Wikipedia:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia

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This is a list of known historical hoaxes created on Wikipedia. It is not for known hoaxes which are notable in their own right, such as the Piltdown Man. Its purpose is to document hoaxes on Wikipedia, in order to improve our understanding of them and our ability to detect them. For the purpose of this list, a hoax is defined as a clear and deliberate attempt to deceptively present false information as fact. Libel, vandalism, and honest factual errors are not considered hoaxes. A hoax is considered notable enough for inclusion in this list if it evaded detection for more than one month or was discussed by reliable sources in the media. This list is incomplete, as many hoaxes remain undiscovered.

Hoaxes can be added to this page if they meet the requirements above. Do not list Wikipedia April Fools' Day pranks or factual articles about encyclopedically notable hoaxes. Start/Deletion date and Length are the dates and approximate time the article was generally visible.

For many of the below hoaxes, you can see an archived version of the deleted article by clicking on its title (see also list of archived hoaxes). Some also remain available from mirror sites. Any administrator can create an archived version of a hoax upon request by following the instructions below.

Suggestions to administrators on archiving hoaxes
  1. Restore the original page and its talk page. Immediately remove any deletion templates from the top.
  2. Move the pages without redirect to Wikipedia:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia/HOAX TITLE and Wikipedia talk:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia/HOAX TITLE.
  3. Add the template {{hoax demo}} to the top of both pages. This will create a prominent notification that the article is a hoax, and noindex it.
  4. Place <nowiki></nowiki> around any explicit categories and/or interwiki links listed on either page, as well as around any metadata templates, such as {{DISPLAYTITLE}}. Comment out any fair use images.
  5. The article may still be in some categories due to the use of templates. Pass the category=no or nocat=true parameter to the template to remove it. If this does not work, consult the template documentation for the appropriate parameter; if it does not have one, either modify the template to accept this parameter, or simply place <nowiki></nowiki> around the template. The article should now be only in the categories "Noindexed pages" and MediaWiki-generated categories like "Pages with missing files".
  6. (optional) If any of the images originally in the article have been deleted, insert a description of the original image in italics.
  7. Fully protect both pages indefinitely. This ensures that the integrity of the archived hoaxes is preserved, and that they place no burden on project maintainers.

Academic research has investigated the impact and characteristics of Wikipedia hoaxes, and has proposed automated methods for detecting them. Researchers found that the automatic classification system was better at identifying hoaxes on Wikipedia than humans (86% vs. 63% accuracy) and used their algorithm to identify previously undiscovered hoaxes like "Steve Moertel" which went undetected for almost 7 years.[1]

One way to identify hoax articles included examining the article structure and content, its mentions in other articles on Wikipedia (i.e., embeddedness), and features of the editor who created the page. Specifically, hoax articles are likely to be longer than a legitimate article, less likely to have links to other Wikipedia articles, references, images, or other "wiki-like" markup, less likely to be mentioned in other Wikipedia articles before its creation, and more likely to be created by a new account with few to no other edits.[1]

While most hoaxes on Wikipedia are short-lived (89% of discovered hoaxes are flagged within one hour of creation and only 1% of hoaxes persist for more than a year), those that make it past this initial screening have an increased probability of continuing to "survive" and remain a part of Wikipedia for much longer (if a hoax survives past its first day, it has an 18% probability of lasting for a year or more). Compared to unsuccessful hoaxes, successful hoaxes that survive for long periods of time are more likely to include some "wiki-like" mark-up and more likely to include links to other articles on Wikipedia.[1]

Compared to legitimate articles, successful hoaxes generally receive less daily traffic, have a longer median article length (134 versus 71 words), and include fewer links to other Wikipedia articles when considering their article length.[1]

Hoax articles[edit]

Extant for 10+ years[edit]

Hoax Length Creation date Deletion date Size in bytes
(last edit)
Method of focal objects
Fictitious problem solving strategy
17.42 years April 21, 2005 September 23, 2022 Expired PROD
Archived version of the hoax
The Heat Is On (TV series)
Fictitious BBC TV series
17.04 years July 10, 2005 July 24, 2022 1,342 Deletion discussion
Archived version of the hoax
Ruda Real
Probably fictitious hip-hop soul singer. His supposed death in a car crash in 2006 was added a few months after the hoax article was created. An anonymous user later called into question if subject was truly a hoax or a non-notable real life subject, bringing it to a Miscellany for Deletion discussion, however the discussion failed to attain a consensus in favor of deletion.
16.52 years June 3, 2005 December 9, 2021 3,178 Deletion discussion
the original version of the article
Deletion discussion of the archived article
Dream Craft
Fictitious tabletop role-playing game
16.27 years June 4, 2006 September 12, 2022 7,367 Expired PROD
Eduardo Corrochio
Fictitious 1890s New York tap dancer; tap dance as a style did not originate until 1928.
16.13 years July 10, 2005 August 27, 2021 2,839 Deletion discussion
Indigo Muldoon
Main character in a fictitious series of novels.
16.1 years February 23, 2006 March 31, 2022 20,538 Deletion discussion
Jack "Russer" Russell
Fictitious 18th century traveler, a "Western Icon" in Japan where his journals are 'pop culture'.
16.02 years September 11, 2005 September 19, 2021 1,020 Deletion discussion
Gilled Antelope
Fictitious cryptid.
15.84 years July 22, 2006 May 23, 2022 1,640 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Gilled Antelope
Archived version of the hoax
William Henry Farrow
Fictitious 19th-century English physician.
14.95 years December 29, 2006 December 9, 2021 1,640 Deletion discussion and hoax admission by creator
Saka Kana Aa Saka
Fictitious or extremely obscure Zimbabwean version of Deal or No Deal.
14.9 years April 12, 2007 March 7, 2022 1,285 Deletion discussion
Abu-Ali Urbuti
Fictitious sheikh, the name is a pun (Sheikh Urbuti = "shake your booty"; cf. Frank Zappa's album title "Sheik Yerbouti").
14.85 years April 7, 2006 February 10, 2021 2,649 Archived version of the hoax
Rough Crossing (TV series)
Fictitious soap opera.
14.8 years August 10, 2007 May 28, 2022 2,155 While the show does have an IMDb page, it seems to be equally fabricated. According to this forum post, the show claims to have the same characters as Days of Our Lives, albeit played by different actors.
Fictitious extinct carnivore genus.
14.76 years November 9, 2005 August 12, 2020 1,285 Deletion discussion and discussion on WikiProject Palaeontology
Fictitious anti-religion scholar in medieval Persia.
14.57 years August 8, 2006 March 3, 2021 Deletion discussion
The Gates of Saturn
Fictitious ITV slapstick television program starring Jim Dale.
14.49 years February 8, 2006 August 7, 2020 1,373 Speedy deleted as "G3: Blatant hoax"
Defauly Creek
Fictitious creek in British Columbia, Canada.
14.04 years December 12, 2006 December 25, 2020 Archived version of the hoax
Nuremberg Plate
Fictitious torture instrument used during interrogations. Was previously deleted on the German Wikipedia in 2007 for being a hoax.
13.89 years July 23, 2007 June 13, 2021 Deletion discussion
Stone Ridge, Maryland
Fictitious municipality in Maryland.
13.88 years June 22, 2007 May 7, 2021 Deletion discussion
Archived version of the hoax
Fictitious system of aesthetics.
13.7 years October 9, 2008 June 21, 2022 2,931 Deleted via WP:PROD.
Archived version of the hoax
Fictitious biology concept, "the totality of polymer sequences on Earth".
13.66 years December 19, 2007 August 17, 2021 281 Deletion discussion

Archived version of the hoax

Joseph G. Williams
Fictitious country singer-songwriter.
13.59 years August 4, 2007 March 6, 2021 Speedy deleted as "G3: Blatant hoax"
Archived version of the hoax
Fictitious Scottish surname.
13.45 years February 21, 2008 August 2, 2021 Deletion discussion
Archived version of the hoax
Tim Verfaillie
Fictitious biography about a Belgian painter, first created on the Dutch-language Wikipedia in 2005 and on English-language Wikipedia in 2006.
13.34 years June 2, 2006 October 6, 2019 1,010 Speedy deleted as "G3: Blatant hoax"
Whimbling iron
Fictitious tool.
13.34 years March 25, 2008 July 29, 2021 Deletion discussion
Archived version of the hoax
Eric van Viele
Fictitious biography about an actor of the 1922 horror film Nosferatu who supposedly sent death threats to the director. Although the subject might have been a real person, this and other extraordinary claims about him, such as that he was executed, had no sources.
13.24 years April 4, 2006 June 30, 2019 Deletion discussion
Archived version of the hoax
Fictitious Portuguese Indian chapel.
13.2 years October 28, 2007 January 10, 2021 Archived version of the hoax
Fictitious monster from the Lake District.
13.09 years July 12, 2006 August 13, 2019 Deletion discussion


Madrigal Shipping Lines
Fictitious Australian shipping company.
12.82 years March 20, 2008 January 12, 2021 4,680 Deletion discussion
Fictitious American new wave band..
12.78 years June 24, 2008 April 3, 2021 Archived version of the hoax
Deletion discussion
Fictitious Sanskrit word supposedly meaning "information."
12.76 years April 3, 2006 January 5, 2019 542 Deletion reason and identification as a hoax
Nelson Larios
Supposedly successful but fictitious Honduran football player.
12.75 years December 28, 2008 September 27, 2021 2,977 Deletion discussion
Fictitious ball game, supposedly from France.
12.69 years August 17, 2006 April 27, 2019 425 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Bont
Messenger Premier League
Fictitious professional table tennis competition in Australia.
12.68 years September 24, 2008 May 30, 2021 7,540 Deletion discussion

Archived version of the hoax

Fictitious acronym for "Just a Bunch Of Bytes", said to be a term used to describe unstructured data that does not have a fixed format.
12.71 years October 21, 2008 July 8, 2021 Speedy deleted as "G3: Blatant hoax", see deletion discussion
Archived version of the hoax
Synchronized Football
Fictitious variant of association football. The article spuriously claimed it was a popular sport among youth in Norway and also contained a hoax diagram of one of its possible playing fields.
12.46 years January 7, 2007 June 24, 2019 6,506 Deletion log
Archived version of the hoax
Kunlun Mountain Fist
Fictitious form of martial arts.
12.41 years November 5, 2009 April 23, 2022 Deleted via WP:PROD.
Groove Radio
Fictitious British radio station, admitted to have been created by the editor for GCSE coursework in a 2008 forum post. The article existed as "Grooveradio" until a page move was made in 2019.
12.34 years April 13, 2008 August 14, 2020 1,037 Internet Archive
Bine (mythology)
Fictitious ancient Akkadian demon claimed to equip demons with wings in preparation for the Second Coming; also claimed to have actually been a mortal carpenter who died and rose again. Despite having no sources, the hoax was included in Theresa Bane's Encyclopedia of Demons in World Religions and Cultures, published by McFarland & Company in 2012.
12.34 years April 22, 2005 August 23, 2017 1,112 User talk:Doug Weller/Archive 46#Bine (mythology) hoax article
Chu Chi Zui
Fictitious Chinese bishop.
12.3 years April 1, 2006 July 21, 2018 940 Deletion discussion
The Deadweights
Fictitious American punk rock band; was part of a semi-walled garden of hoax articles about the band's alleged discography.
12.28 years September 16, 2007 December 28, 2019 14,957 Deletion discussion
Teahouse report
Spanish tickler
Claimed medieval torture device also allegedly known as a "cat's paw."
12.21 years December 15, 2005 March 2, 2018 1,398 Rationale for deletion
Lollie Alexi Devereaux
Fictitious French actor and opera singer.
12.16 years September 26, 2008 November 22, 2020 Archived version of the hoax
Milk Studios
Fictitious speciality products retailer in Sweden.
11.73 years December 7, 2004 August 31, 2016 1,123 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Milk Studios A number of other organizations appear to exist which share this name but are actual studios or music studios.
Global Open University
Indian degree mill posing on Wikipedia as a real university.
11.7 years November 3, 2008 July 16, 2020 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Global Open University
Archived version of the hoax
Mauser C6
Fictitious firearm produced by Mauser.
11.56 years November 1, 2009 May 24, 2021 Deletion discussion
Teddy Dressing
Fictitious children's book about dressing.
11.66 years December 29, 2008‎ August 27, 2020 1,070 Deletion discussion
George K. Broomhall
Fictitious brevet general during the American Civil War who was also credited with the invention of cream soda.
11.46 years July 21, 2006 January 5, 2018 2,622 Identification of hoax
Mount Kiligantian
Fictitious mountain in the Philippines.
11.25 years June 1, 2011 August 30, 2022 5,175 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Mount Kiligantian
Archived version of the hoax
Lipid therapy
Fictitious medical treatment.
11.14 years September 23, 2008 November 13, 2019 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Lipid therapy
Archived version of the hoax
List of Jimmy Lightning episodes
List of episodes for a nonexistent animated show on Nickelodeon.
11.03 years April 11, 2011 April 22, 2022 12,751 Jimmy Lightning is a character in the video game series Peggle. A page for the supposed series itself was never made.
Sheer Perfection
Purported HBO miniseries, either fictitious or abandoned extremely early in development.
10.88 years August 31, 2005 July 19, 2016 419 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Sheer Perfection
Christopher Hamilton
Fictitious Anglo-Irish politician and commander.
10.78 years February 10, 2010 November 20, 2020 Deletion discussion
Archived version of the hoax
48 Belgrave Square
Real London house falsely alleged to have been owned by fictitious Anglo-Irish politician and commander Christopher Hamilton (see above).
10.77 years February 10, 2010 November 19, 2020 Deletion discussion
Archived version of the hoax
Courts (village)
Fictitious village in Graubünden, Switzerland.
10.83 years March 11, 2009 January 9, 2020 450 Speedy deleted as "G3: Blatant hoax: per PROD, obvious hoax by indef-blocked sockmaster"
Fuzz (musician)
Fictitious British musician and film star.
10.66 years February 9, 2011 October 6, 2021 Speedy deleted as "G3: Blatant hoax"
Archived version of the hoax
Catalan word for 'a small taste of food', apparently created as a marketing ploy for a restaurant in Palamos.
10.41 years September 17, 2011 February 12, 2022 Expired PROD
Archived version of the hoax
Théophile Figeys
Alleged major-general in the Belgian army.
10.3 years February 19, 2010 June 8, 2020 1,245 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Théophile Figeys, archived version of the hoax
Mount Malaueg
Fictitious mountain in the Philippines.
10.18 years June 29, 2012 September 4, 2022 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Mount Malaueg
Archived version of the hoax
Jack Robichaux
Fictitious 19th-century serial rapist in New Orleans.

Note: John Robichaux was a different, real, nineteenth-century New Orleans personality.

