Wikipedia:Jewish Encyclopedia topics/P2

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501 to 600[edit]

501 – 520[edit]

  1. Precentor (JE | WP GWP G) -- See H458: Ḥazzan
  2. Precious Stones (JE | WP GWP G) -- See G131: Gems
  3. Predestination (JE | WP GWP G) the belief that the destiny of man is determined beforehand by God. "Predestination" in this sense is not to be confounded...
  4. Preexistence (JE | WP GWP G) Existence previous to earthly life or to Creation, attributed in apocryphal and rabbinical writings to persons and things...
  5. Preexistence of the Soul (JE | WP GWP G) -- See S985: Soul
  6. Prefaces and Dedications (JE | WP GWP G) the general Hebrew name for a preface is "hakdamah." the saying "A book without a preface is like a body without a soul"...
  7. Pregnancy (JE | WP GWP G) -- See C451: Childbirth
  8. Premeditation (JE | WP GWP G) -- See I161: Intention
  9. Shabbethai Premsla (JE | WP GWP G) Galician grammarian and scribe of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; lived at Przemysl. He was the author of a commentary...
  10. Prerau (JE | WP GWP G) Town in Moravia. The Judengasse of Prerau is mentioned as early as Charles IV. (1339-1349), but the settlement of Jews in...
  11. Benjamin Wolf Prerau (JE | WP GWP G) Moravian Hebraist; lived at Prerau in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He published Bedersi's "Bak&#7731...
  12. Presburg (JE | WP GWP G) City of Hungary, situated on the River Danube. Its location on a commercial highroad makes it probable that its Jewish community...
  13. Presbyter (JE | WP GWP G) from the time of Moses down to the Talmudic period the "zekenim" (elders) are mentioned as constituting a regular communal...
  14. Presbyter Judaeorum (JE | WP GWP G) Chief official of the Jews of England in pre-expulsion times. The office appears to have been for life, though in two or three...
  15. Moses Alexandrovich Press (JE | WP GWP G) Russian engineer and technologist; born 1861; died at Sankt Blasien 1901. After passing through the St. Petersburg Institute...
  16. La Presse Israélite (JE | WP GWP G) -- See P199: Periodicals
  17. Prester John (JE | WP GWP G) -- See T325: Tribes, The Lost Ten
  18. Birds of Prey (JE | WP GWP G) While few clean birds are named in the Old Testament (see Poultry), there are given in Lev. xi. (13-19) and Deut. xiv. (12-21)...
  19. Alfred Pribram (Przibram) (JE | WP GWP G) Austrian physician; born at Prague May 11, 1841; educated at the university of his native city (M.D. 1861). He established...
  20. Richard Přibram (JE | WP GWP G) Austrian chemist; born at Prague April 21, 1847; educated at the Polytechnic and the University of Prague, and at the University...

521 – 540[edit]

  1. Julius Mendes Price (JE | WP GWP G) English traveler, artist, and journalist; born in London about 1858; educated at University College (London), at Brussels...
  2. Humphrey Prideaux (JE | WP GWP G) English Orientalist; born at Padstow, Cornwall, May 3, 1648; died at Norwich Nov. 1, 1724; educated at Christchurch, Oxford...
  3. Priest (JE | WP GWP G) One consecrated to the service of the sanctuary and, more particularly, of the altar. This definition, however, holds true...
  4. Priestly Code (JE | WP GWP G) Name given by modern scholars to that stratum of the Pentateuch which deals with ceremonial regulations, especially those...
  5. Aryeh Löb Priluk (Przyluk; Purlik; Frilock) (JE | WP GWP G) Polish author of the seventeenth century. He wrote a commentary on the Zohar from the pericope "Shemot" to "Ḥu&#7731...
  6. Samuel Primo (JE | WP GWP G) Shabbethaian sectary of the seventeenth century; born in Jerusalem; died probably at Constantinople. He was one of the earliest...
  7. Primogeniture (JE | WP GWP G) in the Old Testament as well as in the rabbinical legislation a distinction is made between the first-born of inheritance...
  8. Princeps Judaeorum (JE | WP GWP G) -- See M436: Mendel
  9. Princes of the Captivity (JE | WP GWP G) -- See E548: Exilarch
  10. Principal and Agent (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A894: Agency, Law of
  11. Nathaniel Pringsheim (JE | WP GWP G) German botanist; born at Wziesko, Oberschlesien, Nov. 30,1823; died at Berlin Oct. 6, 1894. He was educated at the Friedrichs-Gymnasium...
  12. Printers; Printing (JE | WP GWP G) -- See T372: Typography
  13. Printers' marks (JE | WP GWP G) Signets, coats of arms, or pictures printed, from engravings, at the end of a book or, later, on the title-page. Their use...
  14. Priority (JE | WP GWP G) the rules as to priority among deeds conveying the lands of a grantor, or among bonds operating as liens upon all the obligor&#39...
  15. Prison (JE | WP GWP G) -- See I121: Imprisonment
  16. Right of Privacy (JE | WP GWP G) See Joint Owners; Neighboring Landowners.
  17. Private Way (JE | WP GWP G) -- See R295: Right of Way
  18. Procedure in Civil Causes (JE | WP GWP G) Jewish jurisprudence, both in Biblical and in Talmudic times, attached the greatest importance to the laws of property and...
  19. Process (JE | WP GWP G) -- See P538: Procedure
  20. Procurator Ad Capitularia Judaeorum (JE | WP GWP G) -- See F183: Fiscus Judaicus

