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September 25[edit]

Republic of Vietnam,January 1973. Reduction of Criteria for the award of The Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal.[edit]

I am searching for, a copy of, and ref number of a, Directive, a Decree, or a 'memorandum, issued by the Armed Forces of the Republic of Vietnam, or the Government of the Republic of Vietnam, on 28th of January 1973, to 'Allied/Australian Forces' serving in Vietnam during that time. I have already seen a document issued to the United States Forces, but this does not relate to 'Australian/Allied' forces! The datal restriction of January 1973- March 1973 is mentioned as the 'period' of which I believe is only for US Forces. It is not relevant I believe, for the Allies/Australian Forces! (I am 'not' searching for the, USA, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 32 Vol 3, Title section 578.129) the'Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal', although, this question relates to this, 'the Reduction of Criteria' to 60 days for the awarding to servicemen of the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal'!

I believe that there 'exists' an 'Original' document from the South Vietnamese, to which the Allies Australian Forces, (Australian Government, or Australian Embassy in Saigon, or the Australian Armed Forces, would have been sent regarding the 'reduced' criteria of 60 days for awarding of the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal. (The previous Criteria was 181 days in country before a Servicemen in the Australian Forces could be awarded this Medal!) I have searched the Internet and requested from our Government and other relevant Gov't Departments, Archives, and the Australian War Memorial, to no avail. Even through freedom of information.

This request for information is for my use in an appeal to prove that as a National Serviceman in the Australian Army, in Vietnam in 1969. I believe that I should be entitled to this award from the South Vietnamese Government of the day, I served 127 days on Active Service with an Infantry Battalion in 1969.

There are approx 5,000 Australian Servicemen, 'not entitled' to this award from the South Vietnamese Government because, through no fault of their own, were returned to Australia in under the then required 181 day criteria. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Nasho 2 (talkcontribs) 02:32, 25 September 2016 (UTC)

(Removed duplicate, Rojomoke (talk) 04:45, 25 September 2016 (UTC))

I couldn't see anything, but I doubt that the contents of 50 year-old diplomatic dispatches are likely to end up on the internet. I take it that you've seen the Report of the Inquiry into Eligibility for the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal and Report of the Inquiry into the feasibility of amending the eligibility criteria for the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal and that the Australian Government has accepted the last report in its entirety? [1] Good luck with your search, but I don't think you stand much chance of changing their minds. I expect you know that already. Alansplodge (talk) 23:06, 25 September 2016 (UTC)

Public bodies in the uk[edit]

I've read the Wikipedia articles but it doesn't really make it clear. In the uk, what is the difference between a ministerial department, an executive agency, a non ministerial public body, a non departmental public body, and a public corporation? In addition, why are there publicly funded corporations which are statutory and non statutory?

And which group do organisations like the NHS, emergency services, state schools and universities, public research institutes, the BBC, channel 4 and Network Rail sit in? These all don't seem to fall under any of them yet all of them are clearly not private companies with private investors since they are all on the whole funded by the taxpayer. (talk) 10:03, 25 September 2016 (UTC)

The British system was never formally designed or structured - it has just grown gradually over a fairly long period of time. THat has led to a very wide, and overlapping, set of names. I doubt it would be possible to produce a completely clear set of definitions which distinguished between them all. Wymspen (talk) 12:22, 25 September 2016 (UTC)
Yes, they don't answer my questions and some of those articles contradict each other. (talk) 18:21, 25 September 2016 (UTC)
Which questions do they not answer? Can you be specific? Fgf10 (talk) 18:25, 25 September 2016 (UTC)

These things are a confounded mess, partly because British people don't really care about these kinds of things, partly because we've been doing them for so very long and partly because governments love to mess with the bloody things every five minutes.

