Wikipedia:Naming conventions (music)
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This page contains naming conventions for music-related articles, covering both classical musical works and popular bands, albums and songs.
The first step for disambiguating classical compositions is rather a reference to their composer, while popular music is rather disambiguated by a type qualifier. Cross-over rather follows the popular music convention, e.g. Swanee (song), not Swanee (Gershwin).
Apart from some points regarding formatting and disambiguation in #Bands, albums and songs, the naming conventions regarding articles on musicians are covered by Wikipedia:Naming conventions (people), including what is said there on groups of people (Wikipedia:Naming conventions (people)#Articles combining biographies of several people). Orchestras, music production companies, etc. are however also often subject to Wikipedia:Naming conventions (companies). See also Wikipedia:Naming conventions (definite or indefinite article at beginning of name)#Names of groups, sports teams and companies
- 1 Compositions (classical music)
- 1.1 Definitions – italics
- 1.2 Quotation marks and partially italicized titles
- 1.3 Capitalization of generic names
- 1.4 Articles not belonging to a series: common name and disambiguation
- 1.5 Key signature, catalogue number, opus number, and other additions to a composition's article title
- 1.6 Articles in series
- 1.7 Lists
- 1.8 Facilitate easy navigation
- 2 Bands, albums and songs
- 3 See also
Compositions (classical music)
Definitions – italics
- Generic and non-generic names
- Compositions have one or more generic or non-generic names:
Generic name Non-generic name Symphony No. 2 (Mahler) Resurrection Symphony Serenade in G major, K. 525 Eine kleine Nachtmusik Aria, BWV 508 "Bist du bei mir" song cycle Op. 25 (Schubert) Die schöne Müllerin Variations on a Theme by Haydn Saint Anthony Variations — Pavane pour une infante défunte Pavane (Fauré) — Quartettsatz, D 103 (Schubert) —
Non-generic names are italicised, except those of individual dances, songs, hymns, lieder and arias (e.g. "The Blue Danube", "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star", "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God", "Heidenröslein", "Madamina, il catalogo è questo"), and separate movements or sections of larger works (e.g. "Ride of the Valkyries").
Also a descriptive name can be a non-generic name that is not italicized (e.g. Music for the Royal Fireworks), unless it is the actual name of the work (e.g. The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, Trois mouvements de Petrouchka). Most generic names are, however, nothing else than standardized descriptive names.
- Generic and non-generic composition types
- Most compositions belong to a generic composition type:
Composition titles that are incipits and have been put to music by several composers are usually regarded as generic names, and so not italicized, e.g. Stabat Mater (Dvořák), unless the composition belongs to an otherwise defined composition type like cantata, e.g. Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern, BWV 1.
In some exceptional cases what in the wording looks like a generic name is treated as a non-generic name (this can only be done for primary topics that would need no further disambiguation):
Quotation marks and partially italicized titles
Quotation marks should be avoided, except for the name of a theme in a set of variations in a generic article title:
Otherwise the use of quotation marks in generic artitle titles is limited to a very few cases:
Partially italicized article titles are likewise unusual for compositions (that is, apart from never italicizing comma-separated and parenthetical disambiguators):
- William Tell Overture ("Overture" not italicized while the composition is a part of a larger work, the opera with the same name – compare Coriolan Overture, not part of a larger work)
- Porgy and Bess discography
Italics and quotation marks should not be used together in a single article title.
Capitalization of generic names
Generic names of compositions (sonata, partita, quartet, symphony,...) should not be capitalized beyond the first character of an article title in descriptive article titles. Examples:
Similar for article titles of articles on the composition types themselves:
"Fixed set" principle for an article on a group of compositions: in Cello Suites (Bach) the second word is capitalized: it is a generic name for a fixed set of 6 suites belonging to the same group. In the baroque to classical era such set often consisted of 6 or 12 similar works for a single opus number. Cello suites (Britten) is not a fixed set (three different opus numbers, not composed as a single set), so "suites" not capitalized in the article title, it is a descriptive article title.
