Wikipedia:Reference desk/Archives/Humanities/2008 January 20

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January 20[edit]

psychologists who were murderers.[edit]

Besides the famous (fictional) Hannibal Lector, have there been any psychologists who were murderers? —Preceding unsigned comment added by 212.51.122.4 (talk) 01:01, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

Interestingly, the trope of a killer psychologist/psychiatrist seems to have been featured in many works of fiction (Freeway (1996 film), Basic Instinct, Nightbreed, etc.), but the number of actual cases doesn't seem very notable. While I'm sure that there must, by means of sheer numbers, be some murders who were psychologists/psychiatrists, none immediately come to mind, assuming we aren't including exceptional historical cases in this. --24.147.69.31 (talk) 03:59, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
Ask Tom Cruise -- Mwalcoff (talk) 05:52, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
A former Australian psychiatrist, Jean Eric Gassy, is a convicted murderer but is currently appealing his case. The actions of psychologist John Money caused David Reimer to commit suicide. Graham87 13:07, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
It would appear that it was his wife's intention to leave him that precipitated his suicide. We wouldn't say her actions led to his death in a response to a question about wives who are murderers, so implicating Money in this context is a somewhat provocative statement. Rockpocket 23:25, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
Contrary to what movies would have you believe, most murderers -- much less serial killers -- are very unsuccessful people, so the chance of one having a particular doctorate is quite low. --Sean 22:37, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

What is a "Buckeye Christian"[edit]

Recently, in regards to a man who professes to be a Christian but was recently arrested for DUI after visting a nudy bar, someone referred to him as a "Buckeye Christian." I am not sure what this is-- does anyone out there? I know a Buckeye is a poisionous nut so possibly it has to with that but I have never heard the term before... can anyone shed some light? Thanks.

A Buckeye Christian is presumably someone who attends a Buckeye Christian Church, which appear to be a conglomeration of evangelical churches in Ohio (the Buckeye State). [1] [2] Was the DUI guy from there? Rockpocket 02:12, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

Versicle and response at the end of Evensong[edit]

What is the little versicle and response that happens between the priest and the choir at the end of Evensong? I was in a choir in an Episicopal church and we sang and the Evensong service ended and we walked out, but then everyone turned around and waited for the priest to say something (really short; like one sentence) and then the whole choir said something back (again, really short). I had no idea what was going on! —Preceding unsigned comment added by 71.204.164.204 (talk) 05:00, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

I don't know what liturgy was in use for your evensong service--if it was Evening Prayer in the 1979 Book of Common Prayer, I'd wager the priest said "Let us bless the Lord." (possibly following that sentence with "Alleluia, Alleluia") and the choir responded "Thanks be to God." (again, possibly with the alleluia response). If it was a service in which Holy Communion (or Eucharist) was observed, the priest's options under the 1979 BCP are many, but likeliest would be "Go in peace to love and serve the Lord" or "Let us go forth in the name of Christ" or "Let us go forth into the world, rejoicing in the power of the Spirit". Regardless of which of these was used, the Alleluias are possible additions, and the choir's response is almost certainly the same "Thanks be to God". If none of this sounds familiar, perhaps you were using an unusual liturgy? This is my best guess: Jwrosenzweig (talk) 06:33, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
If Jwrosenzweig is correct, that section is known in the Catholic tradition as the Great Commission, after the common name for the section at the end of the Gospel of Mark. Steewi (talk) 11:08, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
ETA: Mass (liturgy) contains the following text:

"Concluding rite

After the Prayer after Communion, announcements may be made. The Missal says these should be brief. The priest then gives the usual liturgical greeting and imparts his blessing. The liturgy concludes with a dialogue between the priest and congregation. The deacon, or in his absence, the priest himself then dismisses the people. The Latin formula is simply "Ite, missa est", but the 1973 English Missal gives a choice of dismissal formulas. The congregation responds: "Thanks be to God." The priest and other ministers then leave, often to the accompaniment of a recessional hymn, and the people then depart. In some countries the priest customarily stands outside the church door to greet them individually." Steewi (talk) 11:11, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

In the (Anglican) choir where I sang the vicar and choir would use this prayer after processing into the choir vestry: "O Lord, be with us as we meet in Thy name. Open our minds to your Spirit, and grant that what we sing with our lips we may believe in our hearts and show in our daily lives. In the name of Jesus Christ, Amen." SaundersW (talk) 21:42, 22 January 2008 (UTC)

Urban legend concerning McDonald's following the Kent State Massacre[edit]