In the case of the NHS, you'll save some time by starting at NHS England (or the equivalent body for whichever part of the UK you're interested in). --Dweller (talk) Become old fashioned! 12:22, 27 September 2016 (UTC)

Grover Cleveland numbering[edit]

Who was it (i.e., what agency, organization or individual) that officially decided that Grover Cleveland should be counted as both the 22nd and 24th U.S. president, instead of just the 22nd? And when was the decision made? Either would have been logical, just wondering if there is some official listing, such as the National Archives or the White House, etc.    → Michael J    15:46, 25 September 2016 (UTC)

If he was only counted as 22nd, then we would have the oddity of the 22nd president having served after the 23rd. StuRat (talk) 16:19, 25 September 2016 (UTC)
He was both the 22nd and 24th; the 23rd, Benjamin Harrison, served between Cleveland's 2 terms. Arthur, the 21st, came before Cleveland's first term. McKinley, the 25th, came after Cleveland's second term. Georgia guy (talk) 16:36, 25 September 2016 (UTC)
Did any participant not already know that? —Tamfang (talk) 05:38, 26 September 2016 (UTC)
That "oddity" applied for 57 years, from 1893 until 1950, and it didn't seem to cause a problem. Then LDRs (latter-day revisionists) came along and changed things, but not for the better. (Mind you, 1950 was, in all other important respects, a wonderful year for the world.) -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 20:21, 25 September 2016 (UTC)
Harry S. Truman wanted to adopt the more logical numbering system, but he was overruled. It would be interesting to find what the "official records" referred to on that page actually are. Tevildo (talk) 16:59, 25 September 2016 (UTC)

The decision that Cleveland was "22nd and 24th" was made by the State Department in 1950. See at the bottom of this page.

Of countries that have been around for a while, I think the US is unusual in that they've only once had an elected leader serve non-consecutive terms. Here in Canada we don't usually speak of prime minister by number, but if we do, Justin Trudeau is the 23rd. If we numbered them the same way the US numbers presidents, he'd be the 28th. Similarly in the UK, Theresa May is the 54th person, counting from Robert Walpole, to hold the position, but in US-style numbering she'd be the 76th. -- (talk) 19:43, 25 September 2016 (UTC)

Most presidents who don't get re-elected are seen as having been to some extent repudiated, hence the failure of Jimmy Carter or GHWB to run for re-election. Cleveland was very popular, and only lost due to fraud by his opponent, and actually won the popular vote. See United States presidential election, 1888. μηδείς (talk) 16:27, 26 September 2016 (UTC)
Cleveland was kind of a different case, as he got something like 90,000 more popular votes than Harrison, but he failed to win the electoral vote. United States presidential election, 1888. Carter and Bush 41 ran for re-election (i.e. for a second term) and lost, and then they decided to do other things. TR, of course, ran for a third term, and had the Republican Party not insisted on sticking with Taft, he could have been the next Grover Cleveland, at least in this narrow sense. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 20:29, 26 September 2016 (UTC)
Similarly in Australia. Malcolm Turnbull is the 29th PM, but in US-style numbering would be the 35th. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 20:25, 25 September 2016 (UTC)
This has been discussed here before, probably more than once. The numbers essentially refer to administrations. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 21:40, 25 September 2016 (UTC)
To that, there are some reference works (not all) which count every time a president is sworn in as a new administration. For example, those sources list Lincoln's first administration lasting 4 years and his second administration lasting 5 weeks, followed by the administration of Andrew Johnson. Semantics.    → Michael J    03:02, 27 September 2016 (UTC)
Him having 2 different numbers does make it seem like he has an alter-ego, like, say, Grover and Super Grover. StuRat (talk) 15:51, 26 September 2016 (UTC)
Maybe there was an antipresident. --ColinFine (talk) 19:28, 26 September 2016 (UTC)
There was no fraud in the elections of Cleveland or Harrison. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk)
I did actually read the relevant articles, and I remember the allegations from US History II. Harrison and Cleveland split these four states, with Harrison winning by means of notoriously fraudulent balloting in New York and Indiana. and Blocks of Five μηδείς (talk) 01:38, 29 September 2016 (UTC)
I had removed my comment and the troll put it back. Feel free to delete it. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 04:09, 29 September 2016 (UTC)
Meh. At this point it's clear enough what's going on. I removed your signature from the first post--the troll owns it now.μηδείς (talk) 21:03, 29 September 2016 (UTC)
  • If we are going to compare Prime Ministers in parliamentary systems, it should be with Speakers of the House. US congressman are elected every two years, and the majority party (normally) elects the Speaker, who controls the business of the House. His or her role is purely legislative, although he is second in the line of succession for the presidency, if the President and Vice-President are unable to serve. (The president, not the speaker, holds the powers of head of state and commander in chief.) Six people have served non-consecutive terms as speaker, Sam Rayburn served three non-consecutive terms as Democrat from Texas, with a Massachusetts Republican serving before and after his second term, as the political winds shifted. Speakers can also be removed with the equivalent of a vote of no confidence. Recently, Newt Gingrich, Dennis Hastert, and John Boehner have resigned when faced with the possibility of being voted out during the middle of a two-year term. μηδείς (talk) 22:15, 29 September 2016 (UTC)

September 26[edit]

Form of address when writing to US officials from overseas.[edit]

Probably an unusual question but is there a standard form used when writing a semi-formal enquiry/comment to the US congress, from overseas by a non- US citizen?