Generic names of compositions are capitalized in article titles on a single composition,
- Always when the generic name is part of an English-language non-generic article title:
- For untranslated and untransliterated article titles from other languages, use the convention of the language of origin:
- For extinct languages like Latin the convention can be less clear, so depends largely on consensus and how the available sources would generally write the name:
- Usually in all other cases:
- However, not always:
Instrumentation included in generic names:
- Capitalized as part of the name of the composition:
- Not capitalized as natural disambiguator (after the key signature if there is one):
Articles not belonging to a series: common name and disambiguation
Compositions that fall under no generic composition type category are rare. Their article title strictly follows the common name principle:
Compositions that are one of a kind and nonetheless have a generic name not requiring additional disambiguation are even more exceptional:
When the name of a non-generic composition is neither unique nor the primary topic under this name, add the composer's last name as parenthical disambiguator:
Common name always applies when a composer composed only one instance of a generic type of composition:
A non-generic article title for an article on a composition that is unique to a composer is only disambiguated by composer's name or composition type when such disambiguation is needed:
- A German Requiem (Brahms)
- Deutsche Messe (Schubert)
- Jack in the Box (Satie)
- Ave Maria (Schubert)
- Wiener Blut (waltz)
When disambiguation is needed for a non-generic article title that applies to several works by the same composer, use composition type or catalogue number:
- La tempesta di mare (flute concerto); La tempesta di mare (violin concerto)
- Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61; Nun komm' der Heiden Heiland, BWV 659
Unless the composition type is truly one of a kind (exactly one composer with exactly one instance of the type) or is a set of variations disambiguated by their theme, generic compositions with a generic article title are always disambiguated by catalogue number and/or the name of the composer:
- Requiem (Fauré)
- Piano Concerto (Dvořák)
- Sinfonia Concertante (Haydn)
- Variations on a Theme of Corelli
- Symphony in D minor (Franck)
- Quodlibet, BWV 524
Avoid however to disambiguate by composer when the composer is not known with certainty, or a composer's name would be otherwise misleading:
Key signature, catalogue number, opus number, and other additions to a composition's article title
- Key signature
- The key signature of a composition is only added to the article title when it is part of the common name of the composition. For generic names of compositions the formatting of the key signature is as described in Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Music#Accidentals, however avoiding special graphics (♭, ♯) in article titles.
- As a disambiguating term, key signatures can only be used in natural disambiguation, so they're never enclosed in parentheses, nor after a comma.
- As key signatures are not always mentioned, can be ambiguous, and are often difficult to remember, they can't serve as an exclusive disambiguating term, unless, exceptionally, as part of a non-generic common name article title, e.g. Te Deum in C.
- Catalogue number
- Disambiguation by catalogue number is usually avoided while these numbers have a low recognisability potential, and can only be used for these composers that have a single widely used catalogue covering all of their compositions:
- Bach: BWV – For Anhang (Anh.) numbers, without the Roman numeral (I, II, III) that indicates the Anhang section, e.g. Gott, gib dein Gerichte dem Könige, BWV Anh. 3, not Gott, gib dein Gerichte dem Könige, BWV Anh. I 3
- Buxtehude: BuxWV
- Handel: HWV
- Mozart: K.: there is another reason to avoid this one as much as possible: there is a lot of variation in the numbers in subsequent editions of the catalogue. When K. numbers are used in article titles nonetheless, use the oldest available catalogue number, usually the one in the original 1862 version of the catalogue, as these oldest numbers appear the most recognisable ones. However, when a composition has as well been numbered in the main catalogue (in one or more editions) and also, in one or more editions, in the Anhang (Anh.) of the catalogue, it is best to differentiate: use the oldest K. Anh. number unless when it is certain that Mozart is the composer of the piece, in which case the oldest main catalogue number should be used. All available K. and K. Anh. numbers should be mentioned in the article.
- Schubert: D – use Deutsch numbers only according to the latest version of the Deutsch catalogue in article titles, and where applicable explain former numbers in the article.
- An advantage of disambiguation by catalogue number is however that compositions can be uniquely identified without taking a stance on who composed them:
- Uns ist ein Kind geboren, BWV 142 – composer uncertain, but disambiguated from similar works by, among others, Graupner and Telemann
- Catalogue numbers can be added as disambiguating term after the common name:
- Between parentheses: Violin sonata in A major (HWV 361)
- Separated by a comma: Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12, Kyrie in F major, K. 33, Passacaglia in D minor, BuxWV 161 (note: comma omitted when a non-generic title ends on another punctuation mark, e.g. Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! BWV 172)
- Avoid D numbers as exclusive disambiguating term, in other words, an article title containing a Deutsch number should always end on "(Schubert)":
- Avoid Deest as a catalogue indicator in an article title: if there is no catalogue number, the catalogue can't be used as part of the disambiguation.