10.09 years July 31, 2005 September 3, 2015 1,164 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Jack Robichaux Archived version of hoax: [2]

article on i100

Extant for 8–9 years[edit]

Hoax Length Creation date Deletion date Size in bytes
(last edit)
Maddi Fairthorne
Fictitious president of the World Bank from 1985 to 1988. In reality, Alden W. Clausen and Barber Conable held the office during that time.
9.98 years September 1, 2006 August 25, 2016 Maddi Fairthorne deletion log Archived version of hoax: [3]
Guillermo Garcia (businessman)
Imaginary "highly influential" oil and forestry magnate in 18th-century South America
9.84 years November 17, 2005 September 19, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Guillermo Garcia (businessman)
Fictitious Aristotlean concept, supposedly meaning "never existed"
9.83 years September 16, 2012 July 15, 2022 Deletion log
Jar'Edo Wens
Fictional Australian Aboriginal deity, presumably named after "Jared Owens".
9.76 years May 29, 2005 March 3, 2015 539 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Jar'Edo Wens. Archives: English article, English article's revision history. Note also: French translation, Revision history of French article, Wikidata entry, Revision history of Wikidata entry

Encyclopedia article about the hoax

Pikes on Cliffs
Fictional Spanish coastal house, claimed as the 16th-century home of a nonexistent Irish sailor who survived a death sentence from Sir Francis Drake.
9.72 years March 17, 2005 December 5, 2014 936 Pikes on Cliffs deletion log Archived hoax: [4]
Salvadorian Magpie
Fictional bird allegedly found in Jamaica
9.72 years March 7, 2011 November 24, 2020 1,020 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Salvadorian Magpie
World Laparoscopy Hospital
Fictitious Indian hospital, actually an apparent scam
9.59 years November 27, 2010 June 28, 2020 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/World Laparoscopy Hospital
Archived version of the hoax
Gregory Namoff
An "internationally known" but nonexistent investment banker, minor Watergate figure, and U.S. Senate candidate.
9.57 years June 17, 2005 January 13, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Gregory Namoff Archive
Fictional Incan creation myth
9.54 years October 25, 2010 May 11, 2020 AFD nomination, archived article
Alan MacMasters
Supposed 19th century Scottish inventor of the electric toaster, the name was originally added to the toaster article in February 2012, before being picked up by newspapers later that year, prior to the creation of the article.
9.42 years February 17, 2013 July 22, 2022 AFD nomination, archived article
Double Hour
Supposed German and American television show, covering historic events over a two-hour span.
9.53 years September 23, 2005 April 4, 2015 Double Hour (TV series) deletion log Archived version of hoax: [5]
Sean Mann
"Allan K. Wood Distinguished Professor of Bioethics and Korean language" at the University of California, Berkeley, with a remarkable but totally fake career as a bioethicist, theologian, and anarchist.
9.5 years October 6, 2005 April 5, 2015 6,819 Sean Mann deletion log
Snappy & friends
Supposed animated show
9.46 years March 6, 2005 August 22, 2014 958
Conchobar Mac Con Raoí
Fictitious inhabitant of Galway, Ireland who lived (or claimed to live) 280 years from 1300 to 1580. References mentioned an Irish historian as source, but this author's work does not mention the subject.
9.39 years December 14, 2009 May 5, 2019 1,427 deletion discussion
Blood Eagle (band)
Supposed British band
9.31 years December 30, 2005 April 21, 2015 deletion log, addition at Blood eagle
Nicholas Burkhart
Fictitious 17th-century legislator in the House of Keys on the Isle of Man.
9.19 years July 19, 2006 September 26, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Nicholas Burkhart
Henry Vaughan
Fictitious 18th-century landowner, supposedly killed by a mob and buried at the Radnorshire Arms in Presteigne.
9.12 years October 28, 2005 December 11, 2014 Henry Vaughan deletion log
Related hoax material removed in stages from Radnorshire Arms during November & December 2014.
Original creation with multiple hoaxes at Radnorshire Arms Main hoax removal Removal of additional hoax information about hotel
Rich Bradford
Supposed New Mexico Lobos football player, falsely listed as an Outland Trophy nominee and credited with a key play in the California Raisin Bowl.
8.96 years May 1, 2007 April 16, 2016 1,277 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Rich Bradford. The author Mosaicbull (talk · contribs) and his sock LoboSportsBureau (talk · contribs) created Fumble Rumble and Las Vegas All-Star Classic to support the story and created links in a number of existing articles. Las Vegas All-Star Classic lasted two months and was deleted as a content fork rather than as an hoax. Although it linked to Fumble Rumble no suspicions were aroused. Fumble Rumble was re-created twice and survived for more than a year and was deleted for lack of notability with just a suspicion that it might be an hoax. And although it linked to Rich Bradford suspicions were again not aroused.
Hey Everybody
Fictional album
8.95 years January 5, 2008 December 16, 2016 2,060 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Hey Everybody
Emilia Dering
Long-lived article about a non-existent 19th-century German poet started with the basic "Emilia Dering is a famous poet who was born in Berlin, Germany on April 16, 1885" and immediately given an image of Mark E. Smith by a single purpose account
8.83 years December 6, 2006 October 6, 2015 643 Emilia Dering deletion log; deleted via A7. On the same day of the article's creation, a person claiming to be the granddaughter of Emilia Dering made a blog post with an attributed poem supposedly by her.
Haji Saeed Samadodot Bambaras
Fictitious Djiboutian Issa clan leader, and the claimed "right hand side of Haile Sailasse and Djiboutian rebel against the Italians"
8.82 years December 24, 2012 October 20, 2021 Deletion discussion and archive of the article
To the Hills with Thee, Angharrad
Nonexistent one-man play set in Wales, the United States, and Vietnam, falsely ascribed to Boyd Clack; cited a fake review by Kenneth Tynan.
8.69 years December 2, 2006 August 10, 2015 Deletion log
Doni Kochev
Imaginary 19th-century Bulgarian revolutionary against the Ottoman Empire.
8.61 years January 19, 2007 August 31, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Doni Kochev
Bodhi stones
Supposed mythical stones carved from Mount Meru and distributed among eight elders in eight villages because of their sacred powers; falsely sourced to the Mahabharata before G3 deletion.
8.58 years August 15, 2006 March 16, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Bodhi stones Archived version of hoax: [6]
Ali Murad Khan Kalhoro
Fictitious leader of the Kalhora tribe from 1880 to 1925. Earlier versions of the article propose that he instead ruled from 1810 to 1875.
8.59 years July 8, 2013 February 10, 2022 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Ali Murad Khan Kalhoro
Jeffrey Boehm
Fictitious British naval officer with supposed feats in battle at Grenada, the Saintes, and Trafalgar.
8.55 years January 23, 2007 August 11, 2015 3,344 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Jeffrey Boehm
Catherine Higgins
Nonexistent TV actress, supposedly noted for roles on the imaginary ABC shows Death Reward and Ocatavius Merredrew; G3 deletion.
8.49 years January 19, 2007 July 18, 2015 Catherine Higgins deletion log Archived version of hoax: [7]
Library of Amartya
Fictional library.
8.47 years January 13, 2007 July 4, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Library of Amartya.
Near Dark (unfinished film)
Nonexistent remake, based on claims of a remake that was cancelled in the pre-production stage.
8.6 years August 9, 2007 March 15, 2016 676 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Near Dark (unfinished film).
Medio Oriente
Fictitious borough of San Juan, Puerto Rico
8.41 years September 21, 2010 February 16, 2019 Deletion discussion
Hugh Bruce Cunningham
Supposed Scottish minister noted for a fictitious coat of arms and the rejection of a knighthood from King George III.
8.36 years March 28, 2007 August 6, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Hugh Bruce Cunningham Archived at
Collins Slip
Nonexistent instruction sheet included with prescription drugs, based on a spurious 1983 accident in Akron, Ohio.
8.29 years November 22, 2006 March 8, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Collins Slip
Eric Heineman
Supposed Czech-American mathematician and electrical engineer with reputed academic career at Charles University and Yale in 19th & early 20th century.
8.28 years August 18, 2006 November 29, 2014 Eric Heineman deletion log Archived version of hoax: [8]
Don Meme
A fictitious "mythical, wise guru" in Puebla, Mexico, supposedly the subject of a nonexistent short story collection; also claimed to be a mentor for real-life bands and "an entity that appears as soon as a bohemian party is summoned." Later deleted via G3.
8.27 years December 14, 2006 March 21, 2015 Don Meme deletion log
Bessa Vugo
Nonexistent molecular biologist and collaborator with Jacques Monrod who "famously" had children eat brussel sprouts, and disproved Fouriers Law for Heat Transfer.
8.25 years October 11, 2006 January 9, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Bessa_Vugo Archived version of hoax: [9]
Victor Escobar
Nonexistent Colombian student at School of the Americas, whose unexplained disappearance supposedly prompted a bill in the United States House of Representatives.
8.25 years October 11, 2006 January 9, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Victor Escobar Archived version of hoax: [10]
Fabricated Chinese leisurewear company "best known for their plastic open toe slippers or flip-flops" and apparently worn by Jodie Marsh, Ken Dodd, and C+C Music Factory (whose song "Things That Make You Go Hmmm" also allegedly inspired by the company)
8.17 years August 20, 2007 October 22, 2015 1,138
Horng fong
"Legendary" Vietnamese reptile not mentioned in any sources (including the real sources mentioned in the article).
8.16 years November 2, 2008 December 29, 2016 2,099 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Horng fong
Jairo Valos Rodriguez
Invented American yo-yo champion born on August 26, 1989.
8.14 years April 24, 2009 June 15, 2017 2,416
Ted and the Treble Tones
Fake rock band from Fresno, credited with an imaginary 1959 hit that appears nowhere on the Billboard charts.
8.13 years November 13, 2006 January 1, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Ted and The Treble Tones
Daniel de Búrca
Nonexistent 18th-century Irish philosopher, credited with fake controversial essays that supposedly influenced David Hume.
8.12 years October 16, 2006 November 30, 2014 Daniel de Búrca deletion log
Speedily deleted (A11) in 2006; article subsequently restarted and survived more than eight years before G3 deletion.
Gaius Flavius Antoninus
Supposed assassin of Julius Caesar, claimed to have later been assassinated himself by a male prostitute hired by Mark Antony
8.09 years June 9, 2004 July 13, 2012 835 Discussion at WikiProject Classical Greece and Rome
Alyse Squillace
Fictitious American children's book author
8.03 years February 6, 2007 February 17, 2015 1,039 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Alyse Squillace
Glamoč Airport
Fictitious airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina
8.01 years February 10, 2013 February 15, 2021 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Glamoč Airport
Archived version of the hoax

Extant for 4–7 years[edit]

Hoax Length Creation date Deletion date Size in bytes
(last edit)
The Falsetto Basses
Fictitious pop band of the late 1980s, supposedly based in Asheville, North Carolina and credited with two nonexistent hit songs.
7.99 years April 8, 2007 April 3, 2015 The Falsetto Basses deletion log
Jan Latalski (Indian historical figure)
Fictitious 12th-century Indian person who built Hindu temples; not to be confused with the 15th-century Polish bishop Jan Latalski.
7.98 years December 5, 2013 November 28, 2021 G3
Supposed urban legend about a ghost said to haunt the Sonian Forest in Belgium.
7.92 years December 30, 2009 December 2, 2017 Deletion discussion
Archived version of the hoax
Scarlett Montanaro
Fictitious British singer/actress
7 years,
11 months
June 27, 2012 May 29, 2020 Scarlett Montanaro deletion log
Archived version of the hoax
St Angeline
Fake wind-powered "submersible research centre" in the Atlantic Ocean west of England, supposedly designed for the study of life support and land reclamation systems.
7 years,
10½ months
October 4, 2007 August 31, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/St Angeline
Morgan Dee Voon
Alleged amateur female scientist and possible mistress of the founder of modern genetics Gregor Mendel
7 years,
10½ months
April 7, 2007 February 23, 2015 3,091 Morgan Dee Voon deletion log
Justification at the creator's talk page
Guy de la Bretaigne
Imaginary "critic, dandy, and man of letters" in 19th-century France, supposedly noted for his "studied indifference" and correspondence with Charles Baudelaire.
7 years,
9½ months
June 20, 2007 April 18, 2015 3,091 Guy de la Bretaigne deletion log
Wolsebuse Games
Fictitious 1990s video game company
7 years,
9½ months
February 10, 2007 December 5, 2014 4,138 Wolsebuse Games deletion log
The Brothers Wing
Invented Florida-based reggae band with a fictitious album
7 years,
9 months
March 10, 2007 December 19, 2014 2,130 The Brothers Wing deletion log
PH Games
Nonexistent tabletop game manufacturer in India, credited with numerous imaginary titles across multiple platforms. Deleted via prod for being an advertisement, then deleted due to Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/PH Games.
7 years,
8½ months
November 6, 2007 July 25, 2015 1,188 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/PH Games
The Vans Brothers
Fictitious mid-2000s New Zealand blues band, with a nonexistent album and record label.
7 years,
7 months
January 21, 2008 August 31, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/The Vans Brothers
Imaginary frame drum from Kyrgyzstan
7 years,
7 months
December 10, 2007 July 18, 2015 2,130 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Reede-drum
TNT television
Nonexistent 2001-2002 Australian children's show on Network Ten
7 years,
6½ months
January 16, 2008 August 2, 2015 Last version prior to being tagged as hoax; Article history; redirected to TNT (TV channel) after being nominated for G3 deletion.
James Snipplet
Nonexistent 19th-century member of Parliament, poet, and songwriter, supposedly noted for his advocacy of Irish tenant farmers' rights; hoax Twitter account created for support.
7 years,
6 months
February 25, 2008 September 8, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/James Snipplet
Evarts Friedman
Imaginary 1910s and 1920s vaudeville promoter, whose supposed career ended in debt, disaster, and conflict with "bailiffs, Mafioso and the Chicago State police."
7 years,
5½ months
June 11, 2007 December 1, 2014 Evarts Friedman deletion log
Fictitious Greek cosmetics company, supposedly backed by Aristotle Onassis and purchased by L'Oreal in 1976.
7 years,
5½ months
February 17, 2008 August 7, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Mendaxi
Hector Does
Nonexistent 1987 animated Conservative Party short films on political topics (e.g., Hector Refuses to Join a Trade Union), apparently derived from Charley Says; supposedly ordered destroyed by Margaret Thatcher.
7 years,
4½ months
March 21, 2008 August 8, 2015 Hector Does deletion log
Nihil Pop Organization
Supposed counter-cultural organization with branches in the United States, France and Italy; allegedly dedicated to "nihilism through pop culture" by means of art exhibitions, fanzines, and terrorism.
7 years,
3 months
June 24, 2008 September 23, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Nihil Pop Organization
Clyde McKnight
American rapper; appears to be a real person, however article falsely claimed collaborations with Paris Hilton, Lil Wayne, Nicki Minaj, and more.
7 years,
2 months
November 25, 2012 January 30, 2020 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Clyde McKnight
Archived version of the hoax
Chen Fang
A Wikipedian noticed in November 2012 that The Harvard Guide to Using Sources said that "an Expos student who was writing a paper about the limitations of Wikipedia posted a fictional entry for himself, stating that he was the mayor of a small town in China. Four years later, if you type in his name, or if you do a subject search on Wikipedia for mayors of towns in China, you will still find this fictional entry." No longer.
6 days February 11, 2005 February 17, 2005 2005 VfD, Discussion on the Admin noticeboard
7 years,
2 months
September 25, 2005 November 19, 2012
Cadamekela and Durkeamynarda
Fictitious works attributed to Indian mathematician Brahmagupta.
7 years,
1 month
June 25, 2007 July 29, 2014 Talk page discussion
added, removed; removed from French and Hungarian Wikipedia in September 2015.
Siete Viejo (gang)
Fictitious street gang allegedly founded by Vietnam War veterans.
7 years,
1 month
August 5, 2011 September 5, 2018 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Siete Viejo (gang)
Mr Bennett Goes to Town
Nonexistent Nazi propaganda film set in Manchester, supposedly produced in 1937 but never released because of production complaints by Joseph Goebbels.
7 years,
1 month
March 15, 2008 April 14, 2015 Mr Bennett Goes to Town deletion log
Elaine de Francias
Supposed illegitimate daughter of Henry II of France; hoax was suspected for years on talk page and taken apart piecemeal before final PROD deletion.
7 years,
½ month
February 28, 2008 March 20, 2015 Elaine de Francias deletion log
J.J. Johnson
Fictional NFL player with a fabricated career with UCLA, the Kansas City Chiefs, and numerous teams in other leagues
7 years,
½ month
October 25, 2007 November 15, 2014 J.J. Johnson deletion log
Not to be confused with an actual J.J. Johnson who was active in the NFL at the same time
Manfred Jung
Fictitious French poet, noted for his equally spurious "philosophical or theological" poetry collection Instructions.
7 years September 16, 2008 September 26, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Manfred Jung
Chloroorganic carrier
Fictitious term for a group of molecules. Was previously G3 deleted in 2010.
7 years December 21, 2014 December 29, 2021 archive of the hoax
Gatsby Major
Alleged to be Director of Bureau of Fisheries in 1897.
6 years,
11 3/4 months
October 23, 2008 October 19, 2015 1,545 Gatsby Major deletion log
Tony's Home
Spectacular but false record (#2 on the Billboard charts in 2006, 376,000 sales in first week) for an obscure rap album
6 years,
11½ months
September 25, 2008 September 19, 2015 2,396 Tony's Home deletion log
Olimar The Wondercat
Fictional children's television programme. Author later admitted he made it for his cat.
6 years,
11 months
August 5, 2006 July 9, 2013 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Olimar The Wondercat

