The title page to State Arms of the Union, a book illustrated by Henry Mitchell and published by Louis Prang that shows historically accurate renderings of coats of arms of the U.S. states from 1876. Designs of state coats of arms or seals have generally been authorized by a provision in the state constitution or a legislative act. An impression of the Great Seal of a state (or its coat of arms) has long been required on official documents, as this is the emblem that certifies the authenticity of a given document or that the authority of the state is invested in said document.Illustration: Henry Mitchell; restoration: Andrew Shiva
The interior of the chapel at Selwyn College, Cambridge, looking towards the entrance and choir. Selwyn College was established in 1882 with the mission of making "provision for those who intend to serve as missionaries overseas and... educate the sons of clergymen". Membership was initially limited to baptised Christians, and attendance at the chapel – which was built in 1895 – was mandatory until 1935.
The SG-1000 is a cartridge-basedhome video game console manufactured by Sega. Introduced in 1983, it was developed in response to a downturn in arcades in 1982. Its game library comprises 68 standard cartridge releases and 29 Sega Card releases. The SG-1000 made little impact in the video game industry, but provided the basis for the more successful Master System in 1985.Photograph: Evan Amos
Red Skelton (1913–1997) was an American entertainer. He was best known for his national radio and television acts between 1937 and 1971, and as host of the television program The Red Skelton Show. Skelton also appeared in burlesque, vaudeville, films, nightclubs, and casinos. He has stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work in radio and television, and many of his personal and professional effects are part of the Red Skelton Museum of American Comedy at Vincennes University in Indiana.Photograph: Unknown; restoration: Adam Cuerden
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans, commander Neil Armstrong and LM pilot Buzz Aldrin, on the Moon. On July 21, 1969, Armstrong became the first human to walk on the Moon. This mission quickly captured the public's imagination and became prominent in popular culture. Over 530 million viewers worldwide watched the moon landing, and it received widespread newspaper coverage. For example, the July 21, 1969, edition of The Washington Post—shown here—used the main headline "'The Eagle Has Landed'—Two Men Walk on the Moon". In subsequent years, the moon landing has been frequently depicted or referenced in media, including in literature, films, and video games.Photograph: Jack Weir; restoration: CarolSpears
The Pillars of Creation, a series of elephant trunks of interstellar gas and dust in the Eagle Nebula, are the subject of a famous Hubble Space Telescope photograph taken in 1995. They are so named because the depicted gas and dust, while being eroded by the light from nearby stars, are in the process of creating new stars. Shown here is a 2014 rephotograph, which was unveiled in 2015 as part of the telescope's 25th anniversary celebrations.Photograph: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team
Zehnder's is a restaurant in Frankenmuth, Michigan, that serves American or midwestern-style food, including all-you-can-eat chicken dinners. Built in a former hotel, it has seating for 1,500 people and a total annual patronage of approximately a million people. In the 1980s, it was one of the ten largest restaurants in the United States.Photograph: Chris Woodrich
A two-shilling note of the New York pound, a currency used in the Province of New York. Although the production of paper money had been prohibited by the Currency Act in 1764, partial permission for the issuance of banknotes in New York was granted in the early 1770s together with the repeal of the Townshend Acts. This note was signed by John Cruger Jr., then the speaker of the New York assembly.Banknote: Province of New York, printed by H. Gains (image courtesy of the National Numismatic Collection, National Museum of American History)
A diagram showing the basic anatomy and arrangement of internal organs of the saltwater limpetPatella vulgata. Limpets are aquatic snails with shells that are broadly conical in shape, although the term also refers informally to all gastropods whose shells have no obvious coiling. Members of the family Patellidae, which includes the species shown, are often called the "true limpets" (as opposed to the false limpets and the keyhole limpets). All limpets use their muscular foot for movement and excrete mucus to apply suction and resist wave movement and predation. This image allows the viewer to see the neural torsion common to most snails, wherein the visceral nerves have become "twisted" causing the rectum and kidneys to open near the animal's head. This is the result of once having had an ancestor with a coiled shell— in limpets, the coiled shell has been replaced by a conical one, but the torsion in the Patellidae remains; some other gastropod groups have subsequently "detorted".
Direction of blood flow is indicated in this diagram by small arrows around the circumpallial vein and then into and out of the heart. Not shown are the hundreds of tiny pallial gills which form a ring over this vein and help reoxygenate the animal's blood.Diagram: K.D. Schroeder