541 – 560[edit]

  1. Procurators >> List of Hasmonean and Herodian rulers REF:JE, Cnaeus Pompeius Longinus JE, Marcellus (prefect of Judea) JE, Salvidenus JE, Tiberianus JE (JE | WP GWP G) Title of the governors who were appointed by Rome over Judea after the banishment of Archelaus in the year 6 C.E., and over...
  2. Production of Documents (JE | WP GWP G) -- See E530: Evidence
  3. Profanation and Profanity (JE | WP GWP G) See Cursing; Desecration.
  4. Professions (Statistics) (JE | WP GWP G) Until quite recent times the Jews were debarred from all professional occupations except that of medicine. Till entrance to...
  5. Profiat (JE | WP GWP G) Name used by Jews in Provence and northern Spain. In Hebrew it is written in various forms: , ; or , with the substitution...
  6. Prognostication (JE | WP GWP G) -- See O61: Omen
  7. Prometheus (JE | WP GWP G) See Adam; Fire.
  8. Promissory Notes (JE | WP GWP G) -- See E542: Exchange, Bills of
  9. Modern pronunciation of Hebrew (JE | WP GWP G) Like Syriac, and probably under its influence, Hebrew has been handed down with a twofold pronunciation, the Ashkenazic and...
  10. Proof (JE | WP GWP G) -- See E530: Evidence
  11. Propaganda literature (JE | WP GWP G) -- See P402: Polemics and Polemical Literature
  12. Property (JE | WP GWP G) -- See C390: Chattels
  13. False Prophet (JE | WP GWP G) Deuteronomy is the only book containing laws concerning the false prophet (xiii. 2-6 [A. V. 1-5], xviii. 20-22). He is designated...
  14. Prophets and Prophecy (JE | WP GWP G) Though many ancient peoples had their prophets, the term has received its popular acceptation from Israel alone, because,...
  15. Prosbul (JE | WP GWP G) An abbreviated form of the Greek phrase πρὸς βουλῇ βου&#955...
  16. Proselyte (JE | WP GWP G) Term employed generally, though not exclusively, in the Septuagint as a rendering for the Hebrew word "ger," designating a...
  17. Moser Proser (JE | WP GWP G) Russian Hebraist; born at Keidani, government of Kovno, Jan. 1, 1840. Proser pursued the conventional course of Hebrew education...
  18. Proskurov (JE | WP GWP G) Russian town, in the government of Podolia. The Jewish community there has one large and eight smaller synagogues, and a Talmud...
  19. Prossnitz (JE | WP GWP G) Austrian manufacturing town, in the province of Moravia. Probably its earliest Jewish settlement dated from the latter half...
  20. Löbele (Prostiz) Prossnitz JE (JE | WP GWP G) Cabalistic impostor; born about the end of the seventeenth century at Brody, Galicia; died about 1750. He left his native...