Admission by author (in German)

Steve Moertel
Fictitious inventor of a new type of popcorn.
6 years,
10½ months
March 12, 2009 February 3, 2016 Hoax discovered by researchers from the University of Maryland and Stanford University as part of an academic paper.
George Colby and Colby Pirates
A supposed British privateer and profiteer ("Colonial Colonel Cheese Colby"), and his group of pirates, of the French and Indian War (1754–1763)
6 years,
10 months
August 5, 2006 June 7, 2013 1,406
Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/George Colby, Believed by at least one book and many people online
Napalm Brain
Nonexistent English psychedelic rock band credited with two fictitious albums.
6 years,
9½ months
February 19, 2008 December 10, 2014 Napalm Brain deletion log
Daniel Pontillas
Supposedly a "gentleman thief, master of disguise, and an amateur detective" in a 1905 short-story collection; partial name-change plagiarism of Arsène Lupin.
6 years,
9 months
July 5, 2008 April 9, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Daniel Pontillas
Murder of Andre Marshall
Imaginary murder in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
6 years,
9 months
November 30, 2006 August 26, 2013 4,653 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Murder of Andre Marshall
Athanasius of Dendrinata
Fictional "negotiator and scholar" in Athens during the 2nd century BC
6 years,
8 months
August 2, 2009 April 15, 2016 709 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Athanasius of Dendrinata via SwisterTwister
Howard's Law
Fictitious formula for diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, supposedly identified in 1955 by the equally spurious doctor "Howard Luci-Liu."
6 years,
7 months
October 2007 May 29, 2014 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Howard's Law
Cited on a message board [11] in a totally unrelated discussion about Philadelphia Phillies first baseman Ryan Howard
Milton Bradley Playmate
Supposed 600-cubic-foot computer prototype designed in late 1960s to play various board games using a giant robotic claw arm.
6 years,
7 months
January 2008 August 10, 2014 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Milton Bradley Playmate
Kings of All Times
Nonexistent Yemeni novel, credited to two different dubious authors, about the political and personal challenges of an Estonian and his delusional friend in Yemen.
6 years,
6½ months
April 30, 2008 November 23, 2014 Kings of All Times deletion log
Band that supposedly perished in an airplane crash on December 12, 1956 en route to a "Lester Concert Hall", which also does not exist.
6 years,
6 months
November 20, 2005 May 14, 2012 380 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Tillery
Nonexistent sitcom on ABC (now TV5) in the Philippines, with only four episodes from 2006-2007.
6 years,
5½ months
October 13, 2008 April 9, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/O-Ha!
Bonehill international
Supposed KGB "department for exportation of revolution," blamed for a nonexistent financial scandal in Latvia.
6 years,
4½ months
July 14, 2008 December 3, 2014 Bonehill international deletion log
Speedily deleted soon after creation (A1), but article was immediately rebuilt and survived more than 6 years.
Crocodile shears
Supposed Medieval torture device
6 years,
4½ months
March 20, 2006 July 30, 2012 1,172 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Crocodile shears Named by Listverse as the most gruesome medieval torture device
Rough Creek Ranch
Supposed ranch in Oklahoma which claimed to be "the first parcel to be purchased in a long-term plan to re-establish the equivalent of conditions in Oklahoma which existed prior to the arrival of Europeans in the 16th through 18th centuries."
6 years,
3½ months
September 5, 2006 December 15, 2012 546 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Rough Creek Ranch
Assorted made-up political parties in Kosovo
Democrat Republic Party
Christian Party of Kosovo
Union of Kosovo Party
Serbian Union of Kosovo & Metohija
Peoples Party of Kosovo
6 years,
3 months
October 11, 2008 January 17, 2015 416 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Democrat Republic Party
The Travails and Tribulations of Geoffrey Peacock
Fictional novel alleged to have been written by Huxley, the book was listed on Huxley's article in 2008 and an article on the novel was written in May 2014, prompting its detection.
6 years,
3 months (inclusion on Huxley's page)
February 25, 2008 May 14, 2014 7,203 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/The Travails and Tribulations of Geoffrey Peacock
1978–79 Boston College basketball point shaving scandal
Player Joe Streater was alleged to have been involved, even though he wasn't even a member of the team that year. Only identified after spreading to numerous sources, including the Associated Press.
6 years,
2 months
August 12, 2008 October 8, 2014 Signpost article
Hasan Masurica
Claimed inventor/engineer who built an airplane out of wood in 1899.
6 years,
2 months
March 6, 2012 May 1, 2018 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Hasan Masurica
Rhys Hopkin
Supposed Newcastle Falcons rugby player and politician, with fabricated career as mayor of Durham and a brother claimed to be Labour MP for Wells; deleted via G3.
6 years,
1 month
June 27, 2009 August 6, 2015 Rhys Hopkin deletion log
Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment
Indian degree mill presented as a legitimate academic institution
6 years,
½ month
June 18, 2014 June 30, 2020 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment
Victoria Jade Meyers
Non-existent Australian actress
6 years February 13, 2013 February 18, 2019 1,891 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Victoria Jade Meyers. Article creator previously also created an article on another likely fabricated Australian actress, Cheyenne Carthy, which was quickly caught and deleted.
Kunhar River Spot-Boi
Fictitious river in Pakistan
5 years,
11½ months
November 18, 2014 October 31, 2020 Archived version of the hoax
Sura of Parthia
Fictitious Iranian warrior princess, non-existent daughter of the real Ardavān V, last king of the Parthian empire. Hoax only discovered after both fooling a senior academic and also inspiring another woman to change her name in honour of this imaginary princess.
5 years,
11 months
June 3, 2012 May 3, 2018 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Sura of Parthia Archived version of hoax: [12]
Fictitious American TV station
5 years,
11 months
October 4, 2014 September 2, 2020 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/WWVS-LP
Archived version of hoax
Saint Ofelia
Alleged Danish Catholic saint and disciple of Saint Ansgar
5 years,
10 months
June 8, 2008 April 14, 2014 521 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Saint Ofelia
Mark L. Smith (musician)
Fictitious American pianist
5 years,
10 months
March 15, 2015 January 19, 2021 Archived version of the hoax
Operation Pax Romana
Fictitious Nazi program to expand the Holocaust in Romania, directed by a fake "Colonel Johannes Jodl" before his supposed escape to Brazil; hoax was revealed in a 2010 edit but self-reverted and survived five more years.
5 years,
10 months
May 26, 2009 March 29, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Operation Pax Romana
Gold Tea
Supposed brand of tea from the Confederate States of America. Originally an unsourced stub, it was later expanded to claim that gold flakes were put into the tea for smuggling to the north.
5 years,
9 months
May 17, 2005 February 16, 2011 1,163 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Gold Tea
Unit 773
Imaginary Japanese biological weapons unit in the imaginary Chinese city of "Songo", created by a banned user
5 years,
9 months
October 7, 2006 July 3, 2012 805 Unit 731 is a similar actual article
The imaginary Unit 773 fooled at least one website [13] and one book.[14]
Nevsky (Russian mafia)
Alleged organized crime family in Russia and the United States; supposedly reduced drastically through "constant wars with rival criminal families."
5 years,
8½ months
July 6, 2009 March 31, 2015 3,024 Nevsky (Russian mafia) deletion log
Victor Cannella
Alleged Italian piano and xylophone player; claimed to have played the instrument in the short Baseball Bugs. Hoax spread to IMDb and some Warner Bros. fan communities, but extensive research through the course of the AFD declared him to be a hoax.
5 years,
8½ months
July 14, 2016 March 28, 2022 327 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Victor Cannella
Gideon Planke
Fictitious 17th-century witch-finder active in Shropshire, supposedly the subject of a 19th-century poem used to "enforce good behaviour on unruly children before bedtime."
5 years,
7 months
September 8, 2009 April 20, 2015 Gideon Planke deletion log
Believed by a book before G3 deletion.
La Croix du Sanguine Rouge
A supposed novel by a non-existent French writer that was released in French and English.
5 years,
7 months
March 6, 2010 October 3, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/La Croix du Sanguine Rouge
Japan Television Service
Nonexistent TV network broadcasting in both Japan and the United Kingdom.
5 years,
6½ months
February 7, 2010 September 3, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Japan Television Service
Katiba Ketubah
Fictitious reality TV series
5 years,
6 months
December 6, 2014 June 10, 2020 Archived version of the hoax
George P. Burdell
Various fictitious additions in articles on a race car driver, a record producer, a West African Colonial figure. Part of a group of seven long lasting vandalisms.
5 years,
6 months
June 28, 2009 December 23, 2014 Addition, Removal
Addition, Removal
Addition, Removal
Digital Lady
Nonexistent San Francisco rock band that supposedly included the brother of the White House press secretary and used acoustic guitars and kitchen utensils to simulate the Moog synthesizer. Survived more than five years before G3 deletion.
5 years,
6 months
December 2008 July 12, 2014 Digital Lady deletion log
Bicholim conflict
Fictitious conflict between the Portuguese rulers of Goa and the Maratha Empire which supposedly took place from mid-1640 to early 1641. It was assessed as a good article in September 2007, but failed a featured article nomination the next month as page numbers were not provided for references. ShelfSkewed (talk · contribs) investigated these references in 2012 and found that the main works cited do not actually exist.

One of the longest and most elaborate hoax articles on Wikipedia. Probably the only one to have been assessed as a good article.

