Wikipedia:Jewish Encyclopedia topics/B3

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Jewish Encyclopedia topics
Directory of articles

A1 - A2 - A3 - A4 - A5 - B1 - B2 - B3 - B4 - C1 - C2 - D1 - D2 - E1 - E2 - F - G1 - G2 - H1 - H2 - H3 - I - J1 - J2 - K - L1 - L2 - M1 - M2 - M3 - N - O - P1 - P2 - Q - R - S1 - S2 - S3 - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

1001 to 1100[edit]

1001 – 1020[edit]

  1. Bevis Marks Gazette (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P199: Periodicals
  2. Bevis Marks Synagogue JE (JE | wp gwp g) the oldest Jewish house of worship in London; established by the Sephardic Jews in 1698, when Rabbi David Nieto took spiritual...
  3. Bezah (JE | wp gwp g) Name of a Talmudic treatise of Seder Mo'ed, the second of the six "sedarim" or orders of the Talmud. Its place in the...
  4. Bezai (JE | wp gwp g) A family, 324 of whose members returned with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 17, and the parallel account, Neh. vii. 23). The name also...
  5. Bezalel JE (JE | wp gwp g) in Ex. xxxi. 1-6, the chief architect of the Tabernacle. Elsewhere in the Bible the name occurs only in the genealogical lists...
  6. Bezalel UNR (JE | wp gwp g) Palestinian amora of the fourth century, who is known in Midrashic literature only as the author of haggadistic sentences...
  7. Bezalel b. Joseph (Yosel) (JE | wp gwp g) Russian Talmudist and rabbi at Orlo, government of Grodno, at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He is the author of...
  8. Bezalel b. Judah ha-Levi of Zolkiev (JE | wp gwp g) Polish Talmudist of the second half of the eighteenth century. He wrote a commentary to the sayings of the fathers (Frankfort-on-the-Oder...
  9. Bezalel b. Moses ha-Kohen (JE | wp gwp g) Talmudist; born at Wilna, Russia, Jan. 14, 1820, where he died April 13, 1878. He was a competent Talmudist at the age of...
  10. Bezalel ben Solomon of Kobryn (JE | wp gwp g) Preacher at Slutzk, government of Minsk, Russia; later at Boskowitz, Moravia; died before 1659. He was the author of the following...
  11. Bezek (JE | wp gwp g) 1. The scene of battle between the tribes of Judah and Simeon, and the Canaanites and Perizzites (Judges i. 4-6). 2. Place...
  12. Bezer (JE | wp gwp g) A city of refuge in the territory of Reuben (Deut. iv. 43; Josh. xx. 8). It was also one of the cities allotted the Levites...
  13. Bezetha (JE | wp gwp g) According to Josephus, the name of a hill north of the Temple-mound, and separated from the latter by a valley. After the...
  14. Béziers (JE | wp gwp g) Town of France in the department of Hérault. The date of the settlement of the Jews in Béziers is lost in antiquity...
  15. Samuel Bapuji Bhorupkar (JE | wp gwp g) Beni-Israel soldier; born near Bombay, India, about 1790. He entered the Fourth Bombay Regiment on Feb. 2, 1811. In 1813 he...
  16. Alois Biach (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian physician and medical writer; born in Lettowitz, Moravia, Austria, May 1, 1849. He was educated at the gymnasium...
  17. Rudolf Bial (JE | wp gwp g) Violinist, conductor, composer, and manager; born at Habelschwerdt, Silesia, Aug. 26, 1834; died at New York Nov. 13, 1881...
  18. Biala (JE | wp gwp g) -- See R479: Russia
  19. Zebi Hirsch ben Naphtali Herz Bialeh (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi and Talmudist; born about 1670 at Lemberg, Galicia; died Sept. 25, 1748, at Halberstadt, Prussia. He conducted a Talmudic...
  20. Christian Hermann Friedrich Bialloblotzky (JE | wp gwp g) Jewish convert to Christianity; born April 9, 1799, at Pattensen, near Hanover; died March 28, 1868, at Ahlden-on the-Aller...

1021 – 1040[edit]

  1. Bialystok, Lithuania (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1636: Byelostok
  2. Abraham ben Shem-Tob Bibago (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish religious philosopher and preacher; born at Saragossa; resided in 1446 at Huesca, and was still living in 1489. At...
  3. Der Bibel'sche Orient (JE | wp gwp g) A magazine of which only two numbers appeared (Munich, 1821), these being supposed to be edited by Isaac Bernays. Its object...
  4. Dmitri Gavrilovich Bibikov (JE | wp gwp g) Russian soldier, administrator, and statesman; born 1792; died 1870. In 1837 Bibikov was appointed military governor of Kiev...
  5. Bible Canon (JE | wp gwp g) the Greek word κανών, meaning primarily a straight rod, and derivatively a norm or law, was first...
  6. Bible Concordances (JE | wp gwp g) -- See C707: Concordance
  7. Bible Dictionary (JE | wp gwp g) -- See D339: Dictionaries
  8. Bible Editions >> Early editions of the Hebrew Bible JE (JE | wp gwp g) the advantages of the newly discovered art of printing were quickly recognized by the Jews. While for the synagogue service...
  9. Bible Exegesis (JE | wp gwp g) Israel has been called "the People of the Book"; it may as fitly be called "the people of Scripture exegesis," for exegesis...
  10. Bible Inspiration (JE | wp gwp g) -- See I152: Inspiration
  11. Bible Manuscripts (JE | wp gwp g) By this term are designated handwritten copies and codices of the Hebrew Bible as a whole, or of several books arranged in...
  12. Bible in Mohammedan Literature (JE | wp gwp g) Through intercourse at Mecca, at Medina, and on his various journeys in the seething, germinant Arabia of his day, Mohammed...
  13. Polyglot Bible (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1028: Bible Editions
  14. Bible Texts (JE | wp gwp g) -- See M246: Masorah.
  15. Bible Translations (JE | wp gwp g) Jewish translations of the Old Testament were made from time to time by Jews, in order to satisfy the needs, both in public...
  16. Bibleitzy (Biblists) (JE | wp gwp g) Name given to a body of religious reformers, organized in the spring of 1882 among the Jewish working classes of Elizabethgrad...
  17. Biblical Ethnology (JE | wp gwp g) the view of race-relationship expressed in the Bible. It is customary to designate the tenth chapter of Genesis as the oldest...
  18. Bibliography (JE | wp gwp g) the science that deals with the description and classification of books. As applied to books of Jewish interest, it includes...
  19. Bibliomancy (JE | wp gwp g) the use of the Bible for magic or superstitious purposes. The practise of employing sacred books, or words and verses thereof...
  20. Jewish Bibliophiles (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1318: Book Collectors

1041 – 1060[edit]

  1. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (JE | wp gwp g) National library of France, founded in 1354. The Hebrew manuscripts in this library have always stood at the head of the Oriental...
  2. Jacob Samuel Bick (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian author; born in the eighteenth century; died in Brody, 1831. He was a satirical writer of force and ability, and...
  3. Gustav Wilhelm Hugo Bickell (JE | wp gwp g) Christian Hebraist and professor in the University of Vienna; born July 7, 1838, at Cassel. After graduating at Marburg, where...
  4. Bidkar (JE | wp gwp g) A captain under Jehu, by whom he was ordered to cast the body of Jehoram into the field of Naboth (II Kings ix. 25).J. Jr...
  5. Bidpai Fables in Hebrew (JE | wp gwp g) -- See K44: Kalilah wa-Dimnah
  6. Oskar Bie (JE | wp gwp g) German archeologist and professor at the Technische Hochschule at Charlottenburg, near Berlin; born at Breslau Feb. 9, 1864...
  7. Michael Lazar Biedermann (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian jeweler and merchant; born at Presburg, Hungary, Aug. 13, 1769; died at Vienna Aug. 24, 1843. When fifteen years...
  8. Henry Biegeleisen (JE | wp gwp g) Polish critic and author; born 1855 in Galicia. He studied at the universities of Lemberg, Munich, and Leipsic, receiving...
  9. Biel (Bienne) (JE | wp gwp g) Town in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. It had Jewish inhabitants as early as the city of Bern itself. In 1305 a few Jewish...
  10. Bielgoraj (JE | wp gwp g) A district town in the government of Lublin, Russian Poland. According to the "Zuk ha-'Ittim," during the uprising of...
  11. Bieltzy (JE | wp gwp g) District town of the government of Bessarabia, Russia. At the census of 1897 the population was 18,526, including over ten...
  12. Julius Bien (JE | wp gwp g) American lithographer; son of Emanuel M., Chazan, lecturer, and lithographer; born at Naumburg, near Cassel, Hesse-Nassau...
  13. Lev Moiseievich Bienstok (JE | wp gwp g) Russian writer, educationist, and communal worker; born April 6, 1836, at Lukachi, government of Volhynia; died Oct. 22, 1894...
  14. Joachim Heinrich Biesenthal (JE | wp gwp g) Theologian and author; born at Lobsens, Posen, 1800; died in Berlin, 1886. He was destined for the rabbinate; but while attending...
  15. Bigamy (JE | wp gwp g) According to Merrill's "Encyclopedia of Law," ii. 192, bigamy consists in "going through the ceremony of marriage with...
  16. Bigthan (JE | wp gwp g) A eunuch of Ahasuerus, who, with Teresh, conspired against the king (Esther ii. 21, vi. 2). The conspiracy was discovered...
  17. Meïr ben Halifah Bikayim (JE | wp gwp g) Cabalist; lived in Turkey in the eighteenth century. He is the author of the following works: (1) "Golel Or" (Who Evolved...
  18. Bikhakhanim JE (JE | wp gwp g) Reigning princess of the Taman peninsula, Crimea. She was married in 1419 to the Genoese Jew Simeone de Guizolfi, who through...
  19. Bikkure Ha-'ittim (JE | wp gwp g) An annual edited and published in Vienna, 1820-31, by S. J. Cohen. It first appeared as a supplement to the Hebrew calendar...
  20. Bikkurim (JE | wp gwp g) Name of the last treatise of Seder Zera'im. It treats of the way of carrying out the commandment concerning first-fruits...

