  12. Ararat (JE | WP GWP G) A proposed city planned by Mordecai Manuel Noah in 1825. The reactionary policy adopted by many European governments after...
  13. Araunah JE (JE | WP GWP G) A Jebusite whose threshing-floor in Jerusalem was pointed out to David by the prophet Gad as a fitting place for the erection...
  14. Abraham Gomez de Arauxo (JE | WP GWP G) Lived in the seventeenth century. He was a member of a poetical academy in Amsterdam, Holland, in 1682, a good mathematician...
  15. Daniel Arauxo (JE | WP GWP G) Physician. Lived in the seventeenth century in the city of Amsterdam. In the year 1655 he composed an elegy on the martyr...
  16. Arba (JE | WP GWP G) the hero of the Anakim, who lived at Kirjath-arba, a city named in his honor (Josh. xiv. 15). In Josh. xv. 13 and xxi. 11...
  17. Arba' Arazot (JE | WP GWP G) See Council of the Four Lands.
  18. Arba' Kanfot (JE | WP GWP G) the "four-cornered garment"; a rectangular piece of cloth, usually of wool, about three feet long and one foot wide, with...
  19. Arbach Hayyim b. Jacob (JE | WP GWP G) -- See D493: Drucker, Ḥayyim b. Jacob
  20. Arbattis (JE | WP GWP G) A place mentioned in I Mace. v. 23 in connection with Galilee, from both of which districts Simon Maccabeus brought back some...

1721 – 1740[edit]

  1. Arbel (JE | WP GWP G) -- See B964: Beth-Arbel
  2. Arbela (JE | WP GWP G) in I Mace. ix. 2, Arbela is the district in which Mesaloth was situated, and through which ran the road to Gilgal (for which...
  3. Eduardo Arbib (JE | WP GWP G) Italian deputy and author; born at Florence, July 27, 1840. On the death of his father he was obliged to discontinue his studies...
  4. Isaac Arbib (JE | WP GWP G) See Arroya, Isaac ben Moses.
  5. Pedro Arbues (JE | WP GWP G) Spanish canon and inquisitor; called by certain Jews "the creature and darling of Torquemada"; born about 1441 at Epila, Aragon...
  6. Arcadius (JE | WP GWP G) Byzantine emperor from 395 to 408. He was too weak a ruler to be able to withstand the influence exerted by his court favorites...
  7. Archa (JE | WP GWP G) Technical name in old English Treasury documents for the repository in which chirographs and other deeds were preserved. By...
  8. Archagathus (JE | WP GWP G) -- See C8: CÆcilius of Calacte
  9. Archelaus (JE | WP GWP G) Son of Herod I.; king of Judea; born about 21 B.C., his mother being the Samaritan Malthace. At the age of fourteen he was...
  10. Biblical Archeology (JE | WP GWP G) the branch of archeology that has for its province a scientific presentation of the domestic, civil, and religious institutions...
  11. Archer, Archery (JE | WP GWP G) the bow as a weapon in war and the chase was familiar to the Hebrews from patriarchal times (Gen. xxi. 20, xxvii. 3, xlviii...
  12. Archevites (JE | WP GWP G) A people whom Asnapper brought from Erech or Uruk, a political and religious center of Babylonia, and settled in Samaria....
  13. Samuel ben Elhanan Isaac Archevolti (JE | WP GWP G) Italian grammarian, and poet of the sixteenth century. Many of his piyyuṭim were embodied in the Italian liturgy, notably...
  14. Archimedes (JE | WP GWP G) the greatest mathematician of antiquity; born in Syracuse about 287 B.C. His influence on Jewish literature was not extensive...
  15. Archipherecites (JE | WP GWP G) Grecized form of the Aramaic = "heads of the school" (pirka, literally "chapter," hence "discourse"). The name occurs...
  16. Archisynagogue (JE | WP GWP G) Synagogue-chief. The use of this name as the title of the officer who supervised matters pertaining to the religious services...
  17. Archite (JE | WP GWP G) Inhabitant of a town or district on the southern border of Judah probably connected with the Erech (A. V. Archi) of Josh....
  18. Jewish Architecture (JE | WP GWP G) See Almemar; America, Jewish Architecture in; Ark; Cemeteries;Galleries; Gravestones; Hospitals; New York; Philadelphia; Synagogue...
  19. Archives Israélites (JE | WP GWP G) A French Jewish review, founded in 1840 by Samuel Cahen, author of a French translation of the Hebrew Bible. The first number...
  20. Jewish Archives of Old Congregation (JE | WP GWP G) See Memorbuch; Pinkes.

1741 – 1760[edit]