561 – 580[edit]

  1. Abraham ben David Provençal (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A421: Abraham ben David Provençal
  2. Moses ben Abraham Provençal (JE | WP GWP G) -- See M839: Moses ben Abraham Provençal
  3. Provence (JE | WP GWP G) Province of ancient France lying between the Rhone, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Maritime Alps, although medieval Jewish...
  4. Proverbs (JE | WP GWP G) Wise, witty, and pithy maxims or aphorisms. Jewish proverbs are derived from the following sources: (1) Biblical collections...
  5. Book of Proverbs (JE | WP GWP G) One of the Ketubim, or Hagiographa, belonging to the group of "Ḥokmah," or "Wisdom" books. The Masoretic superscription...
  6. Midrash to Proverbs JE (JE | WP GWP G) Haggadic midrash to Proverbs, first mentioned, under the title "Midrash Mishle," by R. Hananeel b. Ḥushiel (first half...
  7. Providence (JE | WP GWP G) the term occurs only in the Apocryphal books (Wisdom xiv. 3, xvii. 2), and has no equivalent in Biblical Hebrew, the later...
  8. Providence (JE | WP GWP G) -- See R262: Rhode Island
  9. Provins (JE | WP GWP G) French town, in the department of Seine-et-Marne. Jews were settled there as early as the twelfth century. Thibaut, Count...
  10. Prussia (JE | WP GWP G) Kingdom and the largest unit of the German empire. The kingdom of Prussia grew out of the margravate of Brandenburg, which...
  11. Pruzhany (JE | WP GWP G) Russian town in the government of Grodno. It had a Jewish community at the end of the sixteenth century, when Joel Sirkes...
  12. Przemysl (JE | WP GWP G) City of Galicia; once the capital of Red Russia. While Przemysl is referred toby the Russian chronicler Nestor in the year...
  13. Psalmomancy (JE | WP GWP G) the employment of the Psalms in incantations. The general use of the Bible for magic purposes has been discussed under Bibliomancy...
  14. Psalms (JE | WP GWP G) Name derived from the Greek ψαλμός (plural ψαλμοί), which signifies...
  15. Midrash to Psalms (Midrash Tehillim) (JE | WP GWP G) Haggadic midrash, known since the eleventh century, when it was quoted by Nathan of Rome in his "'Aruk" (s.v. ), by R...
  16. The Psalms of Solomon (JE | WP GWP G) Pseudepigraphic work not contained in the Septuagint (and therefore not included in the Apocrypha). At present it exists only...
  17. Psaltery (JE | WP GWP G) -- See H298: Harp and Lyre
  18. Jacob ben Zelig Psantir (JE | WP GWP G) Rumanian historical writer; born at Botoshani June 6, 1820; died in Bucharest March 22, 1901. From his childhood he devoted...
  19. Pseudepigrapha (JE | WP GWP G) Literally "books having false titles," fraudulently or erroneously ascribed to the authors whose names they bear. "Thus Dionysius...
  20. Pseudo-Artapanus (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A1826: Artapanus

581 – 600[edit]

  1. Pseudo-messiahs (JE | WP GWP G) Persons who claim to be the deliverers of Israel divinely appointed to bring about the establishment of the promised Messianic...
  2. Pseudo-Phocylides (JE | WP GWP G) A Judæo-Hellenistic poet and the author of a didactic poem in epic style of 250 verses. He assumed the name of the ancient...
  3. Pseudonymous Literature and Writers (JE | WP GWP G) the habit of adopting literary disguises is a very old one in Hebrew literature. According to the views of higher criticism...
  4. Ptolemy JE (JE | WP GWP G) Prince (tetrarch) of Iturea and Chalcis from about 85 to 40 B.C., in which year he died; son of Mennæus. He tried to...
  5. Ptolemy I (JE | WP GWP G) At first satrap (322-307 B.C.), then king (305-285), of Egypt. He founded the dynasty of the Ptolemies, which, from his father&#39...
  6. Ptolemy II (JE | WP GWP G) King of Egypt from 285 to 247 B.C. He continued the struggle for Cœle-Syria and Palestine and established himself permanently...
  7. Ptolemy III (JE | WP GWP G) King of Egypt from 247 to 222 B.C.; referred to in Dan. xi. 7-9. According to that passage, the Egyptian king made great conquests...
  8. Ptolemy IV (JE | WP GWP G) King of Egypt from 222 to 205 B.C.; hero of the events described in Dan. xi. 11-12. The passage in question refers to battles...
  9. Ptolemy V (JE | WP GWP G) King of Egypt from 205 to 182 B.C. He was a child of five when he came to the throne. The protracted struggle for the possession...
  10. Ptolemy VII (JE | WP GWP G) King of Egypt from 182 to 146 B.C.; eldest son of Ptolemy V. With him the power over Egypt passes into unworthy hands. Philometor...
  11. Ptolemy IX (JE | WP GWP G) King of Egypt from 146 to 117 B.C. After the death of Ptolemy Philometor, his brother, Euergetes II., tried to overthrow his...
  12. Ptolemy Macron (JE | WP GWP G) General of King Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria; sent by the prefect Lysins with two other generals, Nicanor and Gorgias, to...
  13. Puah (JE | WP GWP G) One of the two midwives who were ordered by Pharaoh to kill all the Hebrew male children (Ex. i. 15). Philo ("Quis Rerum Divinarum...
  14. Age of Puberty (JE | WP GWP G) -- See M91: Majority
  15. Publican (JE | WP GWP G) Local tax-farmer; the office existed among the Jews under the Roman dominion. The Romans were accustomed to farm out, generally...
  16. Solomon Pucher (JE | WP GWP G) Rabbi; born 1829 at Neustadt-Sherwint, Poland; died Nov. 23, 1899, at Riga. Educated at the yeshibah of Georgenburg and at...
  17. Judah Löb b. Joseph Parzower Puchowitzer (JE | WP GWP G) Russian rabbi, cabalist, and author; lived in the last quarter of the seventeenth century. He was rabbi at Pinsk, and in his...
  18. Walter, Count Pückler-Muskau (JE | WP GWP G) German anti-Semitic agitator; born Oct. 9, 1860, at Rogan, near Breslau. He graduated from the University of Breslau with...
  19. Pugilism (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A2086: Athletes
  20. Pul (JE | WP GWP G) A usurper who ascended the throne of Babylonia in 745 B.C. and reigned until 737; identical with Tiglath-pileser III. He appears...