1061 – 1080[edit]

  1. Bikkurim (JE | wp gwp g) A Hebrew annual that appeared in Vienna for two years (1864, 1865), Naphtali Keller being its editor and publisher. The greatest...
  2. Bildad (JE | wp gwp g) One of the three friends of Job (Job ii. 11). The meaning of the name is not clear; opinions of scholars vacillate between...
  3. Bileam (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B161: Balaam
  4. Bilgah (JE | wp gwp g) One of the twenty-four divisions of the priests who officiated in the Temple. According to I Chron. xxiv. 14, Bilgah is the...
  5. Bilhah (JE | wp gwp g) A locality in southern Judea (I Chron. iv. 29), evidently the same as "Balah" (, Josh. xix. 3) and "Ba'alah" (, Josh....
  6. Bilhah (JE | wp gwp g) Rachel's handmaid, given by Rachel as a concubine to Jacob, to whom, according to Gen. xxx. 3 (compare Gen. xxix. 29,...
  7. Bill of Divorce (JE | wp gwp g) -- See D398: Divorce
  8. Bill of Exchange (JE | wp gwp g) -- See E542: Exchange
  9. Bill of Manumission (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S850: Slaves
  10. Bilshan (JE | wp gwp g) One of the important men who came to Jerusalem from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii 2; Neh. vii. 7). In I Esd. v. 8 he is...
  11. Bina ben David (JE | wp gwp g) Cabalist, and rabbi at Lockacze, Poland, in the middle of the seventeenth century. Bina was the author of "Zer Zahab" (Crown...
  12. Binding (JE | wp gwp g) the art of fastening together sheets of paper, leaves of parchment, or folios, and of covering them with parchment, leather...
  13. Binding and Loosing (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbinical term for "forbidding and permitting." the expression "asar" (to bind herself by a bond) is used in the Bible (Num...
  14. Abraham Bing (JE | wp gwp g) German rabbi and Talmudist; born in 1752 at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died in 1841 at Würzburg, Bavaria, where he had been...
  15. Albert Bing (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian physician; born at Nikolsburg, Moravia, Sept. 20, 1844. He attended the gymnasium in his native city, and studied...
  16. Meyer Hermann Bing (JE | wp gwp g) Danish art publisher and manufacturer; born at Copenhagen June 4, 1807; died there Sept. 15, 1883. As a boy he was employed...
  17. Solomon Bing (JE | wp gwp g) German physician; son of Dr. Abraham Bing of Bingen, and son-in-law of the well-known physician and scholar Joseph Solomon...
  18. Bingen (JE | wp gwp g) City of Hesse, situated on the Rhine. Jews lived there from the earliest times, for they are mentioned by the traveler Benjamin...
  19. Binnui (JE | wp gwp g) 1. A Levite (Ezra viii. 33). 2. One of the Bene Pahath Moab who had taken foreign wives (Ezra x. 30). 3. One of the Bene Bani...
  20. Birah (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A748: Acra

1081 – 1100[edit]

  1. Felix Victor Birch-Hirschfeld (JE | wp gwp g) German pathologist and medical author; born at Kluvensiek, near Rendsburg, in the province of Holstein, Prussia, May 2, 1842...
  2. Birds (JE | wp gwp g) the general designation for winged animals is "'of" (, Hosea ix. 11; Isa. xvi. 2) or "'of kanaf" (, Gen. i. 21), "&#7827...
  3. Birkat Kohanim (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1137: Blessing, Priestly
  4. Birkat ha-Minim (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S612: Shemoneh 'Esreh
  5. Birmingham, Alabama (JE | wp gwp g) Capital of Jefferson county, Alabama, founded in 1871. The first congregation, Emanu-El, was organized in 1882; the corner-stone...
  6. Birmingham, England (JE | wp gwp g) Chief town of Warwickshire. The Jewish community consists (1902) of a population of about 4,000, having grown to this number...
  7. New Birth (JE | wp gwp g) Renewal of a man's nature by casting aside the impurity of sin which cleaves to him from his former life, thus turning...
  8. Birthday (JE | wp gwp g) There are no positive data in the Bible or in rabbinical literature concerning birthday festivals among the ancient Jews....
  9. Birthright (JE | wp gwp g) the right of possession into which the eldest son is born. The first son born to the father occupied a prominent place in...
  10. Births (JE | wp gwp g) the number of births among the Jewish populations of the world is generally found to vary from that of the surrounding population...
  11. Birzhi (JE | wp gwp g) District of Poniwiezh, government of Kovno. The population of 1,500 includes 600 Jews, the majority of whom are engaged in...
  12. Johanna Bischitz de Heves JE (JE | wp gwp g) Hungarian philanthropist; born in Tata in 1827; died in Budapest March 28, 1898; daughter of a porcelain manufacturer and...
  13. Louis Raphael Bischoffsheim (JE | wp gwp g) French banker and philanthropist; born in Mayence, Germany, in 1800; died in Paris, Nov. 14, 1873. His father's sudden...
  14. Raphael Jonathan Bischoffsheim (JE | wp gwp g) Belgian financier and philanthropist; born at Mayence in 1808; died at Brussels Feb. 6, 1883. He left his native town when...
  15. Raphael Louis Bischoffsheim (JE | wp gwp g) French banker; member of the Institute of France; son of Louis Raphael Bischoffsheim; born July 22, 1823, in Amsterdam. He...
  16. Raphael (Nathan) Bischoffsheim (JE | wp gwp g) Merchant and prominent philanthropist; born at Bischofsheim-on-the-Tauber, 1773; died at Mayence Jan. 22, 1814. He went to...
  17. Bischofsheim-on-the-Tauber (JE | wp gwp g) City in the district of Mosbach, Baden. At Landa and the neighboring Tauber-Bischofsheim seven prominent Jews were tortured...
  18. Bisenz (JE | wp gwp g) Town in Moravia, Austria. About the earliest history of its Jews nothing is known. Pesina, whose "Mars Moravicus" was published...
  19. Nahman ben Benjamin Cohen Zedek Bishka (JE | wp gwp g) Russian Talmudist; lived in the second half of the eighteenth century. Together with his brother, Shabbetai Bishka, he wrote...
  20. Bishop of the Jews (JE | wp gwp g) Title given to an official of the Jews in the Rhine country and in England in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. At Cologne...

1101 to 1200[edit]

1101 – 1120[edit]

  1. Bisliches (JE | wp gwp g) Editor of some valuable Hebrew works of medieval authors; born at Brody, Austria, at the end of the eighteenth century; died...
  2. Prince Otto Eduard Leopold Bismarck (JE | wp gwp g) Prussian statesman; born at Schönhausen April 1, 1815; died at Friedrichsruh July 30, 1898; member of the Prussian Diet...
  3. Bisna, Bisinah, Bisni (Bizna) (JE | wp gwp g) Palestinian scholar of the fourth amoraic generation (fourth century); contemporary of Berechiah II., with whom he appears...
  4. Kalman Kohn Bistritz (JE | wp gwp g) Hungarian Neo-Hebraic poet; lived at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was the author of the Purim drama "Goral...
  5. Meïr Kohn Bistritz (JE | wp gwp g) Hungarian Neo-Hebraic poet and author; born in Vag-Bistritz, Hungary, 1820; died in Vienna Sept. 7, 1892. He lived the greater...
  6. Bithiah (JE | wp gwp g) Daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered of the tribe of Judah married (I Chron. iv. 18). In the Midrash (Lev. R. § 1) she is...
  7. Bithynia (JE | wp gwp g) A province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus, and the Euxine. A Jewish colony...
  8. Bitter Herbs (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P98: Passover
  9. Bittern (JE | wp gwp g) from an examination of the passages in which "Kippod" occurs it would seem that a bird is meant by the word. In Isa...
  10. Isaac Bittoon (JE | wp gwp g) English pugilist, fencing master, and teacher of "the noble art of self-defense"; born in 1778; died in Feb., 1838. His first...
  11. Bitumen (JE | wp gwp g) A substance said (in Gen. xi. 3) to have been used for mortar. It belongs to the class of hydrocarbons, and is a resultant...
  12. Biurists JE (JE | wp gwp g) A class of exegetes of the school of Mendelssohn. Not content with giving a simple meaning, most of the Biblical commentators...
  13. Biztha (JE | wp gwp g) One of the seven eunuchs of Ahasuerus, who was commanded to bring Vashti to the king (Esther i. 10).J. Jr. G. B. L. ...
  14. Black Death (JE | wp gwp g) A violent pestilence which ravaged Europe between March, 1348, and the spring of 1351, and is said to have carried off nearly...
  15. Piotr Blanc (JE | wp gwp g) Polish financier of the eighteenth century; court banker under King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski (1764-95); date and place...
  16. Maria Theresa Bland (JE | wp gwp g) English actress and singer; born in 1769 of Italian-Jewish parents; died at London Jan. 15, 1838. When only four years old...
  17. Isaac b. Solomon Blaser (JE | wp gwp g) Russian rabbi and educator; born in Wilna about 1840. Educated to be a rabbi, he is recognized as the foremost pupil of Israel...
  18. Vidal Blasom (JE | wp gwp g) -- See M890: Moses Narbonne
  19. Blasphemy (JE | wp gwp g) Evil or profane speaking of God. The essence of the crime consists in the impious purpose in using the words, and does not...
  20. Fritz Blau (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian chemist; born at Vienna April 5, 1865. He received his education at the gymnasium and university of his native city...