  1. Archon (JE | WP GWP G) the title of a member of the governing body in the independent Jewish communities throughout the Roman empire, as in Alexandria...
  2. Arcturus (JE | WP GWP G) -- See C749: Constellation
  3. Ardashar (JE | WP GWP G) Village in the government of Erivan, Transcaucasia, Russia, about 16 miles South-southeast from the capital of Erivan; the...
  4. Ardit (JE | WP GWP G) the name of a family that emigrated from Aragon to Turkey, where their descendants still live. The following members are known:...
  5. Shem-Tob ben Isaac Ardotial (Andrutil) (JE | WP GWP G) Spanish poet; flourished at Soria in the beginning of the fourteenth century. The name has been wrongly transcribed as Androtil...
  6. Areka (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A127: Abba Arika
  7. Arelim (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1521: Angelology
  8. Arendar (JE | WP GWP G) -- See R97: Randar
  9. Otto Arendt (JE | WP GWP G) German economist, author, and member of the Prussian Diet; born in Berlin, Oct. 10, 1854. He graduated as Ph.D. from the Berlin...
  10. Louis Arens (JE | WP GWP G) Operatic singer (tenor); born in Mitau, Russia, March 23, 1865. He was educated at the Riga Gymnasium and studied music at...
  11. Samuel ben Isaac ben Yom-Tob Arepol (JE | WP GWP G) Commentator on the Bible, lived in Safed and Salonica in the sixteenth century. He is author of the following books: "Imrot...
  12. Aretas JE (JE | WP GWP G) Nabatæan king; reigned from 9 B.C. to 40 of the common era. His full title, as given in the inscriptions, was "Aretas...
  13. Marquis d'Argens (JE | WP GWP G) See Mendelssohn, Moses.
  14. Argentine Republic (JE | WP GWP G) See Agricultural Colonies in America, Buenos Ayres. This article has not...
  15. Argob (JE | WP GWP G) 1. A district in Bashan which was taken from Og by the Jews (Deut. iii. 4), and together with the district of Gilead, was...
  16. Lewis Aria (JE | WP GWP G) Merchant and philanthropist; died at Portsea in 1874. Of a Sephardic family, he was trained to business and devoted the fortune...
  17. Arianism (JE | WP GWP G) A heresy of the Christian Church, started by Arius, bishop of Alexandria (d. 336), who taught that the Son is not equivalent...
  18. Joseph Zemah (Sameh) Arias (JE | WP GWP G) Marano litterateur; flourished in the latter part of the seventeenth century. He belonged to the literary coterie of Joseph...
  19. Arias Montanus (Benedictus) (JE | WP GWP G) Spanish priest and Orientalist; born in 1527 at Freseenal, Estremadura; died 1598 at Seville. Philip II. entrusted him with...
  20. Ariel (JE | WP GWP G) 1. Proper name of a man (Ezra viii. 16). The name is recognizable in the name of the Gadite clan Areli (Gen. xlvi. 16; Num...

1761 – 1780[edit]

  1. Joseph of Arimathaea (JE | WP GWP G) -- See J453: Joseph of Arimathæa
  2. Arioch (JE | WP GWP G) King of Ellasar, one of the four kings who invaded Palestine in the days of Abraham (Gen. xiv. 1, 9). The style of the chapter...
  3. Aristai (JE | WP GWP G) A Palestinian scholar of the third amoraic generation (third century); colleague of R. Samuel b. NaḦman. The latter...
  4. The historian Aristeas (JE | WP GWP G) Writer on Jewish history mentioned in Eusebius, "Præp. Ev." ix. 25, who quotes from Alexander Polyhistor's collection...
  5. Letter of Aristeas (JE | WP GWP G) in the guise of a letter to a brother Philokrates, "Aristeas" writes: Contents of the Letter."By the advice of Demetrius...
  6. Aristides Mareianus of Athens (JE | WP GWP G) Christian apologist; lived about the middle of the second century. He is described by Jerome as having been a most eloquent...
  7. Aristo of Pella (JE | WP GWP G) A Christian controversialist who wrote against Judaism in the second century (135-170). He is the author of a "Dialogue Between...
  8. Aristobulus I (JE | WP GWP G) King of Judea, eldest son of John Hyrcanus; born about 140 B.C.; died 104. He succeeded his father in the office of high...
  9. Aristobulus II (JE | WP GWP G) King of Judea; born about 100 B.C.; died 49 B.C. He was the youngest son of Alexander Jannæus, whose political and religious...
  10. Aristobulus III (JE | WP GWP G) Last scion of the Hasmo nean royal house; brother of Mariamne and paternal grandson of Aristobulus II. He was a favorite of...
  11. Aristobulus (JE | WP GWP G) Youngest brother of Agrippa I.; son of Herod's son Aristobulus; flourished during the first half of the first century...
  12. Aristobulus (JE | WP GWP G) Son of Herod the Great and Mariamne the Hasmonean; born about 35 B.C.; died 7 B.C. Both he and his elder brother Alexander...
  13. Aristobulus of Paneas (JE | WP GWP G) Alexandrian Peripatetic philosopher; lived in the third or second century B.C. The period of his life is doubtful, Anatolius...
  14. Aristotle in Jewish Legend (JE | WP GWP G) As the Greek who most impressed his influence upon the development of the Jewish mind, Aristotle is one of the few Gentiles...
  15. Aristotle in Jewish Literature (JE | WP GWP G) One thousand years after his death, Aristotle, as his pupil Alexander had aforetime done, began to conquer the East, and finally...
  16. Arithmetic (JE | WP GWP G) the art of reckoning. This must have been familiar to the ancient Hebrews. The sacred books mention large amounts, showing...
  17. Ark of the Covenant (JE | WP GWP G) the first mention of the Ark in the Bible is in Ex. xxv. 10 et seq., where Moses on Mount Sinai is told to have an Ark of...
  18. Ark of the Law (JE | WP GWP G) A closet or chest in which are kept the Torah scrolls used in the public worship of the synagogue. The Ark is placed in or...
  19. Ark of Moses (JE | WP GWP G) For three months Moses was kept hidden by his mother, and when she could no longer conceal him, she made a box and launched...
  20. Ark of Noah (JE | WP GWP G) the vessel occupied by Noah and his family during the Deluge (Gen. vi. 14, vii., viii.).The English name should not be confounded...

