Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Philippines-related articles

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To write and edit Philippines-related articles, please follow these conventions.

Adjective form of the Philippines[edit]

  • Philippine is generally used with inanimate nouns. Examples: the Philippine National Anthem, the Philippine Senate.
    Philippine is also used as an adjective for people when it describes people representing the Philippine nation. Examples: the Philippine president, the Philippine ambassador, a Philippine politician, the Philippine goalkeeper.
    Note that Philippine cannot be used as an adjectival noun: The Philippine was talking to the Frenchman is not idiomatic English.
  • Filipino is used as an adjective and adjectival noun to refer to male Philippine citizens or people with Filipino ancestry: a Filipino actor, He is [a] Filipino. It is mainly used for males or mixed-gender groups, or where the gender is unknown. Example: Many Filipinos believe ...
    Filipino may also be used with inanimate nouns, though it is more commonly applied to people. Examples: Filipino jeep, Filipino pottery.
    Filipino is also the name of the national language. Examples: She speaks Filipino, Filipino-speakers.
  • Filipina is used when referring to women, both as an adjective and as an adjectival noun. Examples: a Filipina poet, The company is run by a Filipina.
    Filipino women is an expression that is mainly used outside the Philippines and should be avoided in Philippine-related articles; in Philippine English, standard usage is Filipinas, Filipina women or, more rarely, Philippine women.
  • Pinoy and the feminine form Pinay are the slang equivalents to Filipino and Filipina respectively, and apply to people only.
  • Pilipino or Pilipina are rarely used in English. They may be found in the former name of the Filipino language as well as in the acronym OPM, or Original Pilipino Music.
  • Phillippino, Phillipino, Philippino, or Philipino are simply wrong.


Historical figures[edit]

Names of historical figures (roughly those who were alive during Spanish rule) should generally follow Spanish conventions outlined at Iberian naming customs. The article title should include the given name and the surname. The first mention of the subject should be in bold and include the whole name, including mother's maiden name and any other names. Exceptions are allowed, especially if the subject is widely known by his or her whole name, as in the case of Miguel López de Legazpi.

Diacritics or accent marks are to be preserved even if they are unused today.

  • Example:
    • Article name: José Rizal
    • First mention: José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda

Modern figures[edit]

Names of modern figures (roughly those who were born during the 20th century) should follow current Philippine naming conventions where the middle name is generally the mother's maiden name. The article title should include the given name and the surname. The first mention of the subject should be in bold and include the whole name, with the mother's maiden name (if used) between the first name and surname.

Names are expected to be written according to contemporary Philippine usage and should not be modified to conform to Spanish usage. This means, in general, that no diacritics are to be used unless they are widely used, as in the case of the name José and the surname Osmeña. Furthermore, this also means that surnames such as Dela Cruz should not be written de la Cruz.

  • Example 1: Corazon Aquino, not Corazón Aquino
  • Example 2: Carlos Polestico Garcia, not Carlos Poléstico García, or Carlos García y Poléstico


Article structure for places should follow the guideline as per Wikipedia:WikiProject Cities/Settlements: Article structure.

Infoboxes for provinces should have one map: the country map with the province highlighted. Infoboxes for local governments have the province map with the locality highlighted, and only use Philippines national map for pushpin map, no multiple pushpin maps.

Diacritics except eñe (ñ) are not to be used in place names, hence Cagayan instead of Cagayán and La Union rather than La Unión, but Parañaque instead of Paranaque and Los Baños rather than Los Banos.


The name of the province should be written by itself, wherever possible. Furthermore, in the case of a province sharing the same name with a municipality, then the name of the province generally takes precedence. If the province shares its name with an island, then normal disambiguation rules apply including the consideration on whether the island or the province is the WP:PRIMARYTOPIC for the name. Thus, the island is located at Leyte and the province is at Leyte (province).

The word province should not be placed after the province's name, unless it is part of the province's name. The only province this applies to is Mountain Province.

If using the name by itself is not possible for whatever reason, then (province) should be placed after the province's name. Examples: Abra (province), Antique (province), Aurora (province), and Laguna (province).