On a related note is there a formal address used when writing to the offices of the President of the United States or to a State Governor, assuming someone that is a non-US national can do so. ShakespeareFan00 (talk) 09:58, 26 September 2016 (UTC)

Are you asking how to send such letters (i.e. the mailing address), or are you asking how to format them? Anyone can write to individual officials at their official addresses. However, a non-US citizen with a foreign address is probably unlikely to get a response. Dragons flight (talk) 11:12, 26 September 2016 (UTC)
I think that by "form of address" the OP means things like "Senator", "Mr. Senator", etc. Loraof (talk) 13:05, 26 September 2016 (UTC)
If you live in a country with its own President or a Congressman/woman would you address them as "US Congressman/woman" or Dear President of the United States"? -- Q Chris (talk) 13:51, 26 September 2016 (UTC)
  • Here is the recommended forms of address for all U.S. government officials as recommended by The Emily Post Institute, considered a foremost authority of etiquette and protocol in the U.S. --Jayron32 17:27, 26 September 2016 (UTC)

Florida Department of Transportation, climate change[edit]

What kind of planning is the department doing if the prevalence of flooding and of sinkholes under roads and bridge pilings increases due to climate change? Actually, do they even think floods and sinkholes are getting worse, and if so, to what do they attribute the cause? (talk) 19:21, 26 September 2016 (UTC)

We cannot speak to what people think. This article speaks a bit to your general question, but our role here is to neither justify nor condemn political leaders for their action or inaction. --Jayron32 20:11, 26 September 2016 (UTC)
I don't know of any linkage of global climate change to sinkholes. One of the main causes of sinkholes is karst topography, which is widespread in Florida. This doesn't mean that nothing can be done, however. Mandatory inspections for sinkholes, using ground-penetrating radar, before a home could be sold, or a road is built, would greatly reduce the problem.
Flooding is not as easy to take on, since restoring the swamps, which act as a buffer, would require abandoning much of the beachfront property there. That's a non-starter. As sea levels go up, much of Florida will be submerged, but they can fight this by continually building up the beaches, until eventually the interior will be below sea level and you will need a system of dykes similar to what they have in the Netherlands. StuRat (talk) 02:12, 27 September 2016 (UTC)

September 27[edit]

una pregunta en español[edit]

Mi nombre es Alba y si alguien por casualidad mira este mensaje, por favor referirlo a la seccion de noticias de el tiempo.

Me gustaria saber cual es el favor que le estan hacienda a Clara para tenerla alli y con su pobre languaje español.

Porque no pueden encontrar a alguien que lo dispierte a uno con un lenguaje dulce y lleno de nosotros.

Ella me hace vomitar muy temprano por la mañana. Por favor tengan verguenza y no traigan gente que son unos idiotas y nos hagan sentir mal. El lenguaje de ella es pobre, ella es una inepta. Alba — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:11, 27 September 2016 (UTC)

¿Quien es Clara? ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 14:12, 27 September 2016 (UTC)
Usted está en la Wikipedia en Inglés. Esta página es para las preguntas en español. Buena suerte. --Jayron32 14:41, 27 September 2016 (UTC)
The poster is using a proxy server out of Houston Texas
Her Spanish is flawed, showing strong interference from English and very poor word choice, verb agreement, and misuse of articles; "de el" instead of "del", "hacienda" in place of "haciendo", "tener" instead of "detener" or "guardar", "son" instead of "sea", and so forth.
There's no possibility of understanding this without context.
The 4th line says, being extremely generous (ignoring its numerous mistakes, incorrect word choice, etc.) and correcting the grammar for readability: "She makes me vomit very early in the morning. Please have shame and don't bring people who are some idiots and make us feel bad. The language of her is poor, she is an inept."
μηδείς (talk) 21:06, 28 September 2016 (UTC)

Well,ignoring the poor Spanish,it translates to...