1781 – 1800[edit]

  1. Arkansas (JE | WP GWP G) One of the South-central states of the United States; admitted June 15, 1836; seceded May 6, 1861; and was readmitted June...
  2. Arkite(S) (JE | WP GWP G) Ancient people of northwestern Palestine. In Gen. x. 17, I Chron. i. 15, the Arkite () is mentioned as a son of Canaan and...
  3. Joseph Arkovy (JE | WP GWP G) Professor of clinical dentistry at the University of Budapest; born in Budapest, February 8, 1851. He graduated in 1876 from...
  4. Arles (JE | WP GWP G) City of France, in the department of Bouches du Rhône; ancient capital of Provence. The date of the settlement of the...
  5. Joseph Judah Arli (Joseph of Arles) (JE | WP GWP G) of Sienna. See Joseph of Arles. This article has not yet been rated. ...
  6. Armavir (JE | WP GWP G) the old capital of Armenia, on the southeastern slope of Mount Ahaghöz, said to have been founded by King Armais in 1980...
  7. Armenia (JE | WP GWP G) Formerly a kingdom of western Asia, now (1902) apportioned among Russia, Turkey, and Persia. According to the Peshi&#7789...
  8. Armenian Version of Old Testament (JE | WP GWP G) -- See B1035: Bible Translation.
  9. Armilus (JE | WP GWP G) in later Jewish eschatology and legend, a king who will arise at the end of time against the Messiah, and will be conquered...
  10. Armleder Persecutions (JE | WP GWP G) A series of persecutions by a band of marauders who in 1338-39 massacred a large number of Jews in Alsace. In 1336 a nobleman...
  11. Armory (JE | WP GWP G) A word occurring only three times in the A. V. In Jer. 1. 25 it is used figuratively ("The Lord hath opened his armory and...
  12. Arms (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1793: Army
  13. Army (JE | WP GWP G) This term, here used to designate the defensive force of Israel at all stages of the nation's history, embraces widely...
  14. Fischel Arnheim (JE | WP GWP G) Bavarian deputy and lawyer; born at Baireuth, Bavaria, Feb. 23, 1812; died there Jan. 31, 1864. He was destined by his parents...
  15. Heymann Arnheim (JE | WP GWP G) German rabbi; born at Wongrowitz, Prussia, Feb. 6, 1796; died there Sept. 22, 1865. While still a child he was left fatherless...
  16. Arnhem (JE | WP GWP G) A city of Holland, situated on the Rhine about fifty miles southeast of Amsterdam. No Jews are mentioned in the records of...
  17. Arnold REF:JE (JE | WP GWP G) Cardinal-bishop of Cologne; died April 3, 1151. One of the few prelates who, during the Crusades, protected the Jews from...
  18. Arnold of Cîteaux (JE | WP GWP G) Cistercian monk, who, with the sanction of Pope Innocent III. (1198-1216), incited a crusade against the Albigenses and Jews...
  19. Arnon JE (JE | WP GWP G) A river and wady of eastern Palestine, the modern Wady Mojib (or Wady el-Mojib). The name means perhaps "noisy," a term which...
  20. Arnstadt (JE | WP GWP G) Capital of the German principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, on the River Gera. In 1264 (Aug. 5 and 7) there were outbreaks...

1801 to 1900[edit]

1801 – 1820[edit]

  1. Benedikt David Arnstein (JE | WP GWP G) Austrian playwright, grandson of the famous Vienna banker Adam Isaac von Arnstein; born in Vienna Oct. 15, 1765; died there...
  2. Fanny (Vögele) von Arnstein (JE | WP GWP G) A leader of society in Vienna; born in Berlin September 29, 1757; died near Vienna June 8, 1818. Daniel Itzig, the wealthy...
  3. Nathan Adam von Arnstein (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1802: Arnstein, Fanny von
  4. Aroer (JE | WP GWP G) A name probably meaning "bushes of dwarf juniper" (Lagarde, "Sem." i. 30), which is applied in the Old Testament to three...
  5. Aron ha-Kodesh (JE | WP GWP G) Hebrew name for the Ark in the synagogue. See Ark of the Law. This article...
  6. Arnaud Aron (JE | WP GWP G) Chief rabbi of Strasburg, Alsace; born March 11, 1807, in Sulz unterm Walde, Alsace, and died April 3, 1890. Destined for...
  7. Emil Aron (JE | WP GWP G) German physician; born at Stettin, Pomerania, March 12, 1864. He received his education at the Werdersche Gymnasium at Berlin...
  8. Henry Aron (JE | WP GWP G) French publicist; born in Paris, Nov. 11, 1842; died there Nov. 13, 1885. He was a pupil of the École Normale and obtained...
  9. Julius Aronius (JE | WP GWP G) German historian; born Feb. 5, 1861, at Rastenburg, Germany; died June 29, 1893. After completing the gymnasium course, he...
  10. Leo Arons (JE | WP GWP G) German physicist and Socialist. Though privat-docent at the University of Berlin he took part in the Socialist movement, and...
  11. Rudolph Aronson (JE | WP GWP G) Composer and theatrical manager; born in New York, April 8, 1856. He early manifested talent for music, and after his graduation...
  12. Jacob Ezekiel Aronssohn (JE | WP GWP G) German physician and medical writer; born in 1774; died June 12, 1807; obtained his degree of M.D. in 1800; and subsequently...
  13. Jacques Léon Aronssohn (JE | WP GWP G) German physician; born at Metz May 2, 1793; died at Strasburg Sept. 8, 1861. His father, Jacques Aronssohn (died 1845), practised...
  14. L Aronstein (JE | WP GWP G) German chemist; born May 25, 1841, at Telgte, Westphalia; graduated from the University of Göttingen in 1864 with the...
  15. Philipp Aronstein (JE | WP GWP G) German school-teacher and author; born Dec. 4, 1862, at Halver, province of Westphalia, Prussia. Aronstein received his education...
  16. Arpad (JE | WP GWP G) A city of northern Syria, the modern Tell-Erfad, thirteen miles northwest of Aleppo. Itis mentioned in II Kings xviii. 34...
  17. Arphaxad (JE | WP GWP G) According to Gen. x. 22, 24; xi. 10-13; and I Chron. i. 17, 18, the third son of Shem. Bochart's identification ("Phaleg...
  18. Moses Arragel (JE | WP GWP G) Spanish rabbi; flourished in the first half of the fifteenth century at Maqueda and Guadalfajara, Castile. The name is the...
  19. Arras (JE | WP GWP G) Chief city of the department of Pasde-Calais, capital of the ancient Artois, France. According to Gross, the name of this...
  20. Isaac ben Moses Arroyo (JE | WP GWP G) Lived in Salonica toward the end of the sixteenth century. He wrote "Makhil Ḳohelet" (The Preacher Preaching)...