- Opus number
- Opus numbers are only part of a generic name when the composition (or group of compositions) is usually indicated in that fashion:
- Also opus numbers can not be used as exclusive disambiguating term, they're always followed by the last name of the composer in parentheses.
- Other additions
- Following types of qualifiers should only be added to an article title when they're part of the common name. For generic titles they are generally not considered sufficient as an exclusive disambiguating term, so would usually require an additional composer/catalogue type of disambiguating term:
- number of items in a set: Twenty Variations in G major (Haydn), Twelve Violin Sonatas, Op. 2 (Vivaldi), 12 Fantasias for Solo Violin (Telemann)
- instrumentation: Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (Stravinsky), Sinfonia Concertante for Four Winds (Mozart), Triple Concerto (Beethoven) – only when the named instrument(s) only feature in one single composition the disambiguation can be complete without naming the composer or catalogue number, e.g. Arpeggione Sonata (see above).
- ethnic and/or stylistic indicators, exceptional: e.g. Overture in the French style, BWV 831; only when the series is exclusive to one composer the name of the composer and/or the catalogue number can be omitted, e.g. Hungarian Rhapsody No. 17 (see below); note that an ethnic qualifier usually indicates a non-generic title: "Bohemian Rhapsody", Rapsodie Espagnole, Italian Concerto (Bach).
- Disambiguate by last name only?
- A last name can be ambiguous, in which case it is best to keep an eye on what one is disambiguating from:
- Composers sharing the same last name...
- For composers sharing surnames disambiguation by last name only is not usually problematic, e.g.:
- Only when period, style, way of naming compositions etc can be confusing the added first name can give additional clarity, e.g. Requiem (Michael Haydn). A particular example of this is Johann Sebastian Bach and his many composing namesakes. Conventionally J. S. Bach's compositions would be the primary topic in any genre, i.e. without disambiguating term (Brandenburg Concertos) if not needed, and disambiguated or serialized by BWV number (Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor, BWV 582) or (Bach) parenthetical disambiguating term (Orchestral suites (Bach)). Only descriptive titles (including category names) would usually give the full name for any composer after "by" (List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach, Category:Compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach). For the other Bachs, if parenthetical disambiguation by name of the composer is needed: add the initials (with periods and spaces) in the parenthesis:
- Last name can signify something completely different...
- E.g. (Ireland) as a disambiguating term would rather refer to Ireland than to John Ireland, so the precision criterion for article titling calls for (John Ireland) when the name of the composer is used as a parenthetical disambiguating term.
- Composer uncertain
- Use (attributed to <most likely of the named composers>) as disambiguating term for a composition when all of the following applies:
- the composition isn't part of a series that uses the standard series format (see below);
- its composer isn't known with certainty, but there is at least one name of a composer to whom the composition has been attributed;
- there is no other way to avoid the composer disambiguating term (e.g. using a primary topic nickname, or disambiguating by a catalogue number that doesn't imply authorship, disambiguating by composition type, etc.)
Articles in series
When a composer wrote more than one composition of a similar type, multiple articles on such compositions form a series. The most standardized format for article names of such a series is as follows:
- [composition type] No. [number] ([last name of composer])
- Symphony No. 1 (Mahler)
- Symphony No. 104 (Haydn) (keep the parenthical disambiguator even if the article title is unique without it)
For concerto series, composition type includes soloist instrumentation (e.g. "Cello Concerto"). Also for sonata series the (soloist) instrumentation is mentioned in the composition type ("Violin Sonata"). Similar for most other types of chamber music ("Partita for keyboard", "Flute Quartet"). For other numbered series the instrumentation is only mentioned when not what one would usually expect, e.g. "Symphony for Organ". Other additions when well-established, e.g. "Hungarian Rhapsody" for the series of compositions by Liszt.
Deviations from this standardized format are only possible:
- when the composition is never numbered: e.g. Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra in E major (Mendelssohn), Manfred Symphony, Ein Heldenleben, Rhapsody in Blue; If needed with disambiguation to the composer's name: e.g. Also sprach Zarathustra (Strauss)
- when the numbering is part of a composition's non-generic name, and only that non-generic name is used to indicate the composition, e.g. Second Rhapsody
- when the article groups several compositions of the series, e.g. Preludes, Op. 23 (Rachmaninoff), Má vlast
- when numberings are ambiguous, or almost never used, e.g. Piano Sonata in A minor, D 845 (Schubert), Cello Concerto in A major (Dvořák), Eine kleine Nachtmusik
- when the composition type has only been used in a series by one composer, which makes the composer disambiguator redundant, e.g. Hungarian Rhapsody No. 19
When the usual standardization is not possible for the aforementioned reasons, a common format is nonetheless preferably maintained across related series for a particular composer:
- Try to stay close to the standardized format: similar layout, capitalization and disambiguator format throughout the series are preferable.