"My name is Alba and if someone by chance should see this message,please refer it to the section of notices of the time.(possibly Admin noticeboard?) I would like to know what is the favour that is being done to Clara to keep her here with her poor English language.Why can they not find someone who can awaken her to one with our soft and full language?She makes me vomit very early in the morning.Please have shame and do not bring people who are idiots and make us feel bad.Her language is poor,she is inept."

It appears Alba is unhappy that Clara is being allowed to stay here,despite having poor English language skills and he thinks a special favour is being done for her.

We do not have a User:Clara.Who Clara is,why Alba is so unhappy about her being allowed to stay here and what he wants us to do it about appear to remain one of life's great mysteries unless he/she/it/they return and give us more information... Lemon martini (talk) 23:43, 29 September 2016 (UTC)

I object! It is not our place to ask the question the OP should have asked, and the M.O. of using an unregistered account via a proxy server quacks. Your translation is far too generous, and she calls Clara "una inepta" an inept, not just inept.  :) μηδείς (talk) 02:44, 30 September 2016 (UTC)

Mighty Midget[edit]

hello anyone know anything about the mighty midget door locks that were sold around the 1960s and 70s like specifically if they were a brand made by some sort of company or if i could purchase them somewhere it's extremely important thank you ~Helicopter Llama~ 20:46, 27 September 2016 (UTC)

Here it is listed as PAYNE MIGHTY MIDGET DOOR LOCK in the El Paso Herald-Post, El Paso, Texas, Tuesday, May 24, 1977, Page 30. Perhaps this patent applices: Graeme Bartlett (talk) 21:59, 28 September 2016 (UTC)

Like turning a picture[edit]

In a photo-shop-type program when you change a picture so that the object in it will face right instead of left, what is that called in English? It's not rotating an image but something else. I only have access to programs in Finnish.


--Pxos (talk) 21:08, 27 September 2016 (UTC)

Most image editing programs seem to call this transformation "flip horizontal", but mirror image might be a better term. Hut 8.5 21:16, 27 September 2016 (UTC)
Mathematically speaking, flipping horizontal, or taking the mirror across the horizontal, is rotating the image. Specifically you're rotating it about the horizontal axis. Someguy1221 (talk) 03:03, 28 September 2016 (UTC)
Vertical axis?
Sleigh (talk) 03:06, 28 September 2016 (UTC)
That would be the easier way, yes. If you rotated it about the horizontal axis you will still get the mirror image, but it would also be upside down, requiring an additional 180 rotation in the plane (about the z-axis). Of course, this is all viewing it as a 2D object in 3D space. If we view it strictly as a 2D object in 2D space, then we mirror about the vertical axis instead of rotating. StuRat (talk) 03:44, 28 September 2016 (UTC)
Googling the subject indicates a distinction in math between rotating and flipping. Rotation occurs around a point in a plane, whereas flipping occurs around a line. But for better insight, see Rotation (mathematics). ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 04:31, 28 September 2016 (UTC)
Semantics. Flipping is a rotation through space of higher dimensionality than the object being flipped, but it is a rotation all the same. Someguy1221 (talk) 05:45, 28 September 2016 (UTC)
Be that as it may, when dealing with two-dimensional objects such as pictures, rotating preserves the arrangement of a set of pixels, while flipping produces the mirror image of that set of pixels. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 05:51, 28 September 2016 (UTC)
I wouldn't say it's just semantics. A 2D mirror operation is different from a 3D rotation, and considerable simpler to code. For comparison, all circles are ellipses, but that doesn't mean you need to use ellipse generation code to build a circle, you can use simpler circle generation code (particularly easy in polar coords). StuRat (talk) 14:33, 28 September 2016 (UTC)
By the way, the mathematical term for flipping something to produce a mirror image is reflection. -- (talk) 22:44, 28 September 2016 (UTC)
Or an affinity about the line, with a scale of -1. StuRat (talk) 22:59, 28 September 2016 (UTC)
There are many affine transformations, as the article you cited says. Reflection is the name of the specific one. -- (talk) 05:11, 29 September 2016 (UTC)
See Flopped image. The "flopping" terminology is pretty universal in (American) book publishing and advertising, in my experience. Deor (talk) 14:09, 28 September 2016 (UTC)

September 28[edit]