As a general rule, article titles of municipalities follow the [[municipality-name]] format, without the name of the province, unless a disambiguation is needed or is necessary. In that case, article titles follow the [[municipality-name, Province]] format. Thus: Guiuan and Shariff Aguak but President Manuel A. Roxas, Zamboanga del Norte and Santa Praxedes, Cagayan.


General usage[edit]

As a general rule, cities should neither be affixed with the word "City" nor the name of the province in which it is located. Examples:

  • Kabankalan instead of Kabankalan, Negros Occidental
  • Tacloban instead of Tacloban City
  • Tagbilaran instead of Tagbilaran City, Bohol

When to use the word City as part of the city name (e.g., Cityname City)[edit]

Whenever a city has the same name as that of a Philippine province or region, the word "City" may be provided as part of the city name. Examples:

Capital city or municipality with the same name as that of other Philippine city or town[edit]

The capital city or municipality, being the preferred primary topic, should have no disambiguation; while the non-capital Philippine city or town should be disambiguated with Cityname, Provincename format. Examples:

When to use Provincial name as part of the city name (e.g., Cityname, Provincename)[edit]

If the city has the same name with other city or municipality in the Philippines, the most common way to disambiguate is to use the provincial name after the name of the city (e.g., Cityname, Provincename). If it is in Metro Manila, use Cityname, Metro Manila. This is also applicable to independent and highly urbanized cities, except those names which are unique in the Philippines but not in other countries. The provincial name purports to describe the general area and not necessarily as the mother political unit of the city.

City with the same name as that of other Philippine city or municipality[edit]
Component city with the same name as that of other non-Philippine city or municipality[edit]
Two or more capital Philippine cities or municipalities sharing the same name[edit]

When to use the word Philippines as part of the city name (e.g., Cityname, Philippines)[edit]

Places are often disambiguated by the country in which they lie, if this is sufficient. In case of highly urbanized city with the same name as that of another non-Philippine municipality; but no other Philippine city or town with the same name, use CityName, Philippines. This method can also be used if it is disambiguated with other personality or thing (aside from another foreign municipality) which is significantly well known enough to be considered as the primary topic. Example:

Special title[edit]

If the city has special title in addition to the word "city", use the plain name. If necessary, combine it with other disambiguation method. Examples

Barangays and districts[edit]

Article titles of barangays must be suffixed by the name of the city or municipality where it is located. It should never be appended by the term "Barangay" as a prefix. Examples: Aurelio, San Jose (not "Barangay Aurelio, San Jose"); Look 1st, Malolos; and Santo Domingo, Cainta. When further disambiguation warrants, use the name of the province, e.g.: San Juan, San Jose, Dinagat Islands and San Ramon, Gandara, Samar. Poblacion articles are under Cityname, Poblacion format, e.g.: Dapa Poblacion and Kalibo Poblacion.

District names are also treated the same way: Jaro, Iloilo City and Santa Mesa, Manila.

Languages and dialects[edit]

In general, the use of the term dialects to refer to Philippine languages should be avoided.

When using a language's name in an article, try to ensure consistency by verifying the name in the language's Wikipedia article or in reference works concerning languages of the Philippines (such as Ethnologue).

This means using Hiligaynon over Ilonggo or Visayan, Cebuano over Binisaya or Visayan, Pangasinan over Pangasinense or Pangalatok, Kapampangan over Pampango or Pampangan, Bikol over Bicol or Bicolano, Ilokano over Ilocano or Iloko, etc.

When writing any Wikipedia articles about schools, colleges and universities based in any province, city, or municipality in the Philippines, please add the correct translations in the local Philippine language rather than the Tagalog language.


Avoid explicit or tacit declarations of who is and who is not Filipino, as this against WP:NPOV.

An example of a statement to avoid is:

Foreign minorities like xxx and yyy comprise z% of the Philippine population.

This could be worded without the POV:

Minorities like xxx and yyy comprise z% of the Philippine population