1821 – 1840[edit]

  1. Arsaces (JE | WP GWP G) Parthian king; according to some scholars, the sixth of that name, mentioned in I Macc. xiv. 2-3, as having entrapped Demetrius...
  2. Art among the Ancient Hebrews (JE | WP GWP G) Material for the formation of an opinion on the art of the ancient Hebrews is extremely scanty, as the vestiges are limited...
  3. Attitude of Judaism Toward Art (JE | WP GWP G) Art, the working out of the laws of beauty in the construction of things, is regarded in the Bible as wisdom resulting from...
  4. Arta (JE | WP GWP G) Chief city of the nomarchy of Arthamania, Greece; situated on the Arta, about 7 miles from its mouth. It is the ancient Ambracia...
  5. Artaban V (JE | WP GWP G) Last of the Parthian kings; died in the year 227. He was the son of Volageses V., whose throne he ascended about 216, after...
  6. Artapanus (JE | WP GWP G) Historian; lived in Alexandria in the second century B.C. He wrote a history of the Jews, parts of which have been preserved...
  7. Artaxerxes I (JE | WP GWP G) King of Persia; ascended the throne in 465 B.C., and died in 425 B.C. In the Persian name Artakhshathra ("he whose empire...
  8. Artaxerxes II (JE | WP GWP G) (originally Arsakes, surnamed Mnemon by the Greeks): the eldest son of Darius II.; succeeded his father in 404 B.C. (Diodorus...
  9. Artaxerxes III (JE | WP GWP G) A son of Artaxerxes II. He originally bore a name which in Babylonian was written "Umasu" (and therefore in the Ptolemaic...
  10. Artemion (JE | WP GWP G) Leader of the Jewish insurrection in Cyprus against Trajan, 117. There are but scanty details of this revolt. According to...
  11. Arthur Legend (JE | WP GWP G) the cycle of stories clustering around the semi-mythical hero King Arthur of England, and which finds its place in Jewish...
  12. Articles of Faith (JE | WP GWP G) in the same sense as Christianity or Islam, Judaism can not be credited with the possession of Articles of Faith. Many attempts...
  13. Artisans (JE | WP GWP G) the general term for "artisan" in the Bible is "Ḧarash" or "Ḧoresh," which, derived from a verb meaning "to cut...
  14. Artisans (JE | WP GWP G) So far as they were allowed by the restrictions of the trade gilds, many Jews of medieval times obtained their livelihood...
  15. Benjamin Artom (JE | WP GWP G) Chief rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation of London; born at Asti, Italy, in 1835; died at Brighton, near London...
  16. Isaac Artom (JE | WP GWP G) Italian patriot, diplomat, financier, and author; born at Asti, Piedmont, Dec. 31, 1829; died at Rome Jan. 24, 1900, and was...
  17. Léopold Émile Arton (JE | WP GWP G) French adventurer; born in Strasburg in 1849; settled in Paris in 1871. He was implicated in distributing among statesmen...
  18. Aruboth (JE | WP GWP G) A district, probably in the south of Judah, where the son of Hesed, a commissariat officer of Solomon, had his headquarters...
  19. 'Aruk (JE | WP GWP G) Hebrew expression for "dictionary," corresponding with the Arabic "ta'alif," and derived from "'arak [millin]" (Job...
  20. Arumah (JE | WP GWP G) A place in Ephraim not far from Shechem, where Abimelech, the judge, took refuge (Judges ix. 41). It has been identified with...

1841 – 1860[edit]

  1. Isaac Aruvas (Arovas) (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi and author; son of R. Hananiah Aruvas; lived in the seventeenth century. He filled the office of rabbi in several African...
  2. Moses ben Joseph Aruvas (JE | WP GWP G) A physician and translator; lived in Cyprus and Damascus in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He translated Aristotle&#39...
  3. Arvad (JE | WP GWP G) A town mentioned by Ezekiel (xxvii. 8, 11) as having contributed materially to Tyre's commercial greatness. Men of Arvad...
  4. Aryeh (JE | WP GWP G) A name commonly found among the Jews. The first person known to have borne it lived in the middle of the second century (Pes...
  5. Aryeh Judah b. Zebi Hirsch (JE | WP GWP G) See Judah B. Zebi Hirsch.
  6. Aryeh Loeb (JE | WP GWP G) Dayyan of Lublin, Poland, in the seventeenth century. He was the author of "LikKuṭe ha-Or" (Collection of...
  7. Aryeh Loeb b. Abraham Portschiner (JE | WP GWP G) -- See C774: Cordovero, Aryeh Löb
  8. Aryeh Loeb ben Asher (JE | WP GWP G) A rabbi and one of the most eminent Talmudists of his age; born in Lithuania at the end of the seventeenth century; died at...
  9. Aryeh Loeb b. Baruch Bendet (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1849: Loeb b. Baruch Bendet
  10. Aryeh Loeb b. Hayyim Breslau (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1850: Breslau Loeb ben Ḥayyim
  11. Aryeh Loeb ben Jacob Joshua (JE | WP GWP G) German Talmudist and author; born 1715; died at Hanover March 6, 1789. He was a son of the author of "Pene Yehoshua',"...
  12. Aryeh Loeb ben Joshua Heshel (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1852: Loeb b. Joshua Heshel
  13. Aryeh Loeb ha-Kohen of Styryji (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1853: Loeb ha-Kohen of Styryji
  14. Aryeh Loeb ha-Levi (JE | WP GWP G) See Loeb ha-Levi of Brody.
  15. Aryeh Loeb ha-Levi Horwitz (JE | WP GWP G) See Horwitz, Aryeh Loeb.
  16. Aryeh Loeb Lipschitz (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1856: Lipschitz, Aryeh Loeb
  17. Aryeh Loeb ben Meyer (JE | WP GWP G) -- See L489: Löb Aryeh ben Meïr
  18. Aryeh Loeb Mokiah (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1858: Loeb MokiaḦ
  19. Aryeh Loeb ben Mordecai ha-Levi (JE | WP GWP G) See Epstein Loeb ben Mordecai.
  20. Aryeh Loeb b. Moses (JE | WP GWP G) See Loeb ben Moses ha-Kohen.