1121 – 1140[edit]

  1. Heinrich Blau (JE | wp gwp g) German journalist and playwright; born in Neu-Stettin, Pomerania, Sept. 21, 1858. He received his education at the Jewish...
  2. Ludwig Blau JE (JE | wp gwp g) Hungarian scholar and publicist; born April 29, 1861, at Putnok, Hungary; educated at three different yeshibot, among them...
  3. David Blaustein (JE | wp gwp g) Educator; born May 5, 1866, at Lida, near Wilna, Russia. He received his first education in Hebrew in the Cheder and...
  4. Ozer Blaustein (JE | wp gwp g) Russian teacher, and writer in Russian and Judæo-German; born at Dünaburg in 1840; died in Warsaw April 27, 1899...
  5. Benjamin Blayney JE (JE | wp gwp g) English divine and Hebraist; born 1728; died Sept. 20, 1801. He was educated at Oxford, took the master's degree in 1735...
  6. Blazon (JE | wp gwp g) -- See C551: Coat of Arms
  7. Bleeding (JE | wp gwp g) in accordance with the pathology of its epoch, the Talmud declares, "At the head of the list of human ailments stands plethora...
  8. Friedrich Bleek (JE | wp gwp g) Christian theologian; born July 4, 1793, at Ahrensböck, Holstein; died at Bonn in 1859. After a preparatory course at...
  9. Philip Johann Bleibtreu JE (JE | wp gwp g) Jewish convert to Christianity; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in the middle of the seventeenth century; died there in 1702...
  10. Gerson, Baron von Bleichröder (JE | wp gwp g) German banker; born Dec. 22, 1822; died Feb. 19, 1893, in Berlin. At the age of sixteen he entered the banking firm founded...
  11. Blemish (JE | wp gwp g) the Hebrew term for "blemish" ( or ) seems to have originally meant a "black spot" (compare Gesenius-Buhl, "Handwörterbuch...
  12. David S Bles (JE | wp gwp g) Communal worker at Manchester; born at the Hague, Holland, in 1834; died at Vienna on Oct. 14, 1899. He was senior partner...
  13. Blessing of Children (JE | wp gwp g) in the domestic life of the ancient Hebrews the mutual respect existing between parents and children was a marked feature...
  14. Blessing and Cursing (JE | wp gwp g) the Hebrew verb for "bless" is "berek" (). Since in Assyrian and Minæan the corresponding verb appears to be "karabu...
  15. Jacob's Blessing (JE | wp gwp g) -- See J20: Jacob, Blessing of
  16. Moses' Blessing (JE | wp gwp g) -- See M832: Moses, Blessing of
  17. Priestly Blessing (JE | wp gwp g) One of the most impressive and characteristic features of the service both in the Temple of Jerusalem and in the synagogue...
  18. Blin d'Elboeuf (JE | wp gwp g) French manufacturer who introduced into France woolen cloth for ladies' use. It was soon considered the best in Europe...
  19. The Blind in Law and Literature (JE | wp gwp g) the ancient nations regarded blindness as the lowest degradation that could be inflicted upon man; hence gouging out the eyes...
  20. Ferdinand Blind-Cohen (JE | wp gwp g) German student who made an attempt on the life of Prince Bismarck May 7, 1866, and on the following day committed suicide...

1141 – 1160[edit]

  1. Blindness (JE | wp gwp g) Statistics, wherever obtainable, show that the proportion of blindness is greater among modern Jews than among their non-Jewish...
  2. Ivan Stanislavovich Blioch (Bloch) EL:JE (JE | wp gwp g) Russo-Polish financier, economist, and railway contractor; distinguished as an advocate of universal peace; born at Radom...
  3. Jekuthiel ben Isaac Blitz (JE | wp gwp g) Corrector of the press in the Hebrew printing-office of Uri Phoebus at Amsterdam; lived there in the second half of the seventeenth...
  4. André Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) French musician; son of a rabbi at Wissembourg, Alsace; born in that city in 1873. At the age of seven Bloch began to compose...
  5. [Issachar] Baer b. Samson Hasid Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian rabbi of the eighteenth century; a native of Hamburg, and son of the author of the Tosafot Ḥadashim on the...
  6. Bianca Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) German authoress; born at Lauban, Silesia, Jan. 19, 1848, where her father was attendant at a local court. Owing to the reduced...
  7. Elisa Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) French sculptress; born at Breslau Jan. 25, 1848. After receiving a thorough education at Paris, whither her parents had removed...
  8. Emil Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) German otologist; born at Emmendingen, Baden, Dec. 11, 1847. He was educated at the universities of Heidelberg, Würzburg...
  9. Gustave Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) French historian and archeologist; born at Fegersheim, Alsace, July 21, 1848. After passing through the Ecole Normale Sup&#233...
  10. Heinrich Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian philologist; born Feb. 4, 1854, at Herman-Mestec, Bohemia; son of Moses Bloch, president of the Jewish Theological...
  11. Hermann (Hayyim) Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) German author; born at Breslau April 26, 1826; died Nov. 19, 1896. He was a grandson on his mother's side of the learned...
  12. Isaac Bloch JE (JE | wp gwp g) French rabbi; born at Sultz, Alsace, July 17, 1848. He received his education at the lyceum at Strasburg and at the Jewish...
  13. Ivan Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1142: Blioch, Ivan Stanislavovich
  14. Josef Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) Violin virtuoso and composer; born at Budapest Jan. 5, 1862. He made his first appearance in public at the age of twelve,...
  15. Josef Samuel Bloch JE (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian rabbi and deputy; born at Dukla, a small city in Galicia, Nov. 20, 1850. His parents, who were poor, destined him...
  16. Julienne Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) French educator and writer; died Nov. 12, 1868. She was the eldest and most distinguished daughter of Simon Bloch, founder...
  17. Bloch, Louis, (JE | wp gwp g) Swiss educator; born in 1864; since 1896 privat-docent in archeology and mythology at the University of Zurich. Bloch has...
  18. Ludwig Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) German dramatist; born at Berlin Dec. 6, 1859; son of the theatrical publisher Eduard. Bloch was educated at the Friedrich-Wilhelm...
  19. Marcus Eliezer Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) German ichthyologist and physician; born at Ansbach in 1723; died in Carlsbad Aug. 6, 1799. His parents, being very poor,...
  20. Mattithiah Ashkenazi Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) Cabalist; lived at Jerusalem in the seventeenth century. A blind adherent and indefatigable apostle of Shabbethai Zebi...

1161 – 1180[edit]

  1. Maurice Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) French educator and writer; born at Colmar, Alsace, Aug. 5, 1853. He received his first education at the Jewish communal school...
  2. Moritz Bloch (Ballagi) (JE | wp gwp g) Hungarian Christian theologian and lexicographer; born March 18, 1815, at Inócz, Zemplén, Hungary; died Sept. 1...
  3. Moses Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) French rabbi; born at Wintzenheim, Upper Alsace, Jan. 2, 1854; died Nov.,1901; educated at the Lycée Colmar, the Paris...
  4. Moses Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) German rabbi; born at Gailingen, Baden, in 1805; died at Buchau March 3, 1841. He pursued his Talmudical studies at Endingen...
  5. Moses Löb Bloch JE (JE | wp gwp g) Rector of the rabbinical seminary at Budapest; born at Ronsperg (Bohemia) Feb. 15, 1815. Among his ancestors were Isaac, rabbi...
  6. Philip Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi and author; born in Prussia May 30, 1841. He studied at the University of Breslau, and under Frankel, Grätz, and...
  7. Rosine Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) French singer; born in Paris in 1844; daughter of a merchant. She was very beautiful and had a magnificent mezzosoprano voice...
  8. Samson (Simson) b. Isaac ha-Levi Bloch (JE | wp gwp g) Galician author; born in Kulikow, near Lemberg, 1782; died there Oct. 7, 1845. He received the usual Talmudical education...
  9. Bloemfontein (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S988: South Africa
  10. Blogg (JE | wp gwp g) German author; native of Neuwägen in Hanover; died Feb. 11, 1858. He was a teacher of the Hebrew language, and founded...
  11. Blois (JE | wp gwp g) Capital of the department of Loir-et-Cher, France. Although of small importance itself, Blois occupies a prominent place in...
  12. Blood (JE | wp gwp g) the importance of blood for the continuance of life must have been recognized even in most remote antiquity and under the...
  13. Blood Accusation (JE | wp gwp g) A term now usually understood to denote the accusation that the Jews—if not all of them, at all events certain Jewish...
  14. Blood-money (JE | wp gwp g) Ransom paid by a murderer to the avenging kinsmen of a murdered man, in satisfaction for the crime. Among the Anglo-Saxons...
  15. Blood-money in Rumania (JE | wp gwp g) According to the common law of Moldavia and Wallachia, the murder of a person entailed not only the execution of the murderer...
  16. Blood-relationship (JE | wp gwp g) Family connection between persons otherwise than by marriage. To the casual reader of the Old Testament, blood-relationship...
  17. Maurice Bloomfield (JE | wp gwp g) Professor of Sanskrit and comparative philology in Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; born at Bielitz, Austrian Silesia...
  18. Fanny Bloomfield-Zeisler JE (JE | wp gwp g) American pianist; sister of Maurice Bloomfield; born at Bielitz, Austrian Silesia, July 16, 1866. In 1868 her parents settled...
  19. Karl Blosz (JE | wp gwp g) German painter; born at Mannheim Nov. 24, 1860. He studied at the art school in Carlsruhe from 1880 to 1883, and was a pupil...
  20. Henri Georges Stephan Adolphe Opper de Blowitz (JE | wp gwp g) Special correspondent at Paris of the London "Times"; born at Blowitz, Bohemia, Dec. 28, 1825; died in Paris Jan. 18, 1903...