5 years,
5½ months
July 4, 2007 December 29, 2012 33,577 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Bicholim conflict
Reference at Daily Dot and Yahoo! News
Joswig syndrome
Fake hereditary disease, supposedly identified by "H. Joswig M.D." in 1882; cited made-up reference from United States National Library of Medicine.
5 years,
5½ months
June 24, 2009 December 18, 2014 Joswig syndrome deletion log. Archived by
Majeed Pejajj
Fictitious Muslim cleric
5 years,
5½ months
April 8, 2007 September 21, 2012 1,110 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Majeed Pejajj
Lloyd 2: Growing Up
Nonexistent 2003 film, supposedly a sequel to 2001's Lloyd.
5 years,
4 months
May 6, 2010 September 10, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Lloyd 2: Growing Up
Midnight in Oklahoma
Supposed alternative rock-country band with seven fictitious albums
5 years,
4 months
April 26, 2009 August 27, 2014 Midnight in Oklahoma deletion log
Corey Petryschuk
Supposed football player and famous musician
5 years,
3½ months
October 9, 2010 January 30, 2015 6,445 Petryschuk Corey Petryschuk deletion log
K890 (G3)
Fictitious submachine gun.
5 years,
3½ months
November 22, 2006 March 1, 2012 1,614 Included in book by Source Wikipedia
Antón de Palategui
Fictitious 16th century conquistador and poet.
5 years,
3½ months
December 4, 2008 March 17, 2014 6,194 deleted by PROD
Made-up Indian dish "consisting mainly of bay leaves and bamboo shoots," supposedly popular at fast food restaurants in Europe.
5 years,
2½ months
May 13, 2010 July 28, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Bobohetti
Limping duck
Nonexistent and highly unconventional form of wushu
5 years,
2½ months
August 3, 2009 October 15, 2014 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Limping duck
Chad Berryman
Imaginary baseball catcher for the Philadelphia Phillies during World War II
5 years,
2 months
August 4, 2010 October 13, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Chad Berryman
Ganguly–Durjoy Trophy
fictitious cricket trophy
5 years,
2 months
March 31, 2017 May 30, 2022 3,719
Reich Corps of the Trombone (G3)
fictitious Nazi organization of trombonists created by Joseph Goebbels for propaganda purposes
5 years,
2 months
January 29, 2006 March 31, 2011 3,389 Confession on Slashdot Axis History Forum image at ookaboo
Elijah Joel Smith
A fictitious British athlete, educator, and hero of both World Wars supposedly executed in Denmark by the SS for helping Jews escape the Holocaust.
5 years,
2 months
September 24, 2009 November 24, 2014 Elijah Joel Smith deletion log
Ernest Luxembourg Wright
Fictitious Massachusetts poet and writer of the early 20th century; deleted via G3
5 years,
1½ months
June 1, 2010 July 18, 2015 Ernest Luxembourg Wright deletion log
Nonexistent village in Indian state of Tamil Nadu
5 years,
1 month
November 9, 2009 December 9, 2014 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Ooranayakanvalasu
A Condor's Fire: a novel
Nonexistent, anagram-based novel ascribed to "Richie F'lin" and set in Colorado. Hoax cited made-up reviews from the New York Times Book Review and a fake biography from Oxford University Press.
5 years,
½ month
July 26, 2009 August 18, 2014 G3 deletion: A Condor's Fire deletion log
Childhood Retournade
Nonexistent 1980s experimental French film, attributed to the invented filmmaker "Je Suis."
5 years,
½ month
November 20, 2009 December 12, 2014 Childhood Retournade deletion log
The Restless Nevers
Fictitious Washington band with false claims of touring with Kajagoogoo in the 1990s. Article was deleted (A7) in August 2009, but resurfaced the same day and survived five years.
5 years,
½ month
August 1, 2009 August 22, 2014 The Restless Nevers deletion log
The Derby Series of The Table
A series of horse races in Kentucky and Tennessee
4 years, 10 months May 12, 2011 March 16, 2016 3,230 Spotted by SwisterTwister
Hinckley Band of Thieves 4 years,
9½ months
August 31, 2005 June 16, 2010 664 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Hinckley Band of Thieves
Joseph Warshaw
"one of the least Known Highwayman": speedily deleted, then {{hoax}} tagged and prodded when recreated the day it was started, but it took more than four years until it was deleted once more
4 years,
9½ months
February 17, 2006 December 3, 2010 1,057 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Joseph Warshaw
Disney's Wide World of Sports Challenge
A hoax page for a non-existent Disney sports challenge.
4 years,
9½ months
April 1, 2010 January 25, 2015 2,509
Warren Chaney
Series of articles written about Warren Chaney, filled with small deceptions and embellishments, and in the case of at least one article (Magic Mansion), outright fabrications.
4 years,
9 months
March 11, 2011 December 13, 2015 52,209 A technical overview of the process (including links to the AfDs) can be found here and a narrative overview here. This was also listed at Gawker as one of "The 10 Best Articles Wikipedia Deleted This Week"
Bandicoda seed
Seed of a fictitious tree species (Bandicoda genrea), supposedly found in Zimbabwe and the English town of Barnsley.
4 years,
9 months
April 29, 2010 February 1, 2015 Bandicoda seed deletion log
E'tedalion Party
Fictional Iranian political party
4 years,
8½ months
February 12, 2010 October 25, 2014 1,247
Never Be Alone (series)
Fictional Philippine TV series
4 years,
8 months
September 19, 2016 June 1, 2021 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Never Be Alone
Sam Sackey
Fictional 1980s soccer star for Ghana
4 years,
8 months
March 20, 2010 November 24, 2014 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Sam Sackey
Gottfried Eschenbach
Non-existent German "composer, conductor and virtuoso violist"
4 years,
8 months
January 10, 2010 September 10, 2014 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Gottfried Eschenbach
Blue Blue Sky
Nonexistent 1998 film, winner of the imaginary "Andrew Smith award for Best Musical Comedy" and nominee for two "Dutch Acknowledgement movie awards."
4 years,
7½ months
August 31, 2010 April 18, 2015 Blue Blue Sky deletion log
Argusto Emfazie
Fictitious American occultist
4 years,
7½ months
February 25, 2002 October 5, 2006 5,080 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Argusto Emfazie
V-Jay's Verghjesles
Fictitious "micro-processor controlled surround sound amplifier"; listed nonexistent parts and specifications from Texas Instruments and other actual companies.
4 years,
7 months
January 24, 2011 September 1, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/V-Jay's Verghjesles
Hilfiger High School 4 years,
6½ months
July 14, 2008 February 4, 2013 1,371 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Hilfiger High School
Cranmore chase
Nonexistent race involving Victorian-era runners hired by local landowners to deliver titles to land in India.
4 years,
5½ months
July 15, 2010 December 29, 2014 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Cranmore chase
Cited as the inspiration for an actual modern 10-kilometer run in Somerset.
EuroNation 1 London
Fabricated European singing competition
4 years, 5 months May 16, 2011 October 22, 2015 1,630
Ebenezer Crummett
18th-century American soldier, falsely credited with saving the Marquis de Lafayette and challenging Alexander Hamilton to a duel.
4 years,
4½ months
August 24, 2010 January 22, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Ebenezer Crummett
The Rock Gang
Made-up 1980s Swedish rock band with several fictitious albums, noted for using a vacuum cleaner as a saxophone; deleted via G3.
4 years,
3 months
June 2011 September 5, 2015 The Rock Gang deletion log
Fredrick Joseph Logan
Fictitious 19th-century graphic designer, credited with the equally fake "Logan's Law" regulating maximum widths of business logos in advertising.
4 years,
2½ months
June 8, 2011 August 30, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Fredrick Joseph Logan
Fictitious mountain village in Portugal
4 years,
2½ months
April 30, 2007 July 14, 2011 845 PROD deleted
Martin Coleman (American football)
The story of a non-existent American football player who played for Clemson, Pitt, and the Oakland Raiders. It was recreated several days after deletion and lasted for nearly another month before being deleted again.
4 years,
2½ months
November 5, 2006 January 23, 2011 2,520 See also Martin I. Coleman
De Beaumont-Spain baronets 4 years,
1½ months
July 15, 2017 September 3, 2021 Admitted by the author
Jesse Aaron Richardson
Reputed author of the spurious Rotten Apple graphic novel series about a New York bounty hunter's journey into "organized crime, drug dealing, corruption, private investigation, cults, serials [sic] killers, unlicensed boxing, treasure hunting, hired assassinations, and more."
4 years,
1½ months
October 7, 2010 November 26, 2014 Jesse Aaron Richardson deletion log
The Vanderdark Morgue
Fictitious morgue and family created to promote a local Kentucky Halloween attraction
4 years,
1 month
July 26, 2011 August 25, 2015 17,133 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/The Vanderdark Morgue
Bryan J. Baldelli
Non-existent American baseball player
4 years February 26, 2008 February 28, 2012 1,977 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Bryan J. Baldelli. Listed at Bryan (given name) in good faith. Also listed on German Wikipedia under Baldelli until deletion in August 2014.

Extant for 1–3 years[edit]