I'm old...ish. There's an urban legend that, following the Kent State Massacre, there was a protest march through Columbus, Ohio. The protesters stopped at a McDonald's and demanded that the manager lower the store's flag to half staff. But somebody in the community objected, and contacted Ray Kroc, who called the manager of the Columbus McDonald's and ordered him to raise the flag back to full height. The protesters returned, and told the manager that if he didn't lower the flag, they would tear it down. So, stuck between a rock and a hard place, the manager spoke to the next guy who was driving a delivery truck, and had him back into the flagstaff to knock it down. My question is, was this true, or just a good story? Corvus cornixtalk 05:22, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

I don't know, but it's quite possible. The lowering of the flag over New York's city hall to half-staff in memory of the Kent State victims led to the so-called Hard Hat Riot. In the aftermath of the shootings, many people belived the Ohio National Guard's claim that the guardsmen had come under attack by the students. A Cleveland TV station interviewed people in Kent after the shootings, and some of them said things along the lines of, "They should have shot the rest of them, too." -- Mwalcoff (talk) 05:59, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

French law, adultery and homicide[edit]

While looking at historical laws in western countries about individuals killing adulterous spouses or their paramours in flagrante delicto, I came across this web site mentioning article 324, now repealed in France. It said it not only dealt with a man killing an adulterous wife and paramour, but also with the scenario of a man killing an adulterous sister or a female ascendant or descendant (as in a (grand)mother or a (grand)daughter?) and her paramour. Other sites on the internet have the law referring to a man killing a wife or a paramour, but have no mentions of him killing a sister or relative (apart from this, which cites the page in question).

Did the French really have a law allowing the killing of blood relatives? Andjam (talk) 06:04, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

No, but in France until the 1970s there was the defence in a murder trial of crime passionel - that is, the sentence for a murder with the motivation of jealous love was less severe than in other cases. See also Extenuating circumstances. Xn4 12:16, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
If you go back far enough, in medieval France it was legal for a man to kill his wife if he caught her in bed with another man. He could also kill the other man, but he couldn't kill both at the same time. Adam Bishop (talk) 19:51, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
No, the code pénal of 1810 did not allow the killing of blood relatives. It also does not "allow" the killing of the spouse. Only the case of finding the spouse in the act of adultery gives an excuse for committing the crime. The code pénal of 1992 does not have such regulations any more.--Thw1309 (talk) 20:47, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

Did Jesus learn his teachings from India?[edit]

I heard from some people that Jesus came to India. I want to know whether Jesus learned those religion and spiritual things from some Hindus in India. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 59.92.107.195 (talk) 06:07, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

Our articles Lost years of Jesus and Yuz Asaf may be of some help to you. DuncanHill (talk) 06:36, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
And if you want a humorous take on this, see Lamb: The Gospel According to Biff, Christ's Childhood Pal. Dismas|(talk) 09:33, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

Politics[edit]

Give me An article on - Politics is the better essence of developing a country —Preceding unsigned comment added by 62.231.248.122 (talk) 08:37, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

It would help if you could be a little more specific. I'm not quite sure what you mean by the 'better essence'. Clio the Muse (talk) 02:06, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
"Please" would be nice, too. Bielle (talk) 02:22, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
Perhaps you want to read the article politics, and perhaps government too. 79.66.24.40 (talk) 20:38, 21 January 2008 (UTC)

Old Testament Bible[edit]

The New Testament Is Attributed To Several Authors, ie: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, etc, but my question is, who wrote the books of the OLd Testament? —Preceding unsigned comment added by EfBee75 (talkcontribs) 10:05, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

You might like to start with Old Testament or The Bible Richard Avery (talk) 10:14, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
Although the articles that Richard Avery mentions above are good to start with, they don't really address the subject of the authorship of the Old Testament very well. For that subject the wiki article on Authors of the Bible does a better job. Pay especial attention to the column entitled "Author according to scholarship" in the table within that article. -- Saukkomies 12:37, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
Documentary hypothesis is an article that you might find interesting. --Nicknack009 (talk) 01:39, 23 January 2008 (UTC)

Arabic words[edit]

I know this question may offend some Arabs but my question is what does these words mean in Arabic? :رقص and معلاي —Preceding unsigned comment added by 76.64.128.65 (talk) 15:37, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

You may be looking for something else if you expect offensive meanings... else have a look here for the first word. --Thanks for answering (talk) 17:14, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
Yeah the first one just means "dance". I'm not sure about the other one but it looks like it is related to the root referring to highness/height etc. Adam Bishop (talk