1181 – 1200[edit]

  1. Ephraim Israel Blücher (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian rabbi and author; born Oct. 2, 1813, at Glocksdorf, Moravia; died at Budapest April 6, 1882. For some years he was...
  2. Abraham Blum (JE | wp gwp g) French major; born in 1823; died at Boulogne, France, in 1894. He distinguished himself in the Crimean war in 1854, having...
  3. David Blum (JE | wp gwp g) German Talmudist of the middle of the sixteenth century; rabbi at Sulzburg, near Freiburg in Baden [?]. He was classed among...
  4. Ernest Blum (JE | wp gwp g) French dramatist; born in Paris Aug. 15, 1836. The son of an actor, he began at an early age to work for the theater. At eighteen...
  5. Isaac August Blum (JE | wp gwp g) French mathematician; born at Paris in 1831; died there Jan. 5, 1877. He entered in 1831 the Ecole Polytechnique and was graduated...
  6. Julius Blum (JE | wp gwp g) Austro-Egyptian financier; born at Budapest, Hungary, in 1843. In 1869 he became director of the Austro-Egyptian bank at Alexandria...
  7. Leopold Blumenberg (JE | wp gwp g) American soldier; born in the province of Brandenburg, Prussia, Sept. 28, 1827; died at Baltimore Aug. 12, 1876. He was the...
  8. Marc A Blumenberg (JE | wp gwp g) American musical critic and editor; born at Baltimore, Md., May 21, 1851; educated in the public schools of that city, and...
  9. Aron Wolff Blumenfeld (JE | wp gwp g) German composer; born at Kurnik, Posen, Feb. 29, 1828. In 1846 he went to Berlin, where he studied with Rungenhagen, and afterward...
  10. Berish Blumenfeld (JE | wp gwp g) Galician Hebraist; flourished in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was one of the wealthy Hebrew scholars of that...
  11. Feitel (Fadei) Blumenfeld (JE | wp gwp g) Russian rabbi; born in 1826; died at Kherson Dec. 4, 1896. He graduated from the rabbinical college at Jitomir, and for about...
  12. Hermann Fadeyevich Blumenfeld (JE | wp gwp g) Russian lawyer, son of Feitel (Fadei); born in Kherson Sept. 2, 1861; received his education at the high school of his birthplace...
  13. Ignatz (Isaac) Blumenfeld (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian publisher and merchant; born March 25, 1812, at Brody, Galicia; died Oct. 2, 1890, at Geneva, Switzerland. He was...
  14. J C Blumenfeld (JE | wp gwp g) Polish litterateur and revolutionist; born about 1810; died before 1840. Blumenfeld was one of the leaders of a band of young...
  15. Simon Blumenfeldt (JE | wp gwp g) Russian calligrapher; born in Mitau, Courland, 1770; died at the same place 1826. He possessed the gift of writing in characters...
  16. Leo Blumenstock von Halban (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian physician; born at Cracow March 11, 1838; died there Feb. 28, 1897. Educated at the gymnasium and university of his...
  17. Heinrich Blumenthal (JE | wp gwp g) German manufacturer and philanthropist; born at Darmstadt, Hesse, March 12, 1824; died there March 27, 1901. Even as a boy...
  18. Joseph Blumenthal (JE | wp gwp g) American communal worker; born in Munich, Germany, Dec. 1, 1834; died in New York March 2, 1901. In 1839 he went to the United...
  19. Mark Blumenthal (JE | wp gwp g) American physician; born July 11, 1831, at Altenstadt-on-the-Iller, Bavaria.He came to America with his parents in Aug., 1839...
  20. Nissen Blumenthal (JE | wp gwp g) Russian Chazan; born in Jassy, Rumania, 1805; died in Odessa Feb. 9, 1902. Though educated for the rabbinate, his excellent...

1201 to 1300[edit]

1201 – 1220[edit]

  1. Oskar Blumenthal JE (JE | wp gwp g) German author and playwright; born at Berlin March 13, 1852. He was educated at the gymnasium and the university of his native...
  2. B'nai B'rith (JE | wp gwp g) the largest and oldest Jewish fraternal organization. It has (1902) a membership of about 30,000, divided into more than 330...
  3. B'nai B'rith Messenger (JE | wp gwp g) -- See P199: Periodicals
  4. Bnei Zion (JE | wp gwp g) -- See F355: Fraternities
  5. Wild Boar (JE | wp gwp g) in Psalm lxxx. 14 the wild boar is introduced in a metaphor and described as coming out of the wood to root up the vine. Wild...
  6. Eduard Boas (JE | wp gwp g) German author and traveler; born at Landsberg-on-the-Warthe Jan. 1, 1815; died there June, 1853. He was destined for a commercial...
  7. Ismar Boas (JE | wp gwp g) German physician and medical author; born at Exin, province of Posen, Prussia, March 28, 1858. After having completed his...
  8. Boat (JE | wp gwp g) -- See N139: Navigation
  9. Boaz JE (JE | wp gwp g) One of the relatives of Elimelech, husband of Naomi; a wealthy Judean, living at Bethlehem in Judah (Ruth ii. 1). He was one...
  10. Israel Michael Boaz (JE | wp gwp g) -- See C885: Cresson, Warder
  11. Bobovnia (JE | wp gwp g) -- See M643: Minsk
  12. Bobruisk (JE | wp gwp g) City in a district of the same name, in the government of Minsk, Russia; situated on the right bank of the River Berezina...
  13. Abraham b. Moses Bocara (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi of the community of Leghorn Jews at Tunis, where he died in 1879. He was the author of "Ben Abraham," a work treating...
  14. Giovanni Boccaccio in Jewish Literature (JE | wp gwp g) Among the translations into Judæo-German of popular books and legends, such as Bevis of Hampton, the Arthur legend, and...
  15. Samuel Bochart (JE | wp gwp g) One of the greatest scholars of the seventeenth century, and an illustrious representative of the science and theology of...
  16. Bochim (JE | wp gwp g) Name of a place near Beth-el. The Septuagint reads in Judges ii. 1, "The place of weeping to Beth-el and to all Israel." It...
  17. Hayyim b. Benjamin Ze'eb Bochner (JE | wp gwp g) Cabalist, Talmudist, and grammarian; born at Cracow, Galicia, in the first quarter of the seventeenth century; died at F&#252...
  18. Austria Bochnia (JE | wp gwp g) -- See G30: Galicia
  19. Alfred Bock (JE | wp gwp g) German novelist; born at Giessen, Hesse-Darmstadt, Oct. 14, 1859. He received his education at the gymnasium and the university...
  20. M H Bock (JE | wp gwp g) German educator; born at Magdeburg, 1784; died at Leipsic April 10, 1816, while on a journey. He was one of the ablest modern...

1221 – 1240[edit]

  1. Bodek (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B494: Bediḳah
  2. Herman Bodek (JE | wp gwp g) Galician Hebraist; born in Brody Sept. 27, 1820; died at Leipsic Aug. 19, 1880. He was descended from a highly respected family...
  3. Jacob Bodek, of Lemberg (JE | wp gwp g) Galician Hebraist; died at Lemberg 1856. He published "Ha-Ro'eh v-MebakKer Sifre Mechabre Zemanenu" (Spectator...
  4. Levi Bodenheimer JE (JE | wp gwp g) Consistorial rabbi at Krefeld, in the Rhine province; born Dec. 13, 1807, at Carlsruhe; died Aug. 25, 1867, at Krefeld. He...
  5. Johann Christian Georg Bodenschatz JE (JE | wp gwp g) German Protestant theologian; born at Hof, Germany, May 25, 1717; died Oct. 4, 1797, at Baiersdorf near Erlangen. In his early...
  6. Bodensee (JE | wp gwp g) -- See C742: Constance, Lake of
  7. Julius Bodenstein (JE | wp gwp g) German landscape-painter; born in Berlin Aug. 4, 1847. He studied at the Berlin Academy under Schütze and Hermann Schnee...
  8. Bodleian Library (JE | wp gwp g) the well-known University Library at Oxford, England. The building which at present forms the reading-room of the Bodleian...
  9. Bodo JE (JE | wp gwp g) Bishop and chaplain of Emperor Louis the Pious. After a dissolute life at court, he made (838) a pilgrimage to Rome, was converted...
  10. Body in Jewish Theology (JE | wp gwp g) in Hebrew the idea of "body" is expressed by the term "basar" (Assyrian, "bishru"), which, commonly translated "flesh," originally...
  11. Johannes Boeschenstain (JE | wp gwp g) German Hebraist; born at Eslingen in 1472; said to have been of Jewish parentage, this statement, however, being denied by...
  12. Boethusians JE (JE | wp gwp g) A Jewish sect closely related to, if not a development of, the Sadducees. The origin of this schism is recounted as follows...
  13. Frederike Bognar (JE | wp gwp g) German actress; born at Gotha Feb. 16, 1840. Her father was a singer, and Frederike was destined for a musical career. After...
  14. Andrei Bogolyubski (JE | wp gwp g) First grand duke of Russia (1169-74). He conquered Kiev after the death of Vladimir Monomakh (1169), but selected the northern...
  15. Grigori Isaacovich Bogrov (JE | wp gwp g) Russian writer; born March 13, 1825, in Poltava; died May 10, 1885, at Derevki, government of Minsk. He received his early...
  16. Boguslav (JE | wp gwp g) Town in the government of Kiev, Russia. It is mentioned in official documents dated 1195. Nothing is known of the date of...
  17. Bohemia (JE | wp gwp g) Crown land in the northernmost part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The history of the first settlement of Jews in Bohemia...
  18. Moses Böhm (JE | wp gwp g) German physician; flourished in the middle of the eighteenth century. In 1740 he was engaged by the Jewish community of Halberstadt...
  19. Israel b. Joseph Böhmer (JE | wp gwp g) Russian Neo-Hebraist and lexicographer; born about 1820; died in Slutzk, government of Minsk, April 4, 1860. His father, R...
  20. Joseph b. Meïr Böhmer (V03p292001jpg) (JE | wp gwp g) Lithuanian rabbi and Talmudist; born at Skudy in 1796; died May 7, 1864, at Slutsk. One of the most eminent pupils of R. &#7716...