Hoax Length Creation date Deletion date Size in bytes
(last edit)
Wollen-Blohm Prize
Made-up $10,000 annual award for achievements in philanthropy and economics, attributed to an "unidentified Singaporean patron of the arts."
3 years,
11½ months
October 14, 2011 September 30, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Wollen-Blohm Prize
Imhyre Kértez
Fictitious Hungarian actor at the National Theatre in Warsaw, supposedly a victim of the Nazi invasion in World War II.
3 years,
10½ months
November 7, 2011 September 25, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Imhyre Kértez
English article created in good faith during 2011 as a partial translation of a Spanish Wikipedia article, the original hoax, which began in May 2004.
Colin Kennedy
Fictitious American Old West criminal who supposedly murdered John Sutter's brother in San Francisco on April 9, 1853
3 years,
10 months
April 8, 2009 February 7, 2013 4,563 Prod deleted; see [15]
Altamont Lamina
Fictitious British spy in both world wars, supposedly called "The Silent Blade" for his "above-average skills in sneaking, spying, and assassinating."
3 years,
10 months
February 18, 2011 December 17, 2014 Altamont Lamina deletion log
Zechariah Seal
Fictitious emblem
3 years,
9½ months
October 24, 2015 August 17, 2018 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Zechariah Seal
Was created at Ben Hayim Seal on October 24, 2015, then cut-and-paste moved to this name a day later. Author also created a myriad of images pertinent to the hoax.
Made-up mythological force of chaos, supposedly adored by "ancient different people from the Sumerians to the Asturians"
3 years,
9½ months
January 28, 2011 November 19, 2014 Sshiaga-llat deletion log
Monte Carlo polarization
Fictitious business theory algorithm
3 years,
9½ months
March 13, 2017 December 28, 2020
"The ecclesiastical name for one of the stoppers which accompany the cruets used in [Christian] liturgical rites" that no one but the article creator had ever heard of.
3 years,
9½ months
October 31, 2009 August 12, 2013 506 Discovery and discussion. Added to cruet the next day, added to bung in 2011. It was widely believed by people on the Internet, including multiple auctioners. Note that Phoedelia is a real girl's name.
Jean Moufot
Fictitious French philosopher and mathematician. Article first appeared on nl.wikipedia, then translated versions subsequently appeared in French, German and English Wikipedias. Hoax was first discovered by the German Wiki and deleted across the wikis within a week.
3 years,
9½ months
September 24, 2004 July 16, 2008 2,298 discussion on nl.wikipedia, discussion on de.wikipedia, mirror with links to discussion
Bunaka (G3)
Non-existent Indonesian island
3 years,
9 months
March 18, 2007 December 20, 2010 5,440 discussion
Charles E. Whitmeyer
Fictitious North Carolina politician, undertaker, and inventor of the child leash
3 years,
9 months
March 13, 2007 December 16, 2010 4,270
Bucharest Film Festival
A hoax created to support an article on Yuri Gadyukin.
3 years,
9 months
June 16, 2009 March 12, 2013 3,394 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Bucharest Film Festival
3G Boyz
Completely fabricated contents created by manager to support new band.
3 years,
9 months
December 27, 2009 October 16, 2013 3,540 Prod
Housecoat 3
Nonexistent 1987 American romantic comedy; cited a fabricated review by Leonard Maltin.
3 years,
9 months
December 2, 2011 September 10, 2015 2,352 Spotted and tagged for speedy
Cancun Broadcasting Company
Hoax Mexican broadcaster, with "drama, children, news, sports, game shows, entertainment, high definition and more."
3 years,
9 months
October 29, 2011 July 31, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Cancun Broadcasting Company
Eric the sheep
Nonexistent graphic novel about the adventures of a super-intelligent Welsh sheep
3 years,
8½ months
February 19, 2011 November 7, 2014 Speedy deletion Deletion log
High Fenton
Fictitious English village in County Durham, reputedly noted for an unusual engagement custom involving cheese; deleted via G3.
3 years,
8½ months
September 22, 2012 June 5, 2016 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/High Fenton
Jûtien-Gustave DuRoi and Sallah Ukhmed
Fictitious husband-and-wife writers, with a list of works that was expanded over time
3 years,
8 months
June 9, 2006 February 7, 2010 (DuRoi) 1,970 and 1,161 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Jûtien-Gustave DuRoi
Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Sallah Ukhmed
Eurygaster confidens
Nonexistent bug species; deleted via G3.
3 years,
8 months
September 29, 2013 May 26, 2017 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Eurygaster confidens
Loretta Scott Crew
Fictitious inventor of S'mores, where it was also reported. Has been incorrectly included in printed books and numerous websites.
3 years,
7½ months
July 1, 2009 February 13, 2013 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Loretta Scott Crew
Another Demonstration of the Cliff-Guibert Fire Hose Reel, Showing a Young Girl Coming from an Office, Detaching Hose, Running with It 60 Feet, and Playing a Stream, All Inside of 30 Seconds
Made-up short silent film from 1900 from IMDb.
3 years,
7½ months
May 19, 2013 January 10, 2017 946 This one is IMDb's fault; this hoax was made on their site in ~2003 or so, and it was probably mirrored onto Wikipedia in good faith. After some pestering, IMDb eventually agreed to delete their entry as well.
Grâce à feu et aux flammes
Nonexistent composition by Claude Debussy, supposedly discovered under floorboards in his house; deleted via G3.
3 years,
7 months
September 5, 2011 April 10, 2015 Grâce à feu et aux flammes deletion log
Yuri Gadyukin
Fictitious Soviet filmmaker defected to the UK and murdered there in 1960 at the age of 28. Apparently, was created to support a low-budget movie.
3 years,
7 months
August 3, 2009 March 6, 2013 8,304 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Yuri Gadyukin; explanation of history and purpose
Shantal Méndez
4-time Grammy Winner, or so the article said of this hypothetical singer
3 years,
7 months
September 27, 2007 May 3, 2011 5,332 Discussion at Wikipedia talk:Unreferenced_BLP_Rescue
Saint Elizabeth College
Fictitious liberal arts college in Youngstown, Ohio, supposedly with 3,500 students, 30 programs, 116 years of history, yet zero record of its existence.
3 years,
6 months
August 3, 2011 February 9, 2015 G3 deletion (Deletion log)
Okeke Okonjo
Fictitious politician in Lesotho, article cites various sources that do not mention this person.
3 years,
6 months,
29 days
April 18, 2013 November 16, 2016 2,899
Brahmanical See 3 years,
5½ months
August 4, 2004 January 21, 2008 2,230 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Brahmanical See, Mirror and discussion at WR
Upton H. Pennyworth (Prod) (G3 speedy deletion)
Fictitious British explorer
3 years,
5½ months
September 7, 2007 February 18, 2011 938 discussion
Pierre Dupont
Fictitious 19th-century French painter; several spurious references, including at least one PDF file in a self-published "journal," created to support hoax.
3 years,
5 months
December 3, 2012 May 14, 2016 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Pierre Dupont (painter)
Ceasar McKenzie
Fictitious point guard for the NBA's New Orleans Hornets, claimed to be the 2005 Rookie of the Year instead of Emeka Okafor
3 years,
5 months
June 22, 2011 November 26, 2014 Ceasar McKenzie deletion log
Sarah River
List of rivers of New Zealand was vandalized changing "Saxon" to "Sarah", and was later turned into an article by bot
3 years,
4 months
May 18, 2006 September 13, 2009 original vandalism, Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Sarah River, article now at Saxon River
Pilot Season, a non-existent film directed by Kevin Smith 3 years,
3½ months
April 14, 2011 August 28, 2014 938 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Pilot Season (film)
An ancient tribe belonging to the Trund civilisation
3 years,
3½ months
May 22, 2006 September 7, 2009 1,042 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Trundu
Por muerte del fantasma de Montero Families
Hoax online novela
3 years,
3½ months
May 6, 2012 August 26, 2015 Deletion log
Sei Wee Lim
Supposedly an Olympic swimmer from Brunei
3 years,
3 months
September 15, 2006 December 16, 2009 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Sei Wee Lim
Morton Schwartz
Supposedly a B-movie actor
3 years,
3 months
May 4, 2007 July 27, 2010 1,270 Discussion at Unreferenced BLP Rescue
Flerte Fatal (band)
Imaginary Brazilian band, with elaborate set of accompanying articles on albums
3 years,
2 months
March 19, 2015 May 20, 2018 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Flerte Fatal (band)
Clem and Lachlan's Adventures
Imaginary Australian ABC teen drama from 2006 to 2012
3 years,
2 months
May 27, 2012 August 1, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Clem and Lachlan's Adventures
Fredric Croix and Quickslide Rick
Two supposed 1920s Michigan Blues Musicians
3 years,
2 months
February 9, 2008 April 15, 2011 2,314 WP:Articles for deletion/Fredric Croix and Quickslide Rick
Tors Peerson
Fictitious Australian food manufacturer
3 years,
2 months
July 16, 2017 September 13, 2020 Deletion discussion
Archived version of the hoax
Kevin Musker
Name-change plagiarism of "Charles Ferguson Smith", suspected for 3 years but retained
3 years,
1½ months
February 24, 2006 April 13, 2009 4,333 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Kevin Musker, Revision of Charles Ferguson Smith article was based on
James Geiss
Fictitious English whaler
3 years June 29, 2006 June 30, 2009 2,015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/James Geiss
Jack Stacey
Supposed character ("Chief Resident") during eighth season of ER.
2 years,
11 months
October 3, 2012 September 3, 2015 Jack Stacey deletion log
Soyombo Revival Society
Fictitious Mongolian secret society
2 years,
11 months
February 22, 2017 January 24, 2020 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Soyombo Revival Society
Archived version of the hoax
Slow Blind Driveway
Fictitious blues musician
2 years,
9½ months
November 16, 2006 August 26, 2009 5,705 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Slow Blind Driveway
Nonexistent Indian village, based on old revision of Bandarlapalle
2 years,
9 months
July 23, 2010 April 27, 2013 1,034 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Mittapalli
Ocular citrosis
A fictional type of eye infection resulting from periodic exposure to acidic substances. Created on 1st April and referred to in other disease articles a few weeks later.
2 years,
9 months
April 1, 2010 January 7, 2013 2,757 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Ocular citrosis
Vitus Sebastian Barbaro
fictitious member of a real Venetian family repeatedly added to real articles by numerous sockpuppets: Wikipedia:Requests for checkuser/Case/Societyfinalclubs, Wikipedia:Sockpuppet investigations/Mctrain/Archive
2 years,
9 months
May 29, 2007 February 25, 2010 1,636 User:Barneca/watch/societyfinalclubs
Richard Hopkins (chess player) and Ruy Lopez, Hopkins Gambit
Fictitious chess player and the opening chess moves allegedly named after him.
2 years,
8½ months
December 28, 2010 September 22, 2013 10,882 and 4,219 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Richard Hopkins (chess player)
Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Ruy Lopez, Hopkins Gambit
Lewis William Walt
Fictitious marriage and child added to bio.
2 years,
8½ months
April 8, 2013 January 16, 2016
Ruy Lopez, Marshall Attack, Rombaua Trap
Fictitious chess trap
2 years,
8 months
January 7, 2011 September 9, 2013 3,964 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Ruy Lopez, Marshall Attack, Rombaua Trap
Jason Donoghue
Actor that allegedly had roles in Hollyoaks and Outlander.
2 years,
8 months
December 29, 2013 September 14, 2016 6,036 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Jason Donoghue (2nd nomination)
The Tarsus Club and Murray Chance
Articles on a fictitious club and individual created as guerrilla marketing for the film The Conspiracy
2 years,
7½ months
December 17, 2010 August 10, 2013 Wikipedia:Administrators' noticeboard/IncidentArchive807#Elaborate hoax articles
Operation Gray Cloud
A suppposed operation conducted by US forces during the Vietnam War, which was actually a description of the plot to the film Operation Dumbo Drop
2 years,
7 months
January 1, 2012 August 13, 2014 Added to the article, Role of the United States in the Vietnam War
Olle Halvorssen
Suppposedly a 9th century Danish king that should have been the first king of a (completely unknown) petty kingdom centered around Århus and "Sønnestrom" (also a hoax). His son Haakon Ollenson should allegedly have conquered the major part of Denmark in the beginning of the 10th century with the exception of the island of Funen.
2 years,
7 months
February 6, 2017 September 12, 2019 3,465 Deletion log
Rudolph's Greatest Adventures
Fictitious Rankin/Bass Productions special
2 years,
7 months
December 7, 2012 July 12, 2015 3,727 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Rudolph's Greatest Adventures
Paul Berowne and McIver-Berowne baronets 2 years,
7 months
December 3, 2012 July 7, 2015 Discussion at Reference Desk/Humanities
Charles Krum & Krum Corporate
Alleged businessman and his London-based company
2 years,
6½ months
February 28, 2013 September 16, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Krum Corporate (nomination for both articles and tagged for speedy deletion G3)
The "Cohen-Cruse Ruse"
an elaborate set of hoax articles and edits over many articles including the fictitious people Baron Cruse-Cohen, Jean Alexandre Cohen, Jonathan Cohen, Sir David Cohen, and Stephen B. Jacobsohn, and several fictitious synagogues including Beth Sadeh Synagogue and Sephardic Temple Adat David. A small project was formed to hunt down all the various edits involved.
2 years,
5½ months
May 1, 2009 October 15, 2011 User:Vivisel/cohen cruse ruse, Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Baron Cruse-Cohen, Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Stephen B. Jacobsohn, additions to Salisbury, North Carolina, etc.
Wichita Glade, Florida
Fictitious community in the U.S. state of Florida
2 years,
5 months
June 7, 2014 December 1, 2016 587 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Wichita Glade, Florida
Balboa Creole French
Fictitious highly endangered French-based creole language, supposedly spoken exclusively by about 20 people on Balboa Island in Newport Beach, an extremely wealthy suburban town in Orange County, California.
2 years,
5 months
April 3, 2010 September 10, 2012 2,875 Blogpost referencing Balboa Creole French as one of "Seven Languages That Are About To Die"
Fictitious musical instrument
2 years,
5 months
July 26, 2010
June 12, 2016
December 27, 2012
June 16, 2016
4,656 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Trembulo, Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Trembulo (2nd nomination)
Fictitious hotel in Naumburg, Germany. Allegedly the place of death for "wildly popular" ice hockey player Leopold Nosske, who was also fictional.
2 years,
5 months
April 29, 2015 October 2, 2017 1,265 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Rothmanhaus
Fictitious Swedish serial rapist in 1893, allegedly searched by undercover policemen in women's clothes
2 years,
4½ months
July 24, 2005 December 8, 2007 1,576 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Långrocken
Peace breaker's muzzle
Fictitious torture device
2 years,
4½ months
August 2, 2004 December 10, 2006 934 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Peace breaker's muzzle, added to Torture article, removed
Functional temporalism
Postmodern anthropological theory
2 years,
4 months
August 8, 2007 December 7, 2009 1,563 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Functional temporalism
Sean MacLeod
Fictional comedian
2 years,
4 months
September 9, 2006 January 8, 2009 4,077 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Sean MacLeod
Be A Star (UK TV series)
Fictitious UK talent show
2 years,
4 months
January 21, 2017 May 17, 2019 11,974 Detection, Deletion discussion
Wander Donkey
Fictitious adventure game for the Nintendo DS
2 years,
3½ months
May 15, 2007 September 5, 2009 4,283 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Wander Donkey, archived forum confession from September 3, 2009
Thomas Stokes
Fictitious English player in the Football League with clubs including Yeovil Town, Grays Athletic, and Southend United.
2 years,
3 months
January 14, 2014 April 21, 2016 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Thomas Stokes (2nd nomination)
Genck Azonho
Fictitious Argentinean writer and social reformer of the 1970s, noted for his "extreme moralistic and ascetic views."
2 years,
3 months
April 12, 2013 July 18, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Genck Azonho
A secret language of Worcestershire teenagers
2 years,
3 months
November 8, 2006 February 1, 2009 7,124 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Parfact
Non-existent Shropshire village.
2 years,
2½ months
January 3, 2006 March 21, 2008 577 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Monvilla
Nueces de la Perez
Fictitious 18th-century Spanish mission near the site of present-day Corpus Christi, Texas
2 years,
2 months
November 7, 2012 January 14, 2015 Nueces de la Perez deletion log
Matthew Lyons
Texas frontiersman and CSA cavalry soldier
2 years,
2 months
February 18, 2008 April 19, 2010 4,156 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Matthew Lyons
Fadl Attraction
Fictitious Canadian male porn star
2 years,
2 months
November 4, 2007 January 10, 2010 1,199 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Fadl Attraction
Cindy and the Halo Boy
Nonexistent direct-to-DVD movie, supposedly starring Haylie Duff and Frankie Muniz and added to Duff's page.
2 years,
1½ months
March 15, 2007 May 8, 2009 Added, removed; admitted in a 2015 post.
Curtis James
Real high-school runner with spectacular fictitious professional career
2 years,
1½ months
October 4, 2008 November 18, 2010 40,549 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Curtis James
The Siccness Network
Fictional animated television show that ran on BET
2 years,
1 month
September 4, 2013 October 13, 2015 9,891 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/The Siccness Network
Shai Bernstein
Fictitious Jewish-Russian thinker - Bernstein was actually a student in Houston
2 years,
½ month
September 1, 2007 September 16, 2009 5,352 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Shai Bernstein, had a Hebrew translation
Morris Guggenheim
Fictitious son of Solomon R. Guggenheim, who supposedly married a member of the British royal family and became mayor of Charleston, South Carolina.
2 years August 18, 2013 August 21, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Morris Guggenheim
Moroccans with Disabilities Act of 1992
"Copied from a past revision of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 article".
2 years September 10, 2009 September 13, 2011 22,359 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Moroccans with Disabilities Act of 1992
Taylor Mowry
Fictitious actor; based closely on an old revision of Tristan Wilds
1 year,
11 months
December 15, 2009 November 15, 2011 4,118
The Lying Student
Fictitious Czech satirical poem stated to have been written in 1914
1 year,
11 months
January 23, 2015 December 28, 2016 4,291 Failed verification as noted by anon editor at Talk:The Lying Student. This article was nevertheless featured on the main page under DYK
Canyon View Junior High School
Fictitious school in Edmonton, Alberta
1 year,
11 months
December 15, 2009 November 15, 2011 5,222
Jeanette Magel
Fictitious British High Court judge
1 year,
10 months
February 3, 2019 December 14, 2020 Archived version of the hoax
Five Star Generals
Fictitious rock band from Buffalo, New York
1 year,
10 months
June 1, 2013 April 12, 2015 Five Star Generals deletion log
Haď Čarém
Nonexistent 10th-century Hungarian Muslim merchant and economist, supposedly cited as an "incipient anti-colonialist and anti-slavery advocate" in later Communist theory.
1 year,
10 months
March 27, 2013 January 29, 2015 14,303 Haď Čarém deletion log
Justification at the creator's talk page
Brazilian copperfish
Nonexistent fish of the family Characidae, supposedly native to the waters near Rio de Janeiro and forming a "vital part of Brazilian culture and cuisine."
1 year,
9½ months
March 3, 2007 December 18, 2008 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Brazilian copperfish
Noah Chazzman
Name-change plagiarism of Steven Pinker
1 year,
9 months
January 17, 2011 October 23, 2012
Juan Gadiel Rosado Colón
Name-change plagiarism of Don Francisco
1 year,
9 months
April 22, 2013 January 27, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Juan Gadiel Rosado Colón
Marathonius Granthius (G3)
Fake Roman soldier
1 year,
8½ months
August 21, 2006 May 2, 2008 5,337 Discovered when blanked by an IP who warned that it was a hoax
European Tennis Club of Culture (PROD) 1 year,
8 months
November 15, 2005 July 15, 2007 889 Noticed in April 2007 on talk page
Baldock Beer Disaster
Was listed on Did You Know?
1 year,
8 months
November 15, 2005 July 15, 2007 2,636 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Baldock Beer Disaster
Did You Know entry
Was temporarily made into an article about the hoax before being deleted regardless.
Cited as the inspiration for an actual India Pale Ale produced by an Illinois brewery. [16] [17]
Æblerød (CSD)
Fictional Danish municipality
1 year,
8 months
January 12, 2004 September 8, 2005 358 Removal from municipalities list, discussion, featured in Danish newspaper Politiken (December 5th, 2006)
Battle of Stuart's Pond 1 year,
7½ months
May 29, 2008 January 18, 2010 2,131 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Battle of Stuart's Pond
Maria Portaro (G3)
Fictitious marine biologist with "500 published papers"
1 year,
7 months
March 3, 2008 October 3, 2009 1,618
Dhanunjaya Rao
Web developer who poached the career of Ravi Teja
1 year,
7 months
October 7, 2015 May 20, 2017 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Dhanunjaya Rao
Oyster Injustice
Fictitious financial disaster affecting Chesapeake Bay fishermen
1 year,
7 months
July 6, 2007 February 4, 2009 2,139 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Oyster Injustice
Earl of Aldbury (G3)
Non-existent 17th-century peer.
1 year,
6½ months
May 13, 2009 December 3, 2010 471
Herzthiolate heptahydrolysic acid
Hoax genetic molecule with an invalid chemical formula (NaO
), supposedly found in the imaginary "Stenaphyllzone (Plasma life-form)" and sebum.
1 year,
6½ months
February 27, 2014 September 14, 2015 Deletion log
Quaff distillery
Made-up name for the still genuinely constructed by mutineers from HMS Bounty on Pitcairn Island in the 1790s. Drink was supposedly also called "quaff" and supposedly gave its name to a enduring worldwide drinking club.
1 year,
6 months
December 30, 2013 June 15, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Quaff distillery. Found its way into Pitcairn Education Work Pack produced to accompany the 2014 play Pitcairn
Ciarán Dunphy
Fabricated 19th century Irish author, a "member of Sinn Féin during the Irish War of Independence" and a "significant public political figure, as well as one of the chief chroniclers of Irish nationalism in literature".
1 year,
6 months
January 26, 2014 October 22, 2015 9,888
Talinsfadasporia (G3)
Fictitious Indian town, mostly cut and pasted from Dibrugarh
1 year,
5½ months
May 31, 2009 November 20, 2010 6,703
Mrs Brown: The Musicals
Fake musical comedy series based on Mrs. Brown's Boys, supposedly featuring Broadway songs and broadcast on RTÉ One and BBC One; deleted via A11.
1 year,
4½ months
November 23, 2013 April 18, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Mrs Brown: The Musicals
Fictitious presocratic philosopher
1 year,
4½ months
February 12, 2005 June 28, 2006 4,384 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Anaxiphales
Count Wladmir Shchwekochov
Imaginary 19th-century Russian nobleman, supposedly owner of an estate with "over 300 acres of forest, 5 lakes, a waterfall, 2 farms, a mine, and a 40 bedroom palace with a malachite and gold-plated ballroom."
1 year,
4½ months
March 10, 2015 July 24, 2016 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Count Wladmir Shchwekochov
Elizabethan Lizard
Fictitious punk rock band from Minnesota; G3 deletion
1 year,
4 months
November 8, 2013 March 13, 2015 Elizabethan Lizard deletion log
Ingrid Vakaslavik
Fictitious tap dancer from Russia
1 year,
3½ months
February 15, 2009 May 31, 2010 993 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Ingrid Vakaslavik
Crowborough Caves
With "Dr. SP Leo Logist"
1 year,
3 months
April 8, 2007 July 27, 2008 516 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Crowborough Caves. Pun on speleologist. Their hoax website now links back to this page. First detected by an anon who called it "a well known 'fun' story / hoax".
Emerson LaSalle
Fictitious author
1 year,
3 months
November 27, 2007 February 27, 2009 3,298 After the deletion discussion had started, the original author rewrote the article to describe the subject as fictional (as well as to criticize the deletion), but it was still deleted.
Freedom Channing
Fictitious "conductor" of the Underground Railroad
1 year,
3 months
July 11, 2005 October 8, 2006 1,056 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Freedom Channing
Nippon Super Rugby League
Fictitious rugby competition, created along with the equally spurious 2016 Rugby League Asian Series; included made-up teams such as "Saitama Hippopotamus" and "Yohokama S.Yamaga."
1 year,
2½ months
March 6, 2015 May 30, 2016 Nippon Super Rugby League deletion log
Amorica (legend)
Given its own article for 8 months rather than deletion
1 year,
10½ months
November 9, 2004
See original article
May 24, 2005
January 22, 2006 1,031 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Amorica (legend)
Plathubis the grey fox
Made-up hunting myth from Latvia about an amphibious, rain-bringing fox, designed "to warn impetuous young men not to kill animals for fun"; deleted via G3.
1 year,
2 months
February 8, 2014 April 20, 2015 Plathubis the grey fox deletion log
Vengeance On Elm Street
Nonexistent "upcoming" sequel to the Nightmare on Elm Street series; deleted via G3.
1 year,
2 months
January 21, 2014 March 28, 2015 Vengeance On Elm Street deletion log
Francis Bunbury (PROD)
Non-existent architect; names in article taken from The Importance of Being Earnest.
1 year,
2 months
October 24, 2009 December 26, 2010 2,320 First noted by an anon October 2010
Nonexistent children's show set in Russia, broadcast on the equally fictitious network Bamboo TV.
1 year,
2 months
February 14, 2015 April 13, 2016 Unbeatables deletion log
Jason Waterfalls
Imaginary British football player whose name happened to match a frequently misheard lyric in the song Waterfalls by TLC. Created by a single-purpose account overwriting an existing redirect.
1 year,
2 months
November 7, 2015 January 4, 2017 Speedy deletion per WP:G3: blatant hoax. Log
Joshua G. Cantor-Stone (G4)
Fictitious Jewish WWII naval aviator and hero
1 year,
1½ months
February 22, 2009 April 11, 2010 6,564 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Joshua G. Cantor-Stone
Eric Radloff
Fictitious singer-songwriter
1 year,
1½ months
July 5, 2004 August 23, 2005 2,015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Eric Radloff
Little Adventures of Bruno
Supposed animated television series by Mitchell Hurwitz that would be a followup of sorts to Sit Down, Shut Up
1 years
1 months
October 17, 2013 November 22, 2014 5,976 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Little Adventures of Bruno
Magnesium lasering
Article about a fictional scientific practice.
1 year,
1 month
May 14, 2009 June 13, 2010 890 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Magnesium lasering
Earl of Iford
Partial name-change plagiarism of Earl of Shaftesbury
1 year,
1 month
April 13, 2008 May 11, 2009 2,276 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Earl of Iford
Federlandese (coin)
"Had this "coin" been real, it would have pre-dated the oldest known Scandinavian coins by perhaps ~800 years, so we would have heard of it elsewhere. Also, people in Scandinavia didn't have a monetary economy 2100 years ago."
1 year,
½ month
December 2, 2009 December 22, 2010 693 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Federlandese (coin)
Invented social/artistic movement
1 year,
½ month
July 7, 2005 July 19, 2006 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Ladedaism
Nam Nguyễn Thành
Fictitious international soccer player for Vietnam, supposedly recommended by Barry Hayles
1 year February 19, 2014 February 25, 2015 Nam Nguyễn Thành deletion log
Vanda Varvara
Fictitious painter. One of the longest and most elaborate hoax articles on Wikipedia.
1 year January 26, 2012 January 29, 2013 28,171 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Vanda Varvara
Odin's Globe
Fictitious Norse mythological artifact of diverse powers ("protection, luck, minor telepathy, slow or speed up time, willpower, support, empathy, understanding, wits, health"); falsely sourced to a nonexistent poem, "Loki's Lunar Lover."
1 year April 6, 2014 April 12, 2015 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Odin's Globe
The Bierrum Effect
Fictitious biological effect occurring in isolated environments
1 year September 3, 2008 September 7, 2009 3,299 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/The Bierrum Effect
St Forbadil
Fake 7th-century Bishop of Mercia and Celtic saint, depicted with the head of a dog and credited with the miraculous invention of beer; possibly created to supply a backstory for a brewery. Deleted via G3.
1 year August 20, 2015 August 24, 2016 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/St Forbadil
James and the Pontoons
Fake rock band
1 year July 20, 2007 July 21, 2008 5,947 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/James and the Pontoons
Fictitious Czech village
1 year October 12, 2006 October 15, 2007 4,822 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Hevstäf
Deportation of Chinese in the Soviet Union
Direct translation of the corresponding article from the Chinese Wikipedia, which was once a featured article there. It was later discovered in June 2022 that the original Chinese Wikipedia article contained misinformation, with the print media citations in the article being used fradulently, and was part of a widespread sitewide collection of hoaxes created by a single user which spanned at least 206 articles on the Chinese Wikipedia and took place over a timespan of 10 years. During the AfD process on the English Wikipedia, a fact-check of the article content was undertaken; dubious content was removed, while information that could be verified via alternative sourcing was salvaged.
Extant (not deleted) December 7, 2019‎ June 27, 2022 (date salvaged) 42,389 WP:ANI thread: "An urgent report about a user:折毛's hoaxes"
Wikipedia:Fabricated articles and hoaxes of Russia in 2022