- Note however that while the standardized format can take some license w.r.t. recognizability (e.g. Piano Sonata No. 14 (Beethoven), not Moonlight Sonata nor Piano Sonata No. 14 "Moonlight" (Beethoven)), that license to divert from WP:RECOGNIZABLE is forfeited once the standardized series format has been left. However,
- ... weigh recognizability and serialization benefits with WP:CONCISE, e.g. Motet Der Geist hilft unser Schwachheit auf, BWV 226 might be slightly more recognizable than Der Geist hilft unser Schwachheit auf, BWV 226 but not enough to make the article title that much longer.
A stand-alone list of a composer's compositions is titled "List of compositions by <composer name>". Alternatively, when the main list of a composer's compositions is under the name of a broadly used catalogue for these compositions, "List of compositions by <composer name>" should be a redirect to that catalogue page. Examples:
- List of compositions by Malcolm Arnold
- List of compositions by Joseph Haydn redirects to Hoboken catalogue
- Two stand-alone lists
- Having two separate pages listing all compositions of a composer is only possible when one is a bullet list (e.g. grouped by genre) and the other a sortable table. Further: make sure to follow all provisions at Wikipedia:Content forking#List formats. Examples:
- Partial lists
- For partial lists, replace "compositions" in the article title by another term that defines the list or add a qualifier at the end of the article title. Examples:
- "Anhang" topics
- Catalogues of compositions of a composer often contain separate lists of lost works, arrangements, autograph copies of someone else's compositions and doubtful and/or spurious works. In most cases such "Anhang"-related items are contained in the main list (e.g. List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach#BWV Anhang). Exceptionally, when such works take a prominent place in the composer's oeuvre, they are listed on a separate page (e.g. List of adaptations by Ferruccio Busoni).
- An article title starting with "List of works ..." implies creative works in multiple media (e.g. List of works published posthumously), otherwise a more precise descriptor of the works contained in the list should be used.
- always consider making redirects to the article from other plausible names to aid searching, and avoid people creating duplicate articles. For example, if you create Piano Trio No. 1 (Schubert), consider making redirects to it from Piano Trio in B-flat major (Schubert) and Piano Trio, D. 898 (Schubert).
- compositions may be described under article titles without opus number, catalogue number, nickname and other characteristics that may be highly recognizable to some readers: series should always have navboxes with such additional information and/or link to a list article that contains the details.
- Category sorting
- choose a clear sorting scheme for all compositions in a category, that is also as intuitive as possible to readers less familiar with the topic.
Bands, albums and songs
Capitalization of band names should be consistent with the guidelines for trademarks. The definite article at the start of a band name (such as the Beatles) should be lowercase in running prose / sentence case.
Capitalization of song titles and album titles should be consistent with the guidelines for composition titles; in particular, capitalize the first and last word and all other words except:
- coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
- prepositions shorter than five letters (as, in, to, like, over, with)
- articles (an, a, the)
- the word to when used to form an infinitive.
Note that short verbs (Is, Are, and Do) and pronouns (Me, It, and His) are capitalized.
If the title of a musical group or a recording does not share its title with any other topic in Wikipedia, use the base title, for example the Front Bottoms (not the Front Bottoms (band)), The Vault: Old Friends 4 Sale (not The Vault: Old Friends 4 Sale (Prince album)), or "I Write Sins Not Tragedies" (not "I Write Sins Not Tragedies" (song)). If the band's name or the recording's title has the same title as other topics (musical or not), determine whether there is a primary topic for the base title by making a comparison. For example, the Beatles are a primary topic due to their historical relevance in sources and is determined to be the primary topic against other articles of the same or similar name, or "Hey Brother", which was determined by discussion to be primary rather than the other articles of the same or similar name. In case the musical group or recording does not meet the primary topic criteria, use the appropriate method of disambiguation, but do not pre-emptively disambiguate a page. These styles can be found at Wikipedia:Naming conventions (music)/Disambiguation.
- An RFC closed in June 2016 has established consensus that further disambiguation is only required when multiple songs or albums of the same name have articles.