1241 – 1260[edit]

  1. Boil (JE | wp gwp g) the rendering, in the English versions of the Scriptures, of the Hebrew word "shechin," which comes from a root meaning...
  2. Bojanowo (JE | wp gwp g) A town in the district of Ravditsch, province of Posen, Germany. A Jewish community of one hundred and forty-four souls dwelt...
  3. Bokhara (JE | wp gwp g) Capital of the khanate of the same name in Central Asia; a principal seat of Islam and, with Samarcand, a center of Mohammedan...
  4. Leone Bolaffio (JE | wp gwp g) Italian jurist; born at Padua July 5, 1848. He was educated at Padua; attended the public schools, the Talmudic college&#8212...
  5. Luigi Filippo Bolaffio (JE | wp gwp g) Italian journalist and publisher; born in Venice 1846, died at Milan 1901. While he was still a youth his parents moved to...
  6. Bolat (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1581: Bulat
  7. Bolechow (JE | wp gwp g) Town in the district of Dolina, Galicia, Austria, the population of which in 1890 was 4,402, of whom half were Jews. The Jewish...
  8. Boleslaw I Chrobry (JE | wp gwp g) King of Poland from 992 to 1025. According to the Polish preacher Matheusz Bembo, a contemporary of Sigismund III. (beginning...
  9. Boleslaw III Krzywousty (JE | wp gwp g) King of Poland from 1102 to 1139. In his time, according to Naruschewicz, the Jews spread through Poland and Lithuania as...
  10. Boleslaw Pobozny (JE | wp gwp g) Duke of Kalisz; died 1278. He was distinguished for his courage and administrative ability. Boleslaw aimed at furthering the...
  11. Boleslaw V Wstydliwy (JE | wp gwp g) King of Poland (1228-79). During his reign (1240) the Mongols under Batu-Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, invaded Poland...
  12. Boleso (JE | wp gwp g) -- See H970: Hungary
  13. Bologna (JE | wp gwp g) Capital of the province of Bologna and of the division of Emilia, in northern Italy. As early as the beginning of the fourth...
  14. Bombay, India (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B710: Beni-Israel
  15. Daniel Bomberg (JE | wp gwp g) Christian printer and publisher of Hebrew works; born at Antwerp; died at Venice in 1549. After having learned from his father...
  16. Bona Sforza (JE | wp gwp g) Polish queen; born 1493; died 1557; second wife of King Sigismund I. She was remarkable for her beauty and energy, but thoroughly...
  17. Bonafos (JE | wp gwp g) French physician; lived in the second half of the fourteenth century at Perpignan, where he was president of the community...
  18. Astruc Azariah b. Joseph Bonafos (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A2196: Azaria b. Joseph
  19. Menahem ben Abraham Bonafos (JE | wp gwp g) French philosopher; flourished at the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He was the author...
  20. Vidal Bonafos (V03p300007jpg) (JE | wp gwp g) Talmudist of Barcelona, at the end of the thirteenth century. Bonafos took a very active part in the anti-Maimonistic controversy, and tried...

1261 – 1280[edit]

  1. Daniel Israel Bonafoux (JE | wp gwp g) An active adherent of Shabbethai Zebi; lived at Smyrna in the seventeenth century. He was not disappointed when the...
  2. Menahem b. Abraham Bonafoux (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1259: Bonafos, Menahem b. Abraham
  3. Louis-Gabriel-Ambroise Bonald (JE | wp gwp g) French philosopher, politician, and anti-Jewish writer; born Oct. 2, 1774; died at Nomma Nov. 23, 1840. Being opposed to the...
  4. David Bonan (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi of the Livornian community of Tunis; died in that city in 1850. After his death his family defrayed the expenses of...
  5. Isaac Bonan (JE | wp gwp g) Author; father of David Bonan; lived in Tunis at the end of the eighteenth century. After his death the following works of...
  6. Napoleon Bonaparte (JE | wp gwp g) See Napoleon I.
  7. Bonastruc Desmaëstre JE (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish controversialist at the disputation at Tortosa 1413-14. Bonastruc was a prominent citizen in Gerona. When, under a...
  8. Isaac Bonastruc (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi at Palma in Majorca at the end of the fourteenth century; probably born in Barcelona. After the loss of his entire fortune...
  9. Bonastruc da Porta (JE | wp gwp g) -- See M910: Moses b. Naḥman
  10. Fortunato de S Bonaventura (JE | wp gwp g) Member of the Royal Academy of Science of Lisbon about the beginning of the nineteenth century. He attempted a history of...
  11. Moses Bonavoglio (Hefez), of Messina (JE | wp gwp g) Sicilian physician; born at the end of the fourteenth century; died 1447. Renowned for his learning and eloquence, he was...
  12. Bondage (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S850: Slaves and Slavery
  13. Bondavi (En) (JE | wp gwp g) Translator; brother of Samuel of Marseilles; lived at Tarascon in the first half of the fourteenth century. Bondavi assisted...
  14. Bonjudes Bondavin (JE | wp gwp g) Physician; lived at the end of the fourteenth century and the beginning of the fifteenth. He practised medicine at Marseilles...
  15. Abraham ben Yom-Tob Bondi (JE | wp gwp g) Bohemian Talmudist; died 1787 at Prague. His posthumous work, "Zera' Abraham" (Seed of Abraham), essays on various treatises...
  16. Elijah ben Selig Bondi (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian preacher; born at Prague at the end of the eighteenth century; died there about 1860. He studied Talmud at Presburg...
  17. Jonas Bondi (JE | wp gwp g) American rabbi; born at Dresden, Saxony, July 9, 1804; died at New York March 11, 1874. He was educated at the University...
  18. Mordecai Bondi (JE | wp gwp g) German author; lived at Dresden in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. He wrote, together with his brother Simon...
  19. Nehemiah Bondi (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A608: Bondi, Abraham b. Yom-Ṭob
  20. Philip Bondi (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian rabbi; born at Jinoschitz, Bohemia, Feb. 26, 1830. After having received a good education at home under the care...

1281 – 1300[edit]

  1. Simon Bondi (JE | wp gwp g) Lexicographer of the Talmud; lived at Dresden; died there Dec. 20, 1816. He wrote, together with his brother Mordecai, the...
  2. Bondmaid (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S850: Slaves and Slavery
  3. Bondman (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S850: Slaves and Slavery
  4. Bondoa (JE | wp gwp g) -- See T249: Todros b. Moses Yom-Ṭob
  5. Bonds (JE | wp gwp g) -- See D203: Deeds
  6. Bône (Bona) (JE | wp gwp g) Town in the province of Constantine, Algeria, called by the Romans "Hippo Regius." It had many Jewish inhabitants as early...
  7. Bonenfante of Milhaud (JE | wp gwp g) French physician; lived in the fourteenth century. He was the author of a medical treatise entitled "Gabriel," still extant...
  8. Abigdor b. Meshullam Bonet (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A281: Abigdor, Abraham
  9. Abraham Prophiat Bonet (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B492: Bedersi, Jedaiah B. Abraham
  10. Jacob ben David ben Yom-Tob (Bonjorn) Bonet JE (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish astronomer; lived probably at Perpignan in the fourteenth century. He was the author of astronomical tables prepared...
  11. Bonet de Lates JE (JE | wp gwp g) Physician and astrologer; known chiefly as the inventor of an astronomical ring-dial by means of which solar and stellar altitudes...
  12. Sen Bonet de Lunel (JE | wp gwp g) French author of the Middle Ages. He wrote a supercommentary on ibn Ezra's Bible commentary, which is mentioned by Nathaniel...
  13. Bonet b. Meshullam b. Solomon (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A281: Abigdor, Abraham
  14. Solomon ben Reuben Bonfed JE (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi at Saragossa, and poet; lived at the end of the fourteenth century and the beginning of the fifteenth. His diwan, still...
  15. Immanuel ben Jacob Bonfils (JE | wp gwp g) Physician, mathematician, and astronomer; lived at Orange, France, and later at Tarascon, in the fourteenth century. He was...
  16. Joseph b. Samuel Bonfils (JE | wp gwp g) French Talmudist, Bible commentator, and "payyeṭan"; lived in the middle of the eleventh century. Of his life nothing...
  17. Bongodas Caslari (JE | wp gwp g) -- See C224: Caslari
  18. Bongodas Cohen (JE | wp gwp g) Provençal physician; flourished in 1353. No details of his life can be ascertained. He was the author of a Latin work...
  19. Meïr ben Solomon Bongodas (JE | wp gwp g) Provençal poet; lived at the end of the thirteenth century. He is quoted in the diwan of Abraham Bedersi, who was chosen...
  20. Bongoron JE (JE | wp gwp g) Astronomer; lived at Perpignan in the middle of the fourteenth century. The name "Bongorn" or "Bonjorn" is the Proven&#231...

1301 to 1400[edit]

1301 – 1320[edit]

  1. Boniface VIII (Benedict Gaetan) (JE | wp gwp g) One hundred and ninety-eighth pope; born at Anagni, Italy; elected pope Dec. 24, 1294; died 1303. He succeeded Celestin V...
  2. Boniface IX (Pietro Tomacelli) (JE | wp gwp g) Two hundred and eighth pope; born at Naples; elected pope Nov. 2, 1389; died at Rome in 1404. His pontificate was very favorable...
  3. Alphonsus Bonihominis (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1207: Alfonsus Bonihominis
  4. Solomon Bonirac (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish translator; lived at Barcelona in the middle of the fourteenth century. He translated from the Arabic into Hebrew...
  5. Bonn (JE | wp gwp g) City in Rhenish Prussia. It had a Jewish community at an early date. Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn (b. 1133), as a boy of thirteen...
  6. Jonas ben Moses Bonn (JE | wp gwp g) Physician; lived in Frankfort-on-the-Main in the seventeenth century. Though not in the employ of the community, his name...
  7. Bonnet (JE | wp gwp g) -- See C822: Costume
  8. Bonosus (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1586: Antioch
  9. Bonsenior Gracian (JE | wp gwp g) -- See G402: Gracian
  10. Solomon Bonsenior (JE | wp gwp g) -- See J217: Jekuthiel B. Solomon
  11. Ibn Yahya Bonsenior (JE | wp gwp g) Chess expert. No details of his life can be obtained. The name is probably Provençal, and he lived certainly not later...
  12. Astruc Bonsenyor (JE | wp gwp g) from 1259, if not earlier, dragoman and Arabic secretary to Jaime I. of Aragon; died 1280. He was a native of Barcelona. He...
  13. Astruc Bonsenyor (JE | wp gwp g) Grandson of Astruc Bonsenyor, the dragoman of Jaime I. of Aragon; father of Judah Bonsenyor. He was a physician in Barcelona...
  14. Isaac Bonsenyor (JE | wp gwp g) Son or grandson of Judah Bonsenyor; lived in Barcelona; in 1391 became a Christian, and took the name Ferrario Gracia de Gualbis...
  15. Judah (Jaffuda) Bonsenyor (JE | wp gwp g) Notary-general of Aragon, and translator from the Arabic; son of the elder Astruc, and, like his father, interpreter, first...
  16. Bonviva (JE | wp gwp g) French Tosafist; flourished probably early in the thirteenth century at Château-Thierry. He and his father are mentioned...
  17. Book-clasps (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1072: Binding
  18. Book-collectors (JE | wp gwp g) the ideal of learning being so characteristically Jewish, it is natural that many Jews should have collected materials of...
  19. Book of Life (JE | wp gwp g) the book, or muster-roll, of God in which all the worthy are recorded for life. God has such a book, and to be blotted out...
  20. Book-plates (Ex-libris) (JE | wp gwp g) Labels with emblematic designs, with references to the names of the owners of the books in which they are inserted. Bookplates...