Extant for less than one year[edit]

This section lists hoaxes covered for at least one month but less than one year. See Wikipedia:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia/Less than one year for the full list. This section should list only hoaxes covered in independent third-party sources. Short-lived hoaxes are innumerable and so we do not normally track them — they can be found by searching deletion logs for "hoax".

Hoax Length Creation date Deletion date Size in bytes
(last edit)
Siege of Borovsk
Direct translation of the corresponding article from Chinese Wikipedia, which was later discovered to be a hoax in June 2022, and subsequently speedy deleted. See "Deportation of Chinese in the Soviet Union" above for more information.
7 months November 5, 2021 June 16, 2022 Speedy deletion per WP:G3: blatant hoax. Wayback Archive from June 12, 2022
WP:ANI thread: "An urgent report about a user:折毛's hoaxes"
Wikipedia:Fabricated articles and hoaxes of Russia in 2022
John Seigenthaler Sr.
Real journalist who had a hoax article in 2005 claiming he was a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy.
4½ months May 26, 2005 October 7, 2005 The subject of Wikipedia biography controversy. Widely reported in the press and led to the introduction of the Wikipedia:Biographies of living persons policy.
Edward Owens hoax
Article concerning late 1800's Chesapeake Bay oyster fisherman who turned to piracy created as a part of an internet hoax performed by students enrolled in a George Mason University class entitled "Lying about History".
30 days November 18, 2008 December 18, 2008 After several mainstream news sources reported on the internet meme, students came forward to admit the deception.[2][3][4] Survived speedy deletion, proposed deletion and two AFDs (1, 2) as a well documented hoax, before being incorporated as a part of an article on George Mason University hoaxes.
Alan Mcilwraith
A "Walter Mitty" character who faked a bio of his supposed military record on Wikipedia. It initially lasted three weeks before being deleted at AfD. It was recreated three times but deleted within a day each time, but then the story hit the headlines in April 2006 and the article was recreated to be about him as a hoaxer
21 days October 5, 2005 October 26, 2005 The hoax version
Upper Peninsula War
Account of a fictional conflict in 1843 between the State of Michigan and Canada over a disputed territorial line in the Upper Peninsula and subsequent secession attempt by the governor of Michigan.
13 days May 2, 2007 May 15, 2007 24,553 Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Upper Peninsula War
Helen Anne Petrie, Strutt Family Trust
South African painter whose falsified biography was seeded on the internet in an apparent attempt to increase the value of artwork. Related names included Sebastian L.S Schwagele, Fan Moniz and PR by a Marlene Duval, User:Marlene Duval
37 minutes June 19, 2007 June 19, 2007 17,873 Afd discussion, Afd discussion, SSI report, Commons Village Pump
London Times article(registration required)
South African Art Times article
8 days May 1, 2009 May 9, 2009 3,455
2 days October 29, 2009 October 31, 2009

False statements in articles[edit]

Besides entire articles, there have also been false statements that were added to otherwise authentic pages. Please note that some of the entries here are possibly not hoaxes. Hoaxes require proof of an intentional attempt to mislead. Many false statements can be a result of a mistake or might represent cases where the person who added them believed in claims made.

Classification of hoaxes:

  • Type 1 (Admission of hoax)
  • Type 2a (Obvious hoax due to elaborateness)
  • Type 2b (Obvious hoax due to pattern of vandalism by the account which added it)
  • Type 3 (Possible hoax but with room for doubt)
  • Type 4 (False or unreferenced and dubious statement that may or may not be a hoax as it could arguably have been added as a mistake or in good faith)

Extant for 10+ years[edit]

Claim Length Insertion date Removal date Links Error type
Claim that the publishers of Richard Feynman's Lectures on Physics thought that putting Chladni patterns on the cover would send dangerous "rock and roll and drug" messages 15 years, 5 months February 21, 2007 July 23, 2022 Added, Edited, Removed Type 3 (Possible hoax but with room for doubt). Added by an IP that traces back to a K-12 school system, so kids goofing off looks likely. Toned down, but not removed, in June 2012. Slipped through GA review and promotion to FA.
Claim that The Swiss Family Robinson was translated into Arabic in a film titled "Al-Ṭurfa al-Šahiyya fī aḫbār al-ʿAʾila al-Swīsiyya (c. 1900)" 14 years, 2 months April 3, 2008 May 26, 2022 Added, as Film, Removed Type 4 (False or unreferenced and dubious statement that may or may not be a hoax as it could arguably have been added as a mistake or in good faith). The claim was added, unsourced, by an IP editor in early April 2008 under the "Other Adaptations" category, which was at the time not format-specific. In 2010, the categories were redone, and it ended up under "Film Versions"- while purportedly predating both talkies and subtitles (rendering its "Arabic translation" label farcical) as well as the existence of Arabic cinema. It survived untouched- unsourced, and untagged as such- until late May 2022, when an editor noticed its purported date was implausibly early for an Arabic film, went searching for a source, and failed to find one for either the film or a similarly-titled text translation.
Claim that there had been a proposal to put a spire atop the Louvre Pyramid "to simplify window washing". 14 years June 11, 2007 May 31, 2021 Added, removed Type 4 (False or unreferenced and dubious statement that may or may not be a hoax as it could arguably have been added as a mistake or in good faith). The claim was added by a sockpuppet of a banned user in 2007 with a suspicious edit summary and built-in {{cn}} tag. The claim remained in the article, always tagged as unsourced, for over a decade, being removed just shy of the 14-year mark in 2021. The only references on the Web to a spire on the Louvre Pyramid are passing references on blogs, all postdating the claim's addition to the article.
Claim that Chola navy is an independent fighting force of the Cholas with elaborate description such as technology, organization, administration, type of vessels and weapons. 13 years,
6 months
December 25, 2008 June 29, 2022 added, removed Type 2a (Obvious hoax due to elaborateness). Imported from draft space with many unreferenced parts. The article grew more elaborate over the years with many references added after its creation. A part was identified as a hoax by a Reddit user who identified several problems such as using fake sources and misattributed sources, lacking additional references for comparison, and using a fraudulent image as its support. After gradual rechecking and verification of the sources, many parts of the article have been identified as fraud and consequently deleted.
Claim that a 10 metre fibreglass Zulu boat was discovered in a hotel beer cellar in the Scottish Highland village of Tomintoul. 13 years,
4 months
August 8, 2006 December 9, 2019 added, removed Type 2a (Obvious hoax due to elaborateness). Unreferenced section added by an IP to an article when at the time said article had no references. The hoax was finally removed when it was mistakenly identified as plagiarising the Travel Scotland tourist site, who had in fact taken their colourful piece of local history from Wikipedia (see Wikipedia:CITOGENESIS). No reliable sources for this claim have been found so far.
Claim that the United States Naval Academy's first mascot before Bill the Goat was a gorilla called the Navy Monkey. 12 years,
10 months
May 27, 2009 April 5, 2022 added, removed Type 1 (Admission of hoax). The statement was added by a new account on 27 May 2009. The account made no other edits to Wikipedia aside from this. On 5 April 2022 a user on Twitter claimed to be the person who added the hoax, saying they did it so that they could wear a gorilla costume while presenting their school project on the Naval Academy.
Claim that the 1924 Democratic National Convention was also known as the "Klanbake". 12 years,
7 months
August 23, 2005 March 15, 2018 added, removed Type 4 (False or unreferenced and dubious statement that may or may not be a hoax as it could arguably have been added as a mistake or in good faith). This alternative name was added to the article in 2005; at that time the article had no references. The name was reused in another hoax or error that begun circulated on social media in 2015 (see the section discussing the "Klanbake" meme in the 1924 Democratic National Convention article) until it was removed from Wikipedia in 2018 after repeatedly failing verification.
Claim that the Singaporean town of Ang Mo Kio was named after the fictitious "Lady Jennifer Windsor", whose ghost haunted the bridge where her three children drowned. 11 years,
8 months
November 21, 2008 July 29, 2020 Added, removed. Type 2a (Obvious hoax due to elaborateness). The claim was added by Paulchen68 in 2008; at that time the article had no references. The short lived account made several other edits to Wikipedia which appear to have been in good faith. The ghost story was removed in 2020 when it failed verification. See discussion; with the only source pre-dating the Wikipedia entry being an Internet forum post from earlier that day. Before being removed from Wikipedia, the hoax made its way into at least one book and a TV show.
A claim that former UK Prime Minister John Major's interest in politics was partly sparked by "a chance meeting with Clement Attlee on the King's Road." 11 years,
5 months
November 9, 2008 April 15, 2020 added, removed Type 3 (Possible hoax but with room for doubt). The claim was added by a SPA account without a reference to an unreferenced paragraph. It was eventually removed over a decade later as failing verification.
The Ultimate Showdown of Ultimate Destiny
A claim that the song was distributed under the nonexistent record label "Bandung Records"
11 years,
2 months
January 23, 2010 March 24, 2021 added, removed Type 4 (False or unreferenced and dubious statement that may or may not be a hoax as it could arguably have been added as a mistake or in good faith). Claim added by an anon to an infobox and removed for being unreferenced over a decade earlier. See also Talk:The_Ultimate_Showdown_of_Ultimate_Destiny.
The existence of Moose Boulder Island, an alleged fourth-order island located within Ryan Island on Isle Royale 10 years,
10 months
May 5, 2009 March 10, 2020 added, removed Type 3 (Possible hoax but with room for doubt). In 2020 an article in Atlas Obscura discussed the results of an investigation of local explorers into the existence of this purported island, noting they failed to locate it. The article traced the story of it to Wikipedia, further writing that "The identity of that first Wikipedia user to write about it—with those completely unrelated sources—remains a mystery, but all available evidence suggests that it was a person having a laugh, nothing more." The article further noted the claim has been removed and reinstated on Wikipedia, however with a note that "the second Wikipedia editor—who perpetuated the earlier misinformation on Moose Boulder—had been “genuinely duped” rather than [being] a conspirator." The journalist investigation, however, did not reveal any information about the editor who added the error, and there is no evidence their addition of Moose Boulder to Wikipedia was intended to mislead anyone. The article contains a disclaimer that the authors "can’t be 100 percent sure that it doesn’t exist, without exploring every square foot of the island, which is very densely forested." While the claim was removed from Wikipedia's entry for Isle Royale shortly after the publication of the Atlas Obscura story, as of 2021, the hoax is discussed at Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) (to which it was copied upon the page creation in 2014), where the Moose Boulder redirect (created in 2020) points. See also Talk:Siskiwit_Lake_(Isle_Royale)#Moose_Flats_and_Moose_Boulder.
Torvald Hightower
A fictitious 18th-century "philanthropic pioneer," who was claimed to exist on the page for the name Torvald
10 years,
7 months
September 10, 2008 May 5, 2019 added, removed, added again, removed a second time Type 3 (Possible hoax but with room for doubt). Unreferenced short entry added to a list of otherwise unreferenced entries by an IP (note: disambiguation pages are usually unreferenced per Wikipedia's Manual of Style). The name "Torvald Hightower" does not appear in any sources. It was originally added by an IP in December 2007, then removed in April 2008, before being added again by a different IP in September 2008. The last addition was not undone until May 2019.