1861 – 1880[edit]

  1. Aryeh Loeb of Polnoi (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1861: Loeb of Polnoi
  2. Aryeh Loeb b. Samuel Zebi Hirz (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1862: Loeb ben Samuel Ẓebi Hirz
  3. Aryeh Loeb ben Saul JE (JE | WP GWP G) Polish rabbi; born in Cracow about 1690; died at Amsterdam April 2, 1755. He came of a famous family of rabbis. His father...
  4. Aryeh Loeb of Shpola (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1864: Loeb of Shpola
  5. Aryeh Löb Te'omim (JE | WP GWP G) See Te'omim, Löb ben Moses.
  6. Arza (JE | WP GWP G) the steward of King Elah at the palace, in Tirzah, where Elah was killed by Zimri (I Kings xvi. 9).J. Jr. G. B. L. ...
  7. Arzareth (JE | WP GWP G) the name of the land beyond the great river, far away from the habitation of man, in which the Ten Tribes of Israel will dwell...
  8. Asa (JE | WP GWP G) 1. A Levite, father of Berechiah; found in the genealogy of the Levites in I Chron. ix. 16. 2. See Asa, Third King of Judah...
  9. Asa (JE | WP GWP G) Third king of Judah; son of Abijam and grandson of Rehoboam; reigned 917-876 B.C. (I Kings xv. 7-9). The most important event...
  10. Asad (JE | WP GWP G) One of the two Arabian-Jewish rabbis that are said to have instructed the Tobba' abu Karibah (king of Yemen) in the tenets...
  11. Ya'kub ibn Ishak al-Mahalli As'ad al-Din (JE | WP GWP G) Egyptian physician; lived in Cairo toward the end of the twelfth century and at the beginning of the thirteenth. He was born...
  12. Asahel (JE | WP GWP G) 1. Son of Zeruiah, sister of David (I Chron. ii. 16). He was noted as a swift runner. As one of the thirty heroes of David...
  13. Hayyim Asahel (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi and author who lived in Salonica during the first half of the eighteenth century. He was the son of Benjamin Asahel...
  14. Asaiah (JE | WP GWP G) 1. A prince of the tribe of Simeon who, with others, attacked and captured Gedor, and settled there (I Chron. iv. 36). 2....
  15. Asaph (JE | WP GWP G) 1. A son of Berechiah or Berachiah. (See Asaph ben Berechiah.) 2. The father of Joah, chronicler at the court of Hezekiah...
  16. Asaph ("mar Rab") (JE | WP GWP G) to judge from the title "Mar Rab," he was one of the Geonim (see Gaon). and, presumably, lived about the middle of the ninth...
  17. Asaph ben Berechiah (JE | WP GWP G) One of the captive Levites carried off to Assyria (I Chron. vi. 24 [A. V. 39]), and whom Arabic and later Jewish legend says...
  18. Asaramel (JE | WP GWP G) A name of uncertain meaning and intent occurring in I Macc. xiv. 28. The reading, as it has come down, gives it as the name...
  19. Asarelah (JE | WP GWP G) One of the Asaphites appointed by David to the Temple service, according to I Chron. xxv. 2). In verse 14 the same personage...
  20. Ascalon (JE | WP GWP G) (ASKELON). See Ashkelon.

1881 – 1900[edit]

  1. Ascama (JE | WP GWP G) the name given by Spanish and Portuguese Jewish communities to the laws governing their internal administration. These laws...
  2. Deborah Ascarelli (JE | WP GWP G) Italian poetess, and wife of Giuseppi Ascarelli; lived at Venice at the end of the sixteenth and at the beginning of the seventeenth...
  3. Moses Vita (Jehiel) Ascarelli (JE | WP GWP G) Physician at Rome; died Dec. 11, 1889. He received his early education at the Talmud Torah in that city, and later studied...
  4. Ascari (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi and author of the sixteenth century; styled by Azulai "Ir weḲaddish" (Angel and Saint); a pupil of R. Joseph Sagis...
  5. Ascension (JE | WP GWP G) the translation to heaven of a few chosen ones, either to remain there in lieu of dying, or merely to receive revelations...
  6. Ascension of Isaiah (JE | WP GWP G) -- See I263: Isaiah, Ascension of
  7. Asceticism >> Asceticism in Judaism JE (JE | WP GWP G) A term derived from the Greek verb ἀσκέω, meaning "to practise strenuously," "to exercise." Athletes...
  8. Ascetics (JE | WP GWP G) While the dominant note of Judaism is optimism, faith in a God who delights in the happiness of His creatures and expects...
  9. Abraham Asch (JE | WP GWP G) German rabbi and author; born at Posen; officiated as rabbi of Zell toward the end of the eighteenth century. He descended...
  10. Aschaffenburg (JE | WP GWP G) Important town on the right bank of the Main in Bavaria. Jews in Aschaffenburg are first mentioned in the thirteenth century...
  11. Tobiah ben Ezekiel Asche (JE | WP GWP G) German Talmudist; rabbi of Zempelburg at the beginning of the nineteenth century. His "'Eṭ Barzel" (Iron Pen) is...
  12. Simon b. Isaac ha-Levi Aschenburg (JE | WP GWP G) Talmudic scholar; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main, later at Jerusalem, at which latter place he died about 1598. He was the...
  13. Anton Ascher (JE | WP GWP G) German actor; born at Dresden July 15, 1820; died in Meran April 24, 1885. Trained for the stage by Ludwig Tieck, he made...
  14. Benjamin Henry Ascher (JE | WP GWP G) Hebrew scholar and author; born in 1812 at Peisern (grand duchy of Posen); died Feb. 24, 1893, in London. His father, a corn-merchant...
  15. Joseph Ascher (JE | WP GWP G) Composer and pianist; born at Groningen, Holland, June 4, 1829; died in London, June 20, 1869. He was a son of Simon Ascher...
  16. Saul Ascher (JE | WP GWP G) German author and translator; born at Berlin Feb. 8, 1767; died there Dec. 8, 1822. He began his literary career as an advocate...
  17. Simon Ascher (JE | WP GWP G) Ḥazan; born in Holland, 1789; died at London December, 1872. He was reader and cantor of the Great Synagogue, London...
  18. Aschian (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A2008: 2008
  19. David D'Ascoli (JE | WP GWP G) Italian writer; lived about the middle of the sixteenth century. He wasthe author of "Apologia Hebræorum," published...
  20. Giulio Ascoli (JE | WP GWP G) Italian mathematician; born in Triest Nov. 20, 1843; died in Pisa. Reared in a city with a large Italian-speaking population...