1321 – 1340[edit]

  1. Book-trade (JE | wp gwp g) the trade in books was carried on by Jews long before the invention of printing. A catalogue of a bookseller of the twelfth...
  2. Bookbinders (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1072: Binding
  3. Boot (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S652: Shoe
  4. Booth (JE | wp gwp g) A rendering, in the English versions of the Bible, of the Hebrew word "sukkah"; also occasionally translated "pavilion" or...
  5. Booths (JE | wp gwp g) -- See T3: Tabernacle
  6. Booty (JE | wp gwp g) -- See W37: War
  7. Germany Boppard (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1173: Blood Accusation
  8. Marc Borchard (JE | wp gwp g) German physician and author; born in Mecklenburg, 1808; died at Paris June 21, 1872. He graduated as M. D. at Halle, later...
  9. Bruno Borchardt (JE | wp gwp g) German physicist and author; born at Bromberg Nov. 17, 1859. Educated at Berlin, where he graduated as Ph.D., he was appointed...
  10. Felix Borchardt (JE | wp gwp g) German painter; born in Berlin March 7, 1857; studied at the Berlin Academy and with Max Michael; traveled extensively in...
  11. Karl Wilhelm Borchardt (JE | wp gwp g) German mathematician; born Feb. 22, 1817, at Berlin; died there June 27, 1880. He studied from 1839 to 1843 at Königsberg...
  12. Bordeaux (JE | wp gwp g) in medieval times capital of Guienne; to-day, of the department of La Gironde, France. It derives its name from Bourdelois...
  13. Borders (JE | wp gwp g) Ornamental designs surrounding printed pages. The first ornaments for title-pages consisted of arabesque borders with white...
  14. Borek (JE | wp gwp g) Borek is the birthplace of Elias Guttmacher, known by the name "Grätzer Raw."D. M. L. B. ...
  15. Borerim (JE | wp gwp g) Name of electors of a congregation, and applied particularly to the five distinguished representatives of the community in...
  16. Borger (JE | wp gwp g) Cabalist; lived at Zülz, Prussia, in the seventeenth century; corrector of the press in the printing-house of Shabbethai...
  17. Moses Boris (JE | wp gwp g) French colonel; born in the department of Meurthe in 1808; died in Paris June 13, 1884. At the age of twenty-six he entered...
  18. Borisov (JE | wp gwp g) Town and district in the government of Minsk, Russia; situated on a peninsula on the left bank of the Beresina, about fifty...
  19. Borispol (JE | wp gwp g) A village in the district of Pereyaslav, government of Poltawa. Its population of 10,000 embraces about 1,000 Jews. Of the...
  20. Kalman ben Phineas Seligman Borkum (JE | wp gwp g) Court Jew of Duke Peter Biron of Courland; born in the middle of the eighteenth century; died at Mitau in 1828, on the same...

1341 – 1360[edit]

  1. Gustav Jacob Born JE (JE | wp gwp g) German histologist and medical author; born at Kempen, province of Posen, Prussia, April 22, 1851. He received his education...
  2. Karl Ludwig Börne (JE | wp gwp g) German political and literary writer; born May 6, 1786, at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died in Paris Feb. 12, 1837. The family...
  3. Arthur Bornstein (JE | wp gwp g) German author; born at Breslau March 23, 1867; studied at Breslau, Berlin, and Bern; and passed the state examination in Berlin...
  4. Paul Bornstein (JE | wp gwp g) German author; born in Berlin April 8, 1868; educated in and graduated from the university in that city, receiving the degree...
  5. Borodavka (JE | wp gwp g) Lithuanian farmer of taxes and distillery privileges; lived in the sixteenth century at Brest-Litovsk. He is first mentioned...
  6. Samuel Hyman Borofsky (JE | wp gwp g) Born at Wolkovyshki, government of Suvalki, Russian Poland, April, 1865. He was educated in the schools of his native place...
  7. Isidor Borowski (JE | wp gwp g) Soldier under Bolivar y Ponte, and, later, a Persian general; born at Warsaw, Poland, 1803; killed at the siege of Herat in1837...
  8. Borrow (JE | wp gwp g) See Commerce and Trade.
  9. Borrower (JE | wp gwp g) One who receives, at his own request, the property of another, for free use, upon the agreement that it shall be returned...
  10. Moses ben Solomon de Boshal (Bostal) (JE | wp gwp g) Turkish Talmudist and preacher of the seventeenth century. He wrote "Yismach Mosheh" (Moses Rejoices), a homiletic commentary...
  11. Bosheth (JE | wp gwp g) Used concretely by the Prophets as "the shameful thing" to designate the Baalim and their images. (See Hosea ix. 10 and Jer...
  12. Agron Machimovitsch Bosko (JE | wp gwp g) -- See L468: Lithuania
  13. Wolf Boskovitz (JE | wp gwp g) the first rabbi of the congregation of Budapest; died 1818. In 1787 the Jewish community at Pest was sufficiently large to...
  14. Boskowitz (JE | wp gwp g) Town in Moravia, about 21 miles to the north of Brünn. It has one of the oldest and most important communities in the...
  15. Hayyim ben Jacob Boskowitz (JE | wp gwp g) Palestinian author; lived about the middle of the eighteenth century. He wrote the "Toze'ot Ḥayyim"(Life&#39...
  16. Yom-Tob Lipman ha-Kohen Boslanski (JE | wp gwp g) Russian rabbi; born 1824; died in Mir, government of Grodno, Dec. 26, 1892. In his younger days he was rabbi in Khaslavich...
  17. Bosnia (JE | wp gwp g) Province of the Balkan peninsula, on the frontier of Austria and of Montenegro. Formerly under Turkish rule, it came under...
  18. Bosor (JE | wp gwp g) 1. A city of Gilead, which Judas Maccabeus conquered (I Macc. v. 26, 36). It may be identified with the modern "Buṣr...
  19. Bosora (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1376: Bozrah
  20. Cimmerian Bosporus (JE | wp gwp g) Name of the ancients for the strait of Yenikale or of Theodosia; on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. The country on both...

1361 – 1380[edit]

  1. Bostanai JE (JE | wp gwp g) First exilarch under Arabian rule; flourished about the middle of the seventh century. The name is Aramaized from the Persian...
  2. Boston (JE | wp gwp g) Capital and chief city of the state of Massachusetts in the United States.Nothing definite is known of Jews in Boston prior...
  3. Botany (JE | wp gwp g) the science that treats of plants. Like grammar and other sciences based on logical thought, scientific botany originated...
  4. Moses Botarel (Boterello, Botril, Botrelli) (JE | wp gwp g) -- See M848: Moses Botarel
  5. Boton >> Abraham de Boton JE (JE | wp gwp g) Spanish family, which immigrated to Salonica, Turkey, in 1492, and which has produced many eminent rabbis and Talmudists....
  6. Bottle (JE | wp gwp g) the Authorized Version (partly after the example of the Vulgate, which uses "lagena," I Sam. x. 3; "laguncula," Lam. iv. 2)...
  7. Boulé (JE | wp gwp g) Court of justice, or Sanhedrin; also the seat of the senate (Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 2; hence also , βο&#965...
  8. Boundaries (JE | wp gwp g) Limits of a tract of land. When the Hebrew tribes gave up their nomadic life and settled in Palestine in agricultural communities...
  9. Bourgas (JE | wp gwp g) City of eastern Rumelia (southern Bulgaria) and port on the Black Sea; six hours distant from Constantinople. The Jews of...
  10. Bourges (JE | wp gwp g) Capital of the department of Cher, France. From the beginning of the Middle Ages Jews dwelt in Bourges. It is recorded that...
  11. Bovo Buch (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B41: Baba Buch
  12. Bow (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A1731: Archer
  13. Bowl (JE | wp gwp g) -- See D486: Drinking-Vessels
  14. Box-tree (JE | wp gwp g) Judging by Isa. lx. 13, the box-tree (A. V. "box") is a tree of the Lebanon, promised for the rebuilding of the Temple, together...
  15. Bozecchi (JE | wp gwp g) Prominent Italian family, the members of which when settling at Rome called themselves after their native place, Buzecchio...
  16. Bozrah (JE | wp gwp g) According to Isa. xxxiv. 6, lxiii. 1; Amos i. 12; Jer. xlix. 13, 22, one of the principal cities, or perhaps the capital,...
  17. Hayyim Obadiah ben Jacob Obadiah Di Bozzolo (JE | wp gwp g) Talmudist and cabalist; lived at Salonica in the middle of the sixteenth century; probably a native of Bozzolo in Italy, wherefore...
  18. Bracelets (JE | wp gwp g) Ornaments in the form of rings for the arm, worn by the Hebrews, as well as by all ancient peoples. Besides serving as ornaments...
  19. Jacob Brafmann (JE | wp gwp g) Jewish convert to Christianity; born in Russia; died in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. After having tried many...
  20. Bragadini (JE | wp gwp g) Family of printers at Venice. After the decline of the Bomberg printing-press a fierce rivalry grew up at Venice among the...