Extant for 8–9 years[edit]

Claim Length Insertion date Removal date Links Error type
Franklin Avenue station (BMT Lexington Avenue Line)
Claim that the station was originally named Electric Avenue because electricity was discovered here.
9 years,
10 months
May 30, 2011 March 14, 2021 added, removed Type 2b (Obvious hoax due to pattern of vandalism by the account which added it). Claim was added by an account whose other edits were obvious vandalisms: [18], [19], [20]. Unlike others, this one seemed somewhat plausible and evaded scrutiny for almost 10 years.
Adam Gilchrist
Fictitious claims that Australian cricketer Adam Gilchrist read the works of Karl Marx when on tour.
9 years,
2 months
February 22, 2009 May 2, 2018 Added here and here, removed. Gilchrist's denial on twitter (dead link) Type 3 (Possible hoax but with room for doubt). Claim added by a single-purpose IP. The hoax claim was cited to a fictitious statement in a real book by Australian Captain Ricky Ponting. Claim failed verification (removed with edit summary: "The claim doesn't appear on the cited pages of the book - or anywhere in it.") and was disputed by the subject who tweeted that "someone [was] taking the piss" after it spread to several newspapers, including The Times of India. However, other information added by the IP has been correctly referenced and was so far retained as correct. Whether the IP intended to mislead or made an error is unclear.
Lord Byron
Claims that he kept a crocodile and a honey badger as pets
8 years,
8½ months
November 20, 2006 August 7, 2015 crocodile added, honey badger added, both removed
Crocodile mentioned in The Sunday Times
Type 4 (False or unreferenced and dubious statement that may or may not be a hoax as it could arguably have been added as a mistake or in good faith). Both claims were added by an IP (one in November 2006 and the other in January 2014). At those times the list of animals Lord Byron kept was entirely unreferenced anyway, and the claims seem plausible. A request for citation for this list of animals was added in May 2014. In August 2015 reference was added by the same editor who removed entries for crocodile and honey badger, who also said "Add a citation for the animals (except the parrot, which I can't find a source for, but it was added in the same edit as the others and wasn't a deliberate hoax" and removed the entry for the parrot as well. The list of animals was added in June 2003 without a reference by an editor in good standing. Whether the entries for the parrot, crocodile and honey badger were all intentional jokes, honest errors, or based on a rare and as of yet uncited source cannot be determined at this point.
1 year,
6 months
January 29, 2014
Muhammad Ali
"A youth club in Ali's home town, a species of rose (Rosa Ali) and a small child have all been named after him."
8 years,
4½ months
November 9, 2006 March 28, 2015 added, removed. Type 1 (Admission of hoax). The statement was added by an IP on November 9, 2006. On 28 March 2015 Michael Deacon stated revealed that he was the one who added it: "Once, when I was working at a men’s magazine, a colleague was compiling a quiz about Muhammad Ali. As a test, I inserted a banal lie into Ali’s Wikipedia biography (I said a species of rose, rosa ali, is named after him). Innocently my colleague incorporated the lie into his quiz. Ten years later, on Ali’s frequently updated Wikipedia page, that lie is still there." The hoax was subsequently removed from Wikipedia within 24 hours.
Matt Siegel
"...Massachusetts Governor Paul Celluci (sic) proclaimed that January 12, 2001 shall be honored as “Matty in the Morning” Day with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts."
8 years,
5 days
March 20, 2013 March 25, 2021 added, removed Type 4 (False or unreferenced and dubious statement that may or may not be a hoax as it could arguably have been added as a mistake or in good faith). This claim was put in the article when it was created and was not taken down until 8 years later. Searching up both the governor's name with and without the misspelling brought up nothing about "Matty in the Morning Day". No other content present in the article at the time of its creation have been identified as false.

Extant for 4–7 years[edit]

Claim Length Insertion date Removal date Links Error type
Claim that women in Uganda refer to the Protopterus as a "sister fish" and for this reason abstain from eating them.
7 years,
11 months
March 11, 2009 February 7, 2017 added, removed Type 4 (False or unreferenced and dubious statement that may or may not be a hoax as it could arguably have been added as a mistake or in good faith). Unreferenced content added by an IP on March 12, 2009. Citation requested on February 6, 2017, and then the text removed a day later, after diligent research by an estabilished editor found no sources (see Talk:Protopterus#Unsourced information removed. Note that the claim has by then spread to several other outlets.
A Japan Academy Prize awarded for "Outstanding Achievement in Winning an Outstanding Achievement" 7 years, 7 months May 12, 2007 December 13, 2014 added, removed Type 2b (Obvious hoax due to pattern of vandalism by the account which added it) or Type 2a (Obvious hoax due to elaborateness), with elaborateness meaning a pretty obvious joke. Unreferenced claim added by an IP who a few days earlier also "invented" another award, this time Academy Award for Longest Monologue. Apparently it took 7 years for someone to notice this joke (the monologue one lasted just about 3 months).
In Bill Mauldin:
Mauldin's friend Irving Richtel supposedly served as the model for Willie, a cartoon character of an American soldier.
7 years, 7 months March 9, 2008 October 16, 2015 added, removed Type 4 (False or unreferenced and dubious statement that may or may not be a hoax as it could arguably have been added as a mistake or in good faith). Content was added into an otherwise referenced paragraph by an IP account that made no other edits before or since. 7 years later, content was removed by a regular editor with an edit summary "Both the personas and the appearance predate Richtel". The indicent was never discussed on article's talk. While Mauldin served with a jeep driver named Irving Richtel (Mauldin, Bill (1944). News of the 45th, pp. 97–98, 115, 142.; Mauldin, Bill (1971). The Brass Ring, p. 164.), no source was found that said that Willie was modeled after Richtel. After the 2008 appearance in Wikipedia, the hoax migrated to Julian M. Olejniczak's 2015 book To Be A Soldier: A Selective American Military History, p. 143, and it made it into several websites such as the Armed Air Forces History Museum and the West Point Association.
In Microsoft Windows:
"The history of Windows dates back to September 1981, when Chase Bishop, a computer scientist, designed the first model of an electronic device and project Interface Manager was started."
7 years,
3 months
September 26, 2010 January 25, 2018 added, removed, Type 2b (Obvious hoax due to pattern of vandalism by the account which added it). Content was added into an otherwise referenced paragraph by Dinnerface (talk • contribs • deleted contribs • nuke contribs • logs • filter log • block user • block log), a short-lived account who vandalized the article on MySQL minutes earlier. Vandalism at MySQL was removed within one day, but the edit to Microsoft Windows was less obvious and survived for 7 years, as at that time nobody bothered to check other edits by that account and revert all of them.
Fictional minor planet "14345 Mousen", named after nonexistent Pakistani astronomer and planetarium director "Mousen Saeed" 7 years,
1 month
April 19, 2012 May 29, 2019 added on March 30, 2012, removed on March 30, 2012, added back mistakenly on April 19, 2012, removed after 7 years on May 29, 2019
Robert Serber
Fictitious assassination attempt, fictitious assassin added later
6 years,
9½ months
May 6, 2009 February 12, 2016 Diff
Janusism: a fictitious form of word play 6 years,
8 months
February 5, 2015 October 14, 2021 added, removed
A claim that pyruvate decarboxylation is known as the "Swanson conversion." In actuality, the term was coined by a high school chemistry teacher of the same name, who decided not to remove the reference from Wikipedia in order to encourage his students to be more careful when researching. 6 years,
6½ months
December 15, 2010 June 24, 2017 added, removed

Article about the edit

Claim that the fictitious vulgar name "hairy bush fruit" was an existing synonym for kiwifruit. Hoax only came to light after hoaxer admitted to it. 6 years,
5 months
November 6, 2007 March 2, 2014 Addition
The article on Henry David Thoreau included a made-up quote by Louisa May Alcott about the writer's "neck-beard". 6 years,
3 months
December 21, 2007 March 18, 2014 Added, removed
Talk page comment detailing the hoax
Medium article about the hoax
The article on Voice of Fire included a made-up quote indicating the painting had been hung upside down. 6 years,
2 months
February 23, 2015 May 2, 2021 Talk page comment detailing the hoax
Supposed existence of a “Silk Imperial Crown of Russia”, illustrated by pictures of some crown-shaped box. Probably added to advertise a fraudulent gift shop site. 6 years,
1½ month
November 15, 2015 January 3, 2022 Users involved: Diirector (talk · contribs), 1896coronation (talk · contribs) Balthatzar (talk · contribs).



Allegation that Brierfield, Lancashire, with its smoking mills, was Tolkien's inspiration for the evil land of Mordor. 6 years,
½ month
March 8, 2006 March 21, 2012 added, removed; was spotted by a blogger in August 2006 but didn't follow up; believed by sources including The Guardian
Claim that the coati was also known as "Brazilian aardvark". Added by a then 17-year-old student as a private joke, the false information lasted for six years and was propagated by hundreds of websites, several newspapers, and even books by a few university presses.[5][6] The spread was such that the joke indeed became a common name for the animal and was cited in several sources. After the initial removal, the name was reinserted multiple times by users who believed it had become legitimate. 5 years, 10 months July 12, 2008 May 20, 2014 added, removed
Claim that "Bryan Tyler" and "Mark Sims" were former members of the Eli Young Band. 5 years,
8 months
February 7, 2008 October 9, 2013 added, removed
A wholly fictitious origin story for Amelia Bedelia, the main character of the eponymous popular children's book series: "'Amelia Bedelia' was based on a French colonial maid in Cameroon, where the author spent some time during her formative years. Her vast collection of hats, notorious for their extensive plumage, inspired her to write an assortment of tales based on her experiences in North Africa." After being repeated tens of times, sometimes by journalists and academics, the hoax was identified by EJ Dickson, one of its authors, turned journalist, who had written it as a joke with a friend while "stoned". 5 years,
6 months
January 31, 2009 July 29, 2014 Addition
Claim that the "too slow" variant of a high five incited a war in the rebooted Planet of the Apes film series 5 years,
3 months
August 8, 2014 November 5, 2019 Addition, Initial removal, Final removal
The first attempt to remove this was reverted by the original editor because the information came from a seemingly reliable source, but the source was making a joke.
Fictitious claim about Oscar Wilde added to List of Latin phrases 5 years,
2 months
September 19, 2005 November 26, 2010 added, removed, Story and explanation
Claim that the 1996 republication of There's a Wocket in My Pocket removed the "vug under the rug", and the nonexistent characters "red under the bed" and "burnus in the furnace", for being too scary. 5 years,
½ month
January 21st, 2009 February 12, 2014 original statement added; "burnus in the furnace" removed; "red under the bed" added; statement removed
Nonexistent show named "Porn Stars: the New Age" in List of programs broadcast by History (TV channel) 4 years,
11 months
November 13, 2014 October 27, 2019 added, removed
Lucy Gordon
Fake filmography credit added the day after actress's suicide alleging she started her career in the sitcom 2.4 Children.
4 years, 11 months May 21, 2009 April 10, 2014 [21]
Julius Freed
Fictitious claim that the founder of Orange Julius invented auto-cleaning spectacles, an inflatable shrimp trap, and a portable pigeon-bathing unit. Dairy Queen, which now owns Orange Julius, was fooled; the company based an entire ad campaign around the hoax and produced this video about Julius Freed's supposed inventions.
4 years,
9 months
June 22, 2005 March 11, 2010 Reported by Ken Jennings on his blog.[7]
Fictitious mayor "Nick Mshar" in the infobox of the article for the community of Mandale, North Carolina. 4 years,
8 months
December 9, 2017 August 22, 2022 Added, removed. Unincorporated communities are not governed like cities or towns, making the claim of a mayor likely to be false.
Claim in List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations that a valid demonym for Guam is "Guambat" (possibly a pun on wombat). 4 years,
6½ months
October 24, 2013 May 13, 2018 added, removed
Reference to "glucojasinogen" in diabetic neuropathy 4 years,
4½ months
October 7, 2007 February 29, 2012 added, removed; original edit appears word for word in S.V. Tembhurne & D.M. Sakarkar (June 2010). "Influence of Murraya koenigii on experimental model of diabetes and progression of neuropathic pain". Res Pharm Sci. 5 (1): 41–47. PMC 3093092. PMID 21589767. and Talha Jawaid; Ashok K Shakya; Mehnaz Kamal & Sarfaraz Hussain (June 2008). "Amitriptyline and Sertraline in Diabetic Neuropathy: A Comparative View". International Journal of Health Research. 1 (2): 73–78..
Mention of "Ysolo", a fictional eggplant harvest festival in Albania, in List of harvest festivals 4 years,
4½ months
July 11, 2012 November 25, 2016 added, removed, talk page discussion, redirect discussion. For a time, a mountain on Ceres bore the name of this "festival"; upon discovery of this hoax it was renamed "Yamor Mons".
Claim that Adrienne Monnier was best known for a book about an American boy named Bill Monnier 4 years,
4 months
November 28, 2010 March 31, 2015 added, removed
Section on the fictional non-league football career of minor British soap opera actor Will Mellor 4 years,
4 months
January 12, 2007 May 9, 2011 added, removed. Claim was repeated on the website for the artists agency represents Mellor. [22]
In List of mythological objects: Ichaival
Romanization of Japanese translation of Ýdalir, used in Fire Emblem: Genealogy of the Holy War and spread to other media such as Smite.[8][9]
4 years,
1 month
December 16, 2013 January 21, 2018 Special:Diff/586361279