1901 to 2000[edit]

1901 – 1920[edit]

  1. Graziadio Isaiah Ascoli (JE | WP GWP G) Italian philologist; born July 16, 1829, at Göritz, Austria. His father, who had made a fortune in the manufacture of...
  2. Jacob ben Abraham Rofe Ascoli (JE | WP GWP G) Physician and payyeṭan; lived at Camerino, Italy, perhaps at Ascoli, in the second half of the fifteenth century. Two...
  3. Asefah (JE | WP GWP G) Technical term for the meetings of the members of the Jewish communities of Poland and Lithuania. In cases of importance,...
  4. Asenath (JE | WP GWP G) Daughter of Poti-pherah, priest of On, and wife of Joseph (Gen. xli. 45). The name is apparently Egyptian; but no satisfactory...
  5. Asenath (JE | WP GWP G) A Greek Apocrypha of pronounced Jewish character, with only one small Christian interpolation. It contains a Midrashic story...
  6. Ash (JE | WP GWP G) the A. V. rendering of the Hebrew "oren" (Isa. xliv. 14); R. V. has "fir-tree." According to TanḦum (quoted in Gesenius...
  7. Ash (JE | WP GWP G) A family name which is an abbreviation of "Altschul" or "Eisenstadt" (). Such abbreviations are especially frequent in names...
  8. Abraham Joseph Ash (JE | WP GWP G) Talmudist; born in Semyatitch, Russia, about 1813; died in New York city May 6, 1888. Coming to the United States in 1852...
  9. Ashamnu (JE | WP GWP G) the old shorter form of the confession of sin ("Widdui"), mentioned in the Talmud and in the "Didache" (first century C....
  10. Ashan (JE | WP GWP G) Town in the domain of Judah (Josh. xv. 42), but which was in the actual possession of Simeon (Josh. xix. 7; I Chron. iv. 32)...
  11. Ash'ariya (JE | WP GWP G) Mohammedan theological sect, founded at the beginning of the tenth century by abu el-Hasan al-Ash'ari ("the Hairy"). Its...
  12. Ashbel (JE | WP GWP G) A son of Benjamin (Gen. xlvi. 21, and in the genealogical list of I Chron. viii. 1). The gentilic name "Ashbelite" is found...
  13. Ashdod (JE | WP GWP G) the northernmost of the five royal cities of the Philistines, two to three miles from the seacoast, about half-way between...
  14. Ashdoth-pisgah (JE | WP GWP G) the declivities of the Pisgah range on the east of the Jordan, which were handed over to the Reubenites (Deut. iii. 17, iv...
  15. Louis Ashenheim (JE | WP GWP G) Scotch physician and surgeon; born at Edinburgh 1817; died at Jamaica Nov. 26, 1858. Educated in his native city, he obtained...
  16. Asher (JE | WP GWP G) the eighth son of the patriarch Jacob, and the traditional progenitor of the tribe Asher. He is represented as the younger...
  17. Asher, Tribe and Territory REF:JE (JE | WP GWP G) the fortune of Asher is foreshadowed in the Blessing of Jacob, where it is said: "Asher, his food shall be rich, and he shall...
  18. Abraham (Adolf) Asher (JE | WP GWP G) Publisher, bibliographer, and editor; born at Kammin, Prussia, Aug. 23, 1800; died at Venice, Sept. 1, 1853. He was destined...
  19. Anshel ben Isaac Asher (JE | WP GWP G) Preacher at Prenzlau, Prussia, and teacher in the school founded there by his father. In 1701 he published at Dessau a collection...
  20. Anshel ben Joseph Asher (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1562: Anschel

1921 – 1940[edit]