1381 – 1400[edit]

  1. Bragança (JE | wp gwp g) City of Portugal, in the province of Tras-os-Montes. In 1250 nineteen of the Jews living there were accused of usury. They...
  2. Bragin (JE | wp gwp g) Village of Russia, in the government of Minsk, having a population (1898) of 4,520, including 2,248 Jews, of whom 256 were...
  3. John Braham (JE | wp gwp g) English tenor singer; born in London 1774; died there Feb. 17, 1856. His parents dying in his childhood, he became a chorister...
  4. Tycho Brahe (JE | wp gwp g) -- See G63: Gans, David
  5. Otto (Abrahamsohn) Brahm (JE | wp gwp g) German dramatic critic and manager; born in Hamburg Feb. 5, 1856. He studied philosophy, German philology, and the history...
  6. Braila (JE | wp gwp g) -- See R475: Rumania
  7. Brailov (JE | wp gwp g) Town in the district of Vinitza, government of Podolia. The population at the census of 1897 was 8,972, including 3,924 Jews...
  8. Ruben Brainin JE (JE | wp gwp g) Hebrew publicist and biographer; born in Russia in the last half of the nineteenth century; is now (1902) living in Berlin...
  9. Simon Brainin JE (JE | wp gwp g) Russian physician; born at Riga, Livonia, July 15, 1854. He graduated from the gymnasium of his birthplace; studied medicine...
  10. Bramble (JE | wp gwp g) A prickly shrub. The word serves as a translation for two Hebrew terms and a Greek one, all of which, however, should receive...
  11. Leo Bramson (JE | wp gwp g) Russian jurist and writer; born at Kovno April 17, 1869; graduated from the Moscow University as a "candidatus juris." He...
  12. Fernando Alvarez Brandam (JE | wp gwp g) Marano and physician at Lisbon in the seventeenth century; contemporary of Manuel Fernandez de Villa-Real, who characterizes...
  13. Baruch Judah (Ha-levi) Brandeis (JE | wp gwp g) Bohemian rabbi and author; lived in the second half of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century at Prague...
  14. Bezaleel ben Moses (Ha-levi) Brandeis (JE | wp gwp g) Bohemian rabbi and author; died about 1750 at Jung-Bunzlau, where he was district rabbi and director of a Talmudic academy...
  15. Frederick Brandeis (JE | wp gwp g) Musician; born at Vienna July 5, 1832; died at New York May 14, 1899. He studied at the University of Vienna, and received...
  16. Moses Brandeis (JE | wp gwp g) German rabbi and Talmudic teacher; born about 1685; died June 24, 1761, in Mayence. As his surname indicates, he was famous...
  17. Brandenburg (JE | wp gwp g) Province of Prussia. In documents of the thirteenth century Jews are mentioned as living in the mark of Brandenburg and carrying...
  18. Carl Eduard Cohen Brandes (JE | wp gwp g) Danish author and politician; born at Copenhagen, Oct. 21, 1847; brother of George Brandes. At the age of eighteen he entered...
  19. Ernst Immanuel Cohen Brandes (JE | wp gwp g) Danish economist; born at Copenhagen Feb. 1, 1844; died there Aug. 6, 1892. He was a brother of the critic Georg Brandes and...
  20. Georg Morris Cohen Brandes (JE | wp gwp g) Danish author and critic; born in Copenhagen, Denmark, Feb. 4, 1842. He graduated in 1859, and for a short time studied law...

1401 to 1500[edit]

1401 – 1420[edit]

  1. Ludvig Israel Brandes (JE | wp gwp g) Danish physician; born in Copenhagen Oct. 26, 1821; diedthere Sept. 17, 1894. In 1839 he entered the University of Copenhagen...
  2. Marthe Brandès (Marthe-joséphine Brunschwig) (JE | wp gwp g) French actress; born in Paris Jan. 31, 1862. She first studied design, sculpture, and music, and, finally, the drama. Successful...
  3. Mordecai ben Eliezer Brandes (JE | wp gwp g) German Talmudist; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main in the middle of the eighteenth century. Engaged by the Jewish community...
  4. Benjamin Raphael Dias Brandon (JE | wp gwp g) Dutch Talmudist and Hebrew author; died about 1750 at Amsterdam, where he was cantor. He wrote: "Orot ha-Mizwot" (Lights...
  5. Jacob Emile Édouard Brandon (JE | wp gwp g) French genre painter; born at Paris July 3, 1831. A pupil of Picot, Montfort, and Corot, he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts...
  6. Jules Benjamin Brandon (JE | wp gwp g) French officer and scion of an ancient Sephardic family that went to France from Spain after the exodus of 1492; born Sept...
  7. Mordecai David Brandstädter (JE | wp gwp g) Galician novelist; born Feb. 14, 1844, in Brzesko, Galicia. He received a good Talmudical education, and after his marriage...
  8. Marcus Brann (JE | wp gwp g) German historian; born in Rawitsch July 9, 1849; son of Rabbi Solomon Brann. He studied at the University of Breslau, attending...
  9. Solomon Brann (JE | wp gwp g) German rabbi; born in Rawitsch, Nov. 3, 1814. He attended for several years the yeshibah in Lissa, and continued his studies...
  10. Moritz Brasch JE (JE | wp gwp g) German philosopher and litterateur; born at Zempelburg, West Prussia, Aug. 18, 1843; died at Leipzig Sept. 14, 1895. He was...
  11. Braslaw Nahman (JE | wp gwp g) -- See N29: Nahman b. Simḥah of Bratzlav
  12. Brass (JE | wp gwp g) A composition of copper and zinc. The application of the word in the Bible is uncertain, as instruments of copper and bronze...
  13. Bratzlav (JE | wp gwp g) A town in the government of Podolia, Russia, situated on the right bank of the southern Bug. It was founded in the fourteenth...
  14. Reuben Asher Braudes JE (JE | wp gwp g) Hebrew novelist and journalist; born at Wilna, Russia, 1851; died in Vienna Oct. 18, 1902. Educated on the usual Talmudical...
  15. Alexander Braudo JE (JE | wp gwp g) Russian author; born in 1864. From 1889 until 1892 he was reviewer of literature on Russian history for the "Jahresbericht...
  16. Josef Braun (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian journalist, dramatist, and librettist; born at Budapest, May 5, 1840. Braun was educated for the profession of medicine...
  17. Solomon Braun JE (JE | wp gwp g) French lieutenant of artillery; born at Paris, 1868; died in Togbao, Sudan, in 1899. His father, a poor pedler, observing...
  18. Abraham b. Eliezer Braunschweig (Brunschwig) (JE | wp gwp g) Reviser of the rabbinical Bible published by the printer König of Basel in 1619; and assistant to Johannes Buxtorf, both...
  19. Jacob Eliezer Braunschweig (JE | wp gwp g) German rabbi and Talmudic author of the seventeenth and the eighteenth century; died in Vienna April 16, 1729. Of his life...
  20. Moses ben Mordecai Braunschweig (JE | wp gwp g) Polish Talmudist; lived about the middle of the sixteenth century at Cracow. He wrote a commentary on Jacob Weil's widely...

1421 – 1440[edit]

  1. Bravery (JE | wp gwp g) -- See C830: Courage
  2. Abraham Bravo (JE | wp gwp g) A financier living in London in 1710. He was a descendant of a Spanish-Portuguese family, and one of the earliest Anglo-Jewish...
  3. Bray-sur-Seine (JE | wp gwp g) Small town situated between Provins and Montereau, in the department of Seine-et-Marne; belonged formerly to Champagne. In...
  4. Brazen Sea JE (JE | wp gwp g) the brazen laver of the Mosaic ritual; made by Solomon out of bronze captured by David at Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadarezer...
  5. Brazen Serpent (JE | wp gwp g) An image set up by Moses which is said to have healed those who looked upon it. When the people of Israel, near the close...
  6. Brazier (JE | wp gwp g) -- See C549: Coal
  7. Brazil (JE | wp gwp g) the largest of the South American states, extending from lat. 5° N. to 33° 45' S., long. 35° to 74&#176...
  8. Breach of Promise of Marriage (JE | wp gwp g) the refusal of either party to a contract of marriage to fulfil it. In order that there may be a breach of promise, there...
  9. Breach of Trust (JE | wp gwp g) Violation by fraud or omission of any duty lawfully imposed upon a trustee, executor, or other person in a position of trust...
  10. Bread (JE | wp gwp g) Bread was the principal article of food among the Hebrews, while meat, vegetables, or liquids served only to supplement the...
  11. Michel Jules Alfred Bréal (JE | wp gwp g) French philologist; born of French parentage at Landau, Rhenish Bavaria, March 26, 1832. He received his education at Weissenburg...
  12. Breastplate (JE | wp gwp g) A rendering of the Hebrew "shiryon" or "siryon," which would be more correctly translated "coat of mail" or "cuirass." The...
  13. Breastplate of the High Priest (JE | wp gwp g) A species of pouch, adorned with precious stones, worn by the high priest on his breast when he presented in the Holy Place...
  14. Breath (JE | wp gwp g) -- See H865: Holy Spirit
  15. Adolph Brecher (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian physician; born at Prossnitz, Moravia, in 1831; died at Olmütz April 13, 1894. He was the son of the physician...
  16. Gideon (Gedaliah b. Eliezer) Brecher JE (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian physician and author; born at Prossnitz, Moravia, Jan. 12, 1797; died there May 14, 1873.Brecher, who was the first...
  17. Bregenz (JE | wp gwp g) -- See T376: Tyrol
  18. Eliezer b. Moses Bregman (JE | wp gwp g) Russian financier and philanthropist; born in Indura (commonly called by Russian Jews "Amdur"), government of Grodno, in 1826...
  19. Moritz Wilhelm August Breidenbach (JE | wp gwp g) German jurist; born at Offenbach-on-the-Main Nov. 13, 1796; died at Darmstadt April 2, 1857. He first attended the gymnasium...
  20. Wolf Breidenbach (JE | wp gwp g) German court agent and champion of Jewish emancipation; born in the village of Breidenbach, Hesse-Cassel, 1751;died in Offenbach...