Extant for 1–3 years[edit]

Claim Length Insertion date Removal date Links
Claim that, due to her fame in Japan, female wrestler Kaoru Matsumoto was known as the "Niall Quinn of Joshi" 3.61 years October 13, 2008 May 24, 2012 added, removed
Jack Mills and Joey Deacon's Farmhouse Brie
Fictitious cheesemaking house that survived on the Hury page for over three years.
3.53 years September 21, 2012 April 4, 2016 Reverted [23]
Former American Gladiator Jonathan Byrne
Series of edits regarding an eccentric and non-existent American Gladiator
3.47 years June 19, 2006 December 6, 2009 Thirty pages unraveled over a two day period by Jeandré du Toit.
First edit
Others: [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52]
Other edits had been previously removed on an individual basis. Believed by people online, including some people who claimed to remember him.
Monarch (butterfly) as Canada's national insect 3.29 years December 9, 2004 March 26, 2008 added, removed
Toyota Canarado
Fictitious name for a car model
3.27 years January 13, 2013 April 22, 2016 Talk:Toyota Previa#Toyota Canarado
Fabricated musician credits on Mr. Misunderstood 3.23 years January 18, 2019 April 12, 2022 Added in this edit; removed in this edit. The album contains no performer credits whatsoever.
19th-century invention of the hair iron attributed to fictitious persons, "Erica Feldman" (changed from Madam C. J. Walker) and another name (apparently a classmate) on English and Simple English Wikipedia. Both names are now widely credited on the Internet (as well as in one book) with the invention of the hair straightener [53][54][55][56][57] 3.09 years August 14, 2006 September 15, 2009 Erica Feldman, I. G., [58], [59], discussion at Wikipedia Review
Rosie the Riveter
Original Rosie was Shirley Karp: hoax
Original Rosie was Shirley Karp Dick: vandalism
3.02 years January 16, 2009 January 24, 2012 Historian Max Hastings published in the first edition of his November 2011 book Inferno: The World at War, 1939–1945 (called All Hell Let Loose in the UK): "Another much-publicised 'Rosie' was Shirley Karp Dick, who was paid $6 to model for photos, of which the most famous showed her treading on Hitler's Mein Kampf."[60] A second edition was published October 2012 after the hoax was revealed.
Claim that Khofifah Indar Parawansa's middle name is Tegistha 2.91 years June 12, 2017 May 11, 2020 added, removed, cited in Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2018 Fostering Growth through Digitalisation: Fostering Growth through Digitalisation
Famous Residents section alleging this as city where Nicholas Copernicus contracted genital warts from a Mirsk prostitute, as allegedly proved by DNA evidence. Vandalism was removed by Jimmy Wales.
2.66 years January 15, 2012 September 14, 2014 User talk:Meishern#Do you have any evidence for this.3F, Added: [61], Removed: [62]
Screen of death
The inclusion of an error from a fictional operating system named "PowerMax."
2.63 years May 26, 2019 January 9, 2022 added, removed
Eric Clapton's various girlfriends 2.61 years May 9, 2011 December 19, 2013 A paragraph was inserted listing 15 women that Clapton supposedly dated. One was Alicia Witt who eventually saw the list and complained on Facebook that it was not true about her. The whole paragraph was supported by a hoax reference initially listing the Boston Beacon which was soon changed to the Boston Globe, even though no such article exists.
Claim that physicist Hans Geiger was supposedly nicknamed "Gengar" 2.49 years May 22, 2015 November 18, 2017 discussion
added, removed
Claim that Martin Morning was followed by a show called Nappyimals 2.4 years September 6, 2019 January 28, 2022 The unsourced claim was inserted into the infobox along with a paragraph stating the same team should make the show. Although Nappyimals was linked, it was only to Diaper (nappy in British English) and Animal. While the paragraph was removed in a few months, the claim in the info box stayed up. The only other instance of "Nappyimals" online outside of mirrors was the same exact paragraph inserted on the website Paul Marciano Wiki a few months after the original edit. (Paul Marciano has never worked in animation.)
added, removed, talk page discussion
Fictitious "yachting" section on Bridgestone 2.39 years September 4, 2015 January 24, 2018 Added to article 4 September 2015, extended July 2017, removed 24 January 2018
Fictitious "further reading" on bullshit 2.37 years November 23, 2007 April 8, 2010 added, deleted
Claim that the Cuban township of Guanabacoa's nickname was "Villa de Pepe Armenio", when it was really "Villa de Pepe Antonio". May have been a mistake rather than intentionally misleading information. 2.34 years January 11, 2016 May 15, 2018 Differences between hoax and correction on the Guanabacoa article
Claims that Adams Packer Film Productions produced an animated series named Angel Marble Elijah or Angel Marble Eddy in the 1970's and that the series was subsequently dubbed in Finnish by Golden Voice 2.32 years July 8, 2015 November 1, 2017 added, removed
Fictitious Illyrian gods 2.31 years October 27, 2005 February 18, 2008 Old revision of Paleo-Balkanic mythology showing fictitious gods, discussion
Characterisation of Shane (name) signifying a violent individual 2.31 years December 21, 2007 April 12, 2010 added, deleted, believed by [63] and [64]
Just When I Needed You Most
Cover version by "Daniel Selby"
2.03 years January 22, 2011 January 31, 2013 added, removed
Reference to Selby also added on songwriter Randy VanWarmer's page (removed)
PC Card
Claimed to be invented by "Jacob D. Holm" in 1986. In reality, the PCMCIA organization was formed in 1989-09, based on the initiative of Poqet Computer Corporation's Ian Cullimore with support from Fujitsu and Intel since 1989-07.
2.03 years August 18, 2011 August 30, 2013 added, removed
Stephen Gostkowski
Claim that "Benjamin Skiest" was a high school football opponent of Stephen Gostkowski and became a running back for the Atlanta Falcons.
1.91 years November 1, 2018 September 27, 2020 added, removed
Let Me Be There and If You Love Me (Let Me Know)
For nearly two years, both articles credited a "Navin Harris" as the backing vocalist instead of Mike Sammes.
1.79 years June 17, 2010 April 2, 2012 (both articles) Appears in this article and this publication of Olivia Newton-John related Wikipedia articles
Content was repeatedly re-added by an IP-hopper after first removal in April 2012, even after the addition of a source verifying the real vocalist's name, leading to indefinite semi-protection of both articles; see also Wikipedia:Administrators' noticeboard/IncidentArchive747#Repeated vandalism for a likely source of the name.
United States Secretary of Education hoax
Three fake secretaries were added to the list and remained unnoticed for nearly two years.
1.79 years March 20, 2019 January 1, 2021 (first one removed); January 7, 2021 (other two removed) added, one removed, other two removed
Lustfaust hoax
The real band Lustfaust, which the article is now about, used this fake band as a marketing tactic
1.74 years October 15, 2005 July 14, 2007 Old revision of article about fake band, NYT article describing fake article
Involvement of Brian Reddyb in the band Rednex
1.71 years October 17, 2005 July 3, 2007 added, removed; User:Brian Reddyb vocally defended his hoax edits until he was banned, and Rednex personally denounced his story. Brian made a similar hoax edit to Saddam Hussein.
Spurious stadium capacity of Queens Park AFC, Invercargill, New Zealand
100,000,000 — nearly 20 times the population of the entire country
1.71 years June 23, 2020 March 10, 2022 added, removed
Fictitious murder case in Chah-e Allahdad, Iran, involving a "Wanye al-Ballshar" who emigrated to New Jersey.
Included an image of the purported suspect that was generated by the website This Person Does Not Exist; the article was deleted by AfD shortly afterward for unrelated reasons.
1.65 years December 2, 2020 July 26, 2022 added, removed
claim under 'Applications' that palladium is used in the production of the fictional substance Thiotimoline
1.16 years February 22, 2011 April 19, 2012
Traffic cones called "kafele boothe cones" 1.64 years October 4, 2010 May 24, 2012 [65] [66]

Returned from July 28, 2012 to December 18, 2012, again on March 25, 2013, June 7, 2013 to June 14, 2013, and June 21, 2013 to July 12, 2013

"Conrad Dean" as backing vocalist on Whatcha Gonna Do with a Cowboy 1.49 years March 29, 2012 September 25, 2013
Dexter, New York and Dexter, Maine
On two distinct occasions, it was falsely claimed the town was named after "Dexter Borup". The IP that made the first edit also added the name uncapitalized to Dexter, Maine.
0.9 years February 23, 2007 January 17, 2008 first time: added, removed; second time: added, removed. Was picked up by other resources on the town.[dead link]

Maine: [67],[68]

1.49 years February 1, 2009 July 30, 2010
0.99 years February 27, 2007 February 23, 2008
Fake material in Tristan
Sir Tristan as an "overweight knight"
1.47 years September 2, 2004 February 20, 2006 added, removed
Arthur Foot being Michael Foot′s brother. 1.43 years November 14, 2013 April 21, 2015 added, removed/names of actual brothers and a nephew added
Addition of three trees to Man-eating tree, one of which (Duñak) is completely fabricated
Inspired several pieces of artwork and literature, including a novel.[dead link]
1.27 years October 26, 2008 February 2, 2010 added, removed. Believed by The Epoch Times (May 5, 2009)
Fictitious sons of Aaron
Nada and Abidjan
1.11 years March 16, 2008 April 26, 2009 added, removed
Gérard Louis-Dreyfus
Fictitious children named "Rover and Bethlehem". (revision)
1.04 years March 9, 2009 March 24, 2010 added, removed
Oggy and the Cockroaches' English voice cast
Fictitious Canadian-American voice cast for an animated series without dialogue, featuring actor Don Michael Paul and voice actors Greg Eagles, Tara Strong, Peter Kelamis, Tony Sampson, Sam Vincent and Matt Hill
2 years September 17, 2011 September 4, 2013 Added, removed, cast list on Netflix
The show is often a target to these voice cast (type 2a) hoaxes, with the Canadian-American one being the most common. The inclusion of Japanese actors also affected Mitsuaki Madono and Nobuo Tobita's dubbing sections for a while.

Extant for less than one year[edit]

This section lists hoaxes covered for less than one year. See Wikipedia:List of hoaxes on Wikipedia/Less than one year for the full list. This section should list only hoaxes covered in independent third-party sources. Short-lived hoaxes are innumerable and so we do not normally track them — they can be found by searching deletion logs for "hoax".

Claim Length Insertion date Removal date Links
Top of the Klass with Mylene Klass (AfD)
Included an account of a fictitious scandal involving a real person; references were added to several other articles [69][70][71][72]
4½ months April 28, 2010 September 18, 2010 Talk page, Article from, Discussion at Bother's Bar
Ronnie Hazlehurst
Erroneous information (alleging that he had co-written a pop hit for band S Club 7) inserted into this article led to several news outlets repeating it in his obituary following his death, which in turn led to verifiable citations. The incident was widely reported in the UK meta-media, in particular by Private Eye and Have I Got News for You (the latter featuring the editor of the former as a regular panellist.)
11 days September 20, 2007 October 1, 2007 The incorrect information talk page discussing the issue
John F. Street
Vandalism from IP editor inserting false information about how the Philadelphia mayor had formerly worked as Bozo the Clown.
5 days January 14, 2007 January 19, 2007 The incorrect information. Other IPs restore the vandalism [73][74] but it is quickly reverted. Talk page discussing the issue. Article about the hoax in the Philadelphia Inquirer[dead link]. A couple of months later, an IP editor added information about the hoax to the biography.[75] Over the next few years this material was variously kept as reliably sourced, or deleted as trivial.
Falsified quotes by Maurice Jarre
Went viral in mainstream media after his death
24 hours March 30, 2009 March 31, 2009 added
Discussion at Irish Times
Roger Vinson
Addition that the individual was an amateur taxidermist who mounted bear heads above the door of his courtroom. The hoax information became known when Rush Limbaugh misused it on his radio program.
1 day September 13, 2010 September 14, 2010 Huffington Post
New York Times
Wall Street Journal
Pensacola News Journal
Scott Steiner
In a wrestling storyline, Samoa Joe "attacked" Steiner with a machete at the Destination X pay-per view event. In a shocking lack of recognition of kayfabe, and thinking that even TNA at its most bewildering would show a legitimate attempted murder, an editor added a death section to the article, which was definitively removed about an hour later.
1 hour, in total March 15, 2009 March 15, 2009 The addition to Wikipedia is mentioned in an appendix of the expanded version of The Death of WCW, where the storyline was described as "preposterous".
A hoax edit alleged that the company was being sold; the quickly-deleted hoax nonetheless caused alarm at its headquarters in Northern Ireland, prompting a report from the Belfast Telegraph.
47 minutes November 26, 2015 November 26, 2015 First part added, second part added, removed
Destination of interplanetary probe changed from Mercury (planet) to Canada.
5 minutes January 17, 2008 January 17, 2008 Uncle John's Bathroom Reader Plunges into Canada, ISBN 9781607101000 page 272, inexplicably devotes two-thirds of a printed page to this short-lived bit of vandalism, explaining in detail how MESSENGER was the first mission to visit Canada in over 30 years, studying its environment and characteristics from orbit.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Kumar, Srijan; West, Robert; Leskovec, Jure (April 2016). "Disinformation on the Web: Impact, Characteristics, and Detection of Wikipedia Hoaxes" (PDF). Proceedings of the 25th International World Wide Web Conference: 591–602. doi:10.1145/2872427.2883085. S2CID 30068. Archived from the original on May 10, 2021. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  2. ^ Howard, Jennifer (December 18, 2008). "Teaching by Lying: Professor Unveils 'Last Pirate' Hoax". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on May 20, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  3. ^ Matheson, Whitney (December 4, 2008). "Pop Candy blog". Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  4. ^ "The Last American Pirate". December 4, 2008. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  5. ^ Randall, Eric (May 19, 2014). "How a raccoon became an aardvark". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on December 29, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
  6. ^ Kolbe, Andreas (January 16, 2017). "Happy birthday: Jimbo Wales' sweet 16 Wikipedia fails. From aardvark to Bicholim, the encylopedia [sic] of things that never were". The Register. Archived from the original on July 8, 2017. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
  7. ^ Jennings, Ken (May 28, 2010). "Anatomy of a Wiki-hoax". Ken Jennings Blog. Archived from the original on April 8, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  8. ^ Zawodniak, Matthew (August 29, 2019). "That Time Fire Emblem Accidentally Created A Fake Norse Myth". Nintendo World Report. Archived from the original on May 8, 2021. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
  9. ^ "Yewfelle". Fire Emblem Wiki. March 20, 2021. Archived from the original on May 10, 2021. Retrieved May 8, 2021.

Further reading[edit]