  1. Anshel ben Moses Baer Asher (JE | WP GWP G) Talmudist; lived in the second half of the eighteenth century. He wrote two works: "Ben Emunim" (Son of Faith), Fürth...
  2. Asher Asher JE (JE | WP GWP G) Physician; born Feb. 16, 1837, at Glasgow, Scotland; died Jan. 7, 1889, at London, England. He was educated at the high school...
  3. David Asher (JE | WP GWP G) German educationist and philosophical writer; born at Dresden Dec. 8, 1818; died in Leipsic Dec. 2, 1890. He received his...
  4. Asher ben David (JE | WP GWP G) A son of Abraham ben David of Posquières; flourished about the middle of the thirteenth century. He was a pupil of his...
  5. Ensel b. Judah Loeb Asher (JE | WP GWP G) Chief of the bet din at Slonim, Lithuania, in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He wrote two works: "Otot le-Mo&#39...
  6. Asher ben Hayyim of Monzon (JE | WP GWP G) Spanish liturgist of the fourteenth century. He was the author of a book entitled "Ha-Pardes" (Paradise), the ten sections...
  7. Asher ben Immanuel Salem (JE | WP GWP G) -- See S73: Salem
  8. Jacob Abraham ben Aryeh Loeb Kalmankes Asher (JE | WP GWP G) Cabalistic and rabbinical author; born probably in Lemberg about the beginning of the seventeenth century; died there April...
  9. Asher ben Jacob ha-Levi (JE | WP GWP G) Talmudic lexicographer; lived in Osnabrück, Prussia, toward the end of the thirteenth century. His father was probably...
  10. Asher ben Jehiel (JE | WP GWP G) Eminent Talmudist; born in western Germany about 1250; died in Toledo, Spain, 1328. His family was prominent for learning...
  11. Asher ben Joseph (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1562: Anschel
  12. Asher ben Judah Loeb Landau (JE | WP GWP G) -- See L42: Landau
  13. Asher Kubo (JE | WP GWP G) -- See C840: Covo
  14. Lemel ha-Levi Asher (JE | WP GWP G) Polish Talmudic scholar; lived at the end of the eighteenth century. Together with his two sons, YeḦiel Michel ha-Levi...
  15. Leon Asher (JE | WP GWP G) German physician; born April 13, 1865, in Leipsic. He is the son of Dr. David Asher, for many years secretary to Chief Rabbi...
  16. Asher ben Levi (JE | WP GWP G) Legendary boy convert and, subsequently,Christian martyr; lived toward the end of the fourth century in Sinjar, between Nisibis...
  17. Asher b. Meshullam (JE | WP GWP G) Talmudist; flourished at Lunel in the second half of the twelfth century. He was a son of the well-known scholar Meshullam...
  18. Asher ben Saul (ha-Kohen) of Lunel (JE | WP GWP G) French writer on ritual; lived in the fourteenth century. He wrote a work upon the various rites current among the Jews, entitled...
  19. Asher Solomon Margolioth (JE | WP GWP G) See Judah Löb ben Asher Margolioth (vol. viii.).
  20. Asher ben Simeon (JE | WP GWP G) Religious poet of Germany, who lived at a period not later than 1546. He wrote a selihah (penitential poem) entitled , which...

1941 – 1960[edit]

  1. Asher Zebi ben David (JE | WP GWP G) Ḥasidic rabbi of Koretz, Volhynia, and later "maggid" (preacher) of Ostrowo, government of Lomza in Russian Poland;...
  2. Asherah (JE | WP GWP G) A Hebrew word occurring frequently in the Bible (R. V.) and signifying, except in a few late passages noted below, a wooden...
  3. Asheri (JE | WP GWP G) A name by which Asher ben Jehiel is frequently cited in rabbinical literature, especially in halakic discussions. Modern...
  4. Ashes (JE | WP GWP G) the usual translation of the Hebrew "efer" which occurs often in expressions of mourning and in other connectionsIt is a symbol...
  5. Ashi (JE | WP GWP G) A celebrated Babylonian amora; born 352; died 427; reestablished the academy at Sura, and was the first editor of the Babylonian...
  6. Ashima (JE | WP GWP G) One of the gods of the Hamathites, an image of which was set up in Samaria by the men of Hamath, whom Sargon settled there...
  7. Ashirah (JE | WP GWP G) the first word of the Song of Moses (Ex. xv.), known as "Shirat ha-Yam" (The Song at the Sea), read in the synagogues in the...
  8. Ashkabah (JE | WP GWP G) -- See H343: Hashkabah
  9. Ashkelon (JE | WP GWP G) City on the southern coast of Palestine. It occurs in Egyptian texts twice as "Askaruni," among the cities revolting...
  10. Eugene Ashkenasy (JE | WP GWP G) Botanist; born at Odessa May 5, 1845; died, July 24, 1903. He held the honorary professorship of botany at the University...
  11. Ashkenaz (JE | WP GWP G) (): A people traced back (Gen. x. 3; I Chron. i. 6) through Gomer to Noah's third son, Japheth. In Jer. li. 27, 28, it...
  12. Ashkenaz (JE | WP GWP G) Germany: name applied generally in medieval rabbinical literature to that country. Its origin in this particular is obscure...
  13. Abraham Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Chief rabbi of Palestine (), born at Janishar, near Salonica, in 1813; died at Jerusalem Jan. 22, 1880. At the age of fifteen...
  14. Azriel b. Joseph Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Printer at Naples, 1491-92. From his printing-house the first editions of Avicenna's "Canon" and BaḦya's "&#7716...
  15. Azriel b. Moses Levi Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Preacher at Tarnogrod, government of Lublin, Poland, in the seventeenth century. He was the author of "NaḦalat'...
  16. Baermann Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Polish commentator on Bible and Midrash; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Though the foremost of all Midrash...
  17. Baerush (Dob) Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi at Slonim, Lithuania, later at Lublin, Poland; born about 1801; died in Lublin March 6, 1852. He was the author of:...
  18. Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Government official in the employ of the Ottoman empire; born 1840. He received his early education at the Institution Camondo...
  19. Benjamin Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Russian communal worker and philanthropist; born in 1824; died at Grodno in 1894. He was the son of Joshua Heschel Ashkenazi...
  20. Benjamin b. Aaron Abraham Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) See Slonik, Benjamin Aaron ben Abraham. This article has not yet been...