Greek mythology[edit]

In Greek mythology, did any human besides Orpheus go among the dead? If so, for what purpose, and did they return to the world of the living? 2601:646:8E01:7E0B:F88D:DE34:7772:8E5B (talk) 02:55, 28 September 2016 (UTC)

See Category:Heroes who ventured to Hades. --Jayron32 03:13, 28 September 2016 (UTC)
Thanks! 2601:646:8E01:7E0B:F88D:DE34:7772:8E5B (talk) 06:37, 28 September 2016 (UTC)

September 29[edit]

Bowling record[edit]

Hello!!! I am curious to know if my bowling record is now or should be considered for the bowling Hall of Fame? On March 17, 1960 in the Texas State Bowling Tournament I bowled games of 233, 218, and 266 for a scratch series of 717. That record was maintained for 20 years. Please let me know if it is mentioned any where. Thank you!!! — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 07:04, 29 September 2016 (UTC)

Here [2] are some records of top scores for three-game series. It looks like as of 2010, your score would not have been a record, as it lists 17 men who have bowled 900 point three game series, with the first occurring in 1997. I may be misunderstanding something about the scoring or how they are reported though. SemanticMantis (talk) 20:40, 29 September 2016 (UTC)
Not even close. Allie Brandt (appropriate first name, no?), for example, bowled 886 back in 1939.[3][4] Clarityfiend (talk) 00:12, 30 September 2016 (UTC)
In OP's defense, their 717 score may have been a Texas record at the time. Now that I live in TX, I've found that the stereotypical self-obsession with Texas qua Texas is largely accurate :) SemanticMantis (talk) 15:46, 30 September 2016 (UTC)

Max Walker (cricketer)[edit]

I was just curious why there's no picture of the sportsman attached to his Wikipedia page? Many thanks for that information, didn't realise the limitations. Cheers. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 11:57, 29 September 2016 (UTC)

Firstly, because no-one has added one. And secondly, because it's not as simple as just adding any old photo. The vast majority of photos are copyrighted, and we can't use them. We need to find a free image (see WP:IUP), and it's entirely possible that there are no free images of Max Walker out there. --Viennese Waltz 12:06, 29 September 2016 (UTC)

Anyone interested in the life of Max Walker, aka "Tangles", might like to click the wikilink. --Dweller (talk) Become old fashioned! 13:04, 29 September 2016 (UTC)

September 30[edit]


hi,In your description of barcodes you wrote that the barcode starting with 678 is reserved for future use. I recently bought a product with the barcode 6788814939. I am wondering what country is now using this barcode. Please update your information. Thank you. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 2001:569:FA43:D600:745E:385E:EFD4:98D8 (talk) 00:06, 30 September 2016 (UTC)

Please link the page you refer to. I can find no mention of this in barcode or elsewhere in Wikipedia. PrimeHunter (talk) 01:19, 30 September 2016 (UTC)
GS1 seems to think 678 is still not assigned, and they'd be the ones to know. If you know the full barcode, you can look it up here and see if it's actually registered. Someguy1221 (talk) 01:40, 30 September 2016 (UTC)
Maybe your product barcode was for internal use in an organisation that uses the 678 code unofficially. Dbfirs 17:59, 30 September 2016 (UTC)

How can I use directory assistance for England and Australia since I live in Canada[edit]

I want to call a friend in London and find out her number. (talk) 05:21, 30 September 2016 (UTC)

This page lists a Canadian international directory assistance number: Rojomoke (talk) 06:06, 30 September 2016 (UTC)
Why don't you just use web-based look-up services? There is this one for the UK [5]. However, many people are unlisted these days. --Viennese Waltz 07:17, 30 September 2016 (UTC) for Australia. --PalaceGuard008 (Talk) 15:25, 30 September 2016 (UTC)

Yards and miles[edit]

Spoiler warning: While the question I'm asking right now does not reveal the plot of The Shawshank Redemption, the following link does.

Here, the narrator, portrayed by Morgan Freeman, says:

[...] 500 yards [...] just shy of half a mile

So, knowing that half a mile comprises 1,760 ÷ 2 = 880 yards, or half a mile equals to 804.67 meters while 500 yards equals to 457.20 meters, then how is 500 yards "just shy of half a mile"? --Theurgist (talk) 17:13, 30 September 2016 (UTC)