1441 – 1460[edit]

  1. Eduard Breier (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian writer; born at Warasdin in Croatia Nov. 3, 1811; died at Zaiwitz near Znaim, Moravia, June 3, 1886. His first novel...
  2. Max Breitenstein (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian writer and translator; born at Iglau, Moravia, Nov. 10, 1855. He attended the gymnasium of his native city and the...
  3. John Frederick Breithaupt (JE | wp gwp g) Christian Hebraist and rabbinical scholar at the beginning of the eighteenth century; aulic councilor to the emperor and to...
  4. Bremen (JE | wp gwp g) Free city of the German empire; remarkable as one of the places where few Jews have ever dwelt. A baptized Jew, Paulus, is...
  5. Samuel Friedrich Brenz JE (JE | wp gwp g) Anti-Jewish writer; born at Osterburg, Bavaria, in the latter half of the sixteenth century; date and place of death unknown...
  6. Bresch (JE | wp gwp g) Translator of the Pentateuch into Judæo-German; lived in Germany in the sixteenth century, He is known only from de Rossi...
  7. Brescia (JE | wp gwp g) City and province of Lombardy, Italy. The Jews first settled there during Roman times. A commemorative stone, dating from...
  8. Breslau (JE | wp gwp g) -- See S712: Silesia
  9. Aryeh Löb ben Hayyim Breslau (JE | wp gwp g) German Talmudist and rabbi; born in 1741 at Breslau, Prussia; died April 22, 1809, at Rotterdam, Holland. He lived at Lissa...
  10. Joseph b. David Breslau (JE | wp gwp g) German Talmudist and rabbi; born (probably at Breslau) in 1691; died Jan. 22, 1752, at Bamberg. He was at first a rabbi at...
  11. Marcus Heymann Breslau (JE | wp gwp g) Author and journalist; born at Breslau, Germany; died in London May 14, 1864. He went to London as a youth, and for a time...
  12. Hermann Breslauer (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian neuropath; born at Duschnik, Bohemia, Nov. 10, 1835. He was educated at the gymnasium at Pilsen and the University...
  13. Max Breslauer (JE | wp gwp g) German chemist; born at Trebnitz, Prussian Silesia, June 19, 1856. He received his education at the universities of Leipsic...
  14. Emil Breslaur (JE | wp gwp g) German musician and writer on musical pedagogics; born at Kottbus May 29, 1836. He first attended the gymnasium in his native...
  15. Isaac ben Elijah Levi Bresner (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian educator; lived at Prague in the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth. In 1795...
  16. Heinrich Bresnitz (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian author and journalist; born at Czernowitz, Bukowina, Austria-Hungary, 1844. In 1867 he established in Vienna a periodical...
  17. Meïr Israel Bresselau (JE | wp gwp g) German notary and secretary of the Reform congregation of Hamburg; born 1785 (?); died in Hamburg Dec. 25, 1839. He was identified...
  18. Harry Bresslau (JE | wp gwp g) German historian; born in Dannenberg, Hanover, March 22, 1848. He studied history in Göttingen from 1866 to 1869; became...
  19. Mendel ben Hayyim Judah Bresslau (JE | wp gwp g) Bookseller at Breslau (died 1829); author of articles in the periodical "Ha-Meassef," and of an allegorical ethical dialogue...
  20. Brest-litovsk (JE | wp gwp g) A fortified town in the government of Grodno, Russia, at the junction of the Mukhovetz river with the western Bug; capital...

1461 – 1480[edit]

  1. Brestovitza (JE | wp gwp g) Town in the district and government of Grodno, Russia, about forty miles south of the capital. From a record of a lawsuit...
  2. Joseph Breuer (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian physician; born Jan. 15, 1842, at Vienna. He studied medicine at the University of Vienna, whence in 1863 he graduated...
  3. Bribery (JE | wp gwp g) the offer or receipt of anything of value in corrupt payment for an official act done or to be done.The moral basis for the...
  4. Brichany (JE | wp gwp g) Town in the government of Bessarabia, Russia, with (in 1898) 7,303 Jewish inhabitants in a total population of 8,094. The...
  5. Brick (JE | wp gwp g) the expression "brick" (; translated once "tile" in A. V., Ezek. iv. 1) designates both the burnt and the sun-dried brick...
  6. Bride (JE | wp gwp g) the allegorical use of the name "Bride" for "Israel" is based upon Hosea ii. 19-20: "I will betroth thee forever," and, in...
  7. Bridegroom and Bridegroom's Friends (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B995: Betrothal
  8. Bridegroom of Genesis (Hatan Bereshit) (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1469: Bridegroom of the Law
  9. Bridegroom of the Law (Hatan Torah) (JE | wp gwp g) the somewhat poetic designation of Bridegrooms of the Law and of Genesis are given to the persons called up in the synagogue...
  10. Bridegroom of the Torah (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1469: Bridegroom of the Law
  11. Bridle (JE | wp gwp g) A term used in the English versions of the Bible interchangeably with bit to represent the three Hebrew words , and , which...
  12. Brieg (Brzeg) JE (JE | wp gwp g) Town in Silesia; formerly the capital of the duchy of the same name. Jews settled there about 1324, chiefly because it was...
  13. Ludwig Brieger (JE | wp gwp g) German physician and medical writer; born at Glatz, in Prussian Silesia, July 26, 1849. He received his education at the gymnasium...
  14. Judah Leon ben Eliezer Brieli (JE | wp gwp g) Rabbi in Mantua; born about 1643; died in 1722.Brieli, besides being a high Talmudical authority, as is shown in the responsa...
  15. Brier (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1390: Bramble
  16. John Bright (JE | wp gwp g) English statesman and orator; born at Greenbank, Nov. 16, 1811; died in Rochdale March 27, 1889. It has been stated that his...
  17. Azriel Brill (JE | wp gwp g) Hungarian rabbi and author; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century; assistant rabbi (dayyan) at Pest, Hungary....
  18. Jehiel Brill (JE | wp gwp g) Russian journalist. According to Zeitlin he was born in 1836 in Tultschin, Russian Poland; but Fuenn, who knew him well, states...
  19. Joel Brill (JE | wp gwp g) -- See L575: Löwe, Joel
  20. Joseph Brill (JE | wp gwp g) Russian teacher and Hebrew writer; born at Gorki, near Mohilev, on the Dnieper, 1839. He studied Talmud at the yeshibot of...

1481 – 1500[edit]

  1. Samuel Löw Brill JE (JE | wp gwp g) Hungarian rabbi and Talmudical scholar; born Sept. 14, 1814, in Budapest; died April 8, 1897. He was carefully educated by...
  2. Brimstone (JE | wp gwp g) Sulfur in a solid state. It is found in Palestine, in the region along the banks of the Jordan and around the Dead Sea, both...
  3. Brindisi (JE | wp gwp g) Seaport on the coast of Calabria, Italy, whence the ancient Romans embarked for the East. Jews undoubtedly settled there at...
  4. Brisk (JE | wp gwp g) -- See B1460: Brest-Litovsk
  5. Aaron b. Meïr Brisker (JE | wp gwp g) -- See A68: Aaron b. Meïr of Brest
  6. Bristol (JE | wp gwp g) Commercial seaport city in the counties of Gloucester and Somerset, England. Jews settled very early at Bristol, which was...
  7. British Museum, London (JE | wp gwp g) Chief library and museum of the United Kingdom. It contains many books and objects of Jewish interest. the Hebrew MSS.: ...
  8. Brittany (JE | wp gwp g) Ancient province of France corresponding to the present departments of Finistère, Côtes-du-Nord, Morbihan, Ile et...
  9. Briviesca (JE | wp gwp g) the ancient Virovesca; city in Old Castile, not far from Burgos. A Jewish community dwelt there, which in 1290 was taxed 11...
  10. Josef b. Brociner (JE | wp gwp g) President of the Union of Hebrew Congregations of Rumania; born in Jassy, Rumania, Oct., 1846. From 1864 to 1866 he studied...
  11. Abraham ben Saul Broda JE (JE | wp gwp g) Bohemian Talmudist; born about 1640 at Bunzlau; died April 11, 1717, at Frankfort-on-the-Main. Saul Broda sent his son to...
  12. Abraham b. Shalom Broda (JE | wp gwp g) Russian rabbinical author; born in Wilna about the beginning of the nineteenth century; died there after 1860. His father...
  13. Benjamin b. Aaron Broda (JE | wp gwp g) Lithuanian rabbi and Talmudist; died Sept. 1, 1818, at Grodno. He was the best-known Talmudist of the five sons of Aaron Broda...
  14. Brodski (JE | wp gwp g) A family which has produced many rabbis and notable men in the last three hundred years. It is a branch of the Schor family...
  15. Adolph Brodsky (JE | wp gwp g) Russian violinist; born in Taganrog March 21, 1851. At the age of nine he played in a concert at Odessa, attracting much attention...
  16. Brody (JE | wp gwp g) -- See G30: Galicia
  17. Heinrich Brody JE (JE | wp gwp g) Austrian rabbi; born May 21, 1868, at Ungvár, Hungary; descendant of Abraham Broda. Educated in the public schools of...
  18. Sándor Bródy JE (JE | wp gwp g) Hungarian author and journalist; born at Erlau in 1863. After attending the schools of that city he devoted himself entirely...
  19. Sigmund Bródy JE (JE | wp gwp g) Hungarian journalist, and member of the Upper House of the Hungarian Parliament; born Nov. 15, 1840, at Miskolcz. He attended...
  20. Victor-Claude, Prince De Broglie (JE | wp gwp g) French statesman; opponent of Jewish emancipation; born at Paris, 1757; beheaded in 1794 for intriguing against the French...
Directory of articles

A1 - A2 - A3 - A4 - A5 - B1 - B2 - B3 - B4 - C1 - C2 - D1 - D2 - E1 - E2 - F - G1 - G2 - H1 - H2 - H3 - I - J1 - J2 - K - L1 - L2 - M1 - M2 - M3 - N - O - P1 - P2 - Q - R - S1 - S2 - S3 - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z