1961 – 1980[edit]

  1. Bezalel Ashkenazi JE (JE | WP GWP G) One of the leading Oriental Talmudists and rabbis of his day; born toward the end of the sixteenth century. Descended from...
  2. David Tevle b. Jacob Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Moravian rabbi and author; born at the beginning of the eighteenth century; died July 16, 1734. Ashkenazi was rabbi of the...
  3. Eliezer (Lazer) b. Elijah Ashkenazi JE (JE | WP GWP G) Talmudist, rabbi, physician, and many-sided scholar; born in 1512; died at Cracow Dec. 13, 1585. Though of a German family...
  4. Eliezer b. Solomon Ashkenazi JE (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbinical scholar; born in Poland about the beginning of the nineteenth century, and resided afterward in Tunis. He published...
  5. Elijah Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) -- See L298: Levita, Elijah
  6. Gershon Ashkenazi REF:JE (JE | WP GWP G) Polish Talmudist; born in the second decade of the seventeenth century; died at Metz March 20, 1693. His family name was really...
  7. Isaac ben Jacob Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi at Byeltzy, Bessarabia; lived in the middle of the eighteenth century. He is the reputed author of a cabalistic work...
  8. Isaac ben Zebi Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi and author; born in Russia about the middle of the eighteenth century, and officiated as rabbi in Chodorow and Lemberg...
  9. Israel ben Samuel Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) See Israel ben Samuel Askenazi of Sklov. This article has not yet been...
  10. Jacob Israel ben Zebi Hirsch Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) See Embden, Jacob Israel.
  11. Joseph Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Critic of the Mishnah; resided at Safed, Palestine, and died there between 1575 and 1582. Though Ashkenazi came to Palestine...
  12. Joseph ben Ashkenazi, of Padua (JE | WP GWP G) See Joseph Shallit.
  13. Joseph Edels Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Palestinian commentator and cabalist; lived at the beginning of the nineteenth century at Jerusalem and Padua; died at Safed...
  14. Joseph b. Isaac ha-Levi Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Talmudist and rabbi; born in Germany about 1550; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main 1628. His first teacher was the Frankfort rabbi...
  15. Joshua Heshel b. Meshullam Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Russian Talmudist and rabbi of the nineteenth century; died Feb. 10, 1867, at Lublin. From 1852 till his death he was rabbi...
  16. Judah b. Joseph Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Turkish Talmudist: born at Smyrna, where he became chief rabbi; died there about 1812. He wrote: (1) "MaḦneh Yehudah"...
  17. Judah Samuel b. Jacob Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) A commentator, ritualist, and liturgical editor; born in the second half of the eighteenth century; lived at Tabareeyeh (Tiberias)...
  18. Judah b. Simon Sofer Frankfurt Ashkenazi (Tiktin) (JE | WP GWP G) Polish commentator on the ShulḦan 'Aruk; officiated as "dayyan" (assistant rabbi) at Tikotzin, Poland, in the first...
  19. Meïr Ashkenazi, of Kaffa (Crimea) JE (JE | WP GWP G) Envoy of the Tatar khan in the sixteenth century; killed by pirates on a voyage from Gava (near Genoa) to Dakhel (probably...
  20. Meïr ben Moses Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Polish Talmudist; born about 1590 at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died about 1645 at Mohilev on the Dnieper. His father was dayyan...

1981 – 2000[edit]

  1. Meshullam Zalman Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Polish rabbi and man of letters; born in the second half of the eighteenth century; died at Lublin, Poland, May 1, 1843. He...
  2. Moses Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) -- See S991: Spaeth, Johann Peter
  3. Moses David Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Talmudist and author; born in Galicia about 1778; died at Safed, Palestine, in 1857. After holding the office of rabbi at...
  4. Moses Isaac Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) -- See T100: Tedeschi, Moses Isaac
  5. Naphtali b. Joseph Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Preacher at Safed in the sixteenth century; died at Venice in 1602. He wrote a work, entitled "Imre Shefer" (Words of Beauty)...
  6. Nissim Abraham Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Talmudic author; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century in Smyrna, where he officiated. He was the author of "Ne&#7718...
  7. Raphael ben Judah Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) A rabbi of Smyrna, where he died in 1830. He wrote: (1) "Mareh 'Enayim" (Sight to the Eyes), Salonica, 1816—an...
  8. Reuben Selig ben Israel Eliezer Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi and author; lived in Russia about 1780. He published "MaḦaneh Reuben" (Camp of Reuben), a commentary on the Talmud...
  9. Shabbethai ben Meir Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) See Shabbethai ben Meïr ha-Kohen.
  10. Samuel b. Elieser Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Author of novellæ to the Talmud; lived at Opatow, Poland, in the second half of the sixteenth century. He was a pupil...
  11. Saul Cohen Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Religious philosopher of German descent, as his name indicates; born in Candia 1470; died at Constantinople May 28, 1523....
  12. Simon Ashkenazi, of Galicia (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi of Dobromil and Jaroslav (Galicia) at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was...
  13. Solomon ben Nathan Ashkenazi (JE | WP GWP G) Court physician of King Sigismund II., Augustus of Poland (1548-72), and Turkish diplomat; born probably about 1520; died...
  14. Zebi Hirsch (Hakam Zebi) b. Jacob Ashkenazi JE (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi; born 1658 in Moravia, died May 2, 1718, at Lemberg. He was descended from a well-known family of scholars. When a boy...
  15. Mikhail Osipovich Ashkinasi (JE | WP GWP G) Writer in French and Russian; born at Odessa April 16, 1851. Having graduated from the Odessa High School, he studied medicine...
  16. Ashmodai (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A2019: Asmodeus
  17. Ashmun (JE | WP GWP G) the name of a Phenician god worshiped at Sidon and Carthage, in Cyprus and in Sardinia. A trilingual inscription from the...
  18. Ashmurah (JE | WP GWP G) A special term (compare "a watch in the night," Ps. xc. 4) in the synagogal rite of Avignon, denoting the early morning service...
  19. Ashpenaz (JE | WP GWP G) Chief of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. i. 3).J. JR. G. B. L.
  20. Ashre (Yoshebe Beteka) (JE | WP GWP G) the opening words of Ps. lxxxiv. 5 [4]: "Blessed are they who dwell in thy house: they will be still praising thee. [In A...
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