601 to 700[edit]

601 – 620[edit]

  1. Isaac ben Joseph ibn Pulgar JE (JE | WP GWP G) -- See I37: Ibn Pulgar, Isaac ben Joseph
  2. Joseph Pulitzer (JE | WP GWP G) American editor and journalist; born April 10, 1847, at Budapest. Hungary; educated privately. In 1863 he left his native...
  3. Pulpit (JE | WP GWP G) in the earliest time a post ("'ammud" was used instead of a pulpit; from it the king spoke to the people, and from it...
  4. Pumbedita (JE | WP GWP G) -- See A710: Academies in Babylonia
  5. Aaron Elijah b. Aryeh Löb Pumpianski (JE | WP GWP G) Russian government rabbi and author; born at Wilna in 1835; died at Riga April 26, 1893. He graduated from the rabbinical...
  6. Punctuation (JE | WP GWP G) When the Biblical text received its final form in the schools of Palestine during the first and second centuries, and the...
  7. Punishment (JE | WP GWP G) It has been shown in the articles Capital Punishment, Crime, Homicide, and Stripes that a court may inflict for the violation...
  8. Pupils and Teachers (JE | WP GWP G) -- See P140: Pedagogics
  9. Purchase and Sale (JE | WP GWP G) -- See S71: Sale
  10. Purchase Under Mistake (JE | WP GWP G) -- See F356: Fraud and Mistake
  11. Purgatory (JE | WP GWP G) An intermediate state through which souls are to pass in order to be purified from sin before they are admitted into the heavenly...
  12. Purification (JE | WP GWP G) -- See T18: Ṭaharah
  13. Purim (JE | WP GWP G) Jewish feast celebrated annually on the l4th, and in Shushan, Persia, also on the 15th, of Adar, in commemoration of the deliverance...
  14. Purim plays (JE | WP GWP G) Jewish folk-comedies, written for performance in Jewish family circles or before a Jewish public during the month of Adar...
  15. Special Purims (JE | WP GWP G) Certain fast- and feast-days specially observed in some Jewish communities, in imitation of the national Purim, to commemorate...
  16. Purity of Race (JE | WP GWP G) the question whether the Jews of to-day are in the main descended from the Jews of Bible times, and from them alone, is still...
  17. Purple (JE | WP GWP G) Mention is made in the Old Testament of two kinds of purple, or purple dye: (1) "argaman" (Aramaic, "argevan"; Greek, &#960...
  18. Pygarg (JE | WP GWP G) Clean animal mentioned in Deut. xiv. 5, following the Septuagint. The identity of the animal has not been established.Bibliography:...
  19. Lionel Edward Pyke JE (JE | WP GWP G) English barrister; born at Chatham April 21, 1854; died in Brighton March 26, 1899. He was the second son of Joseph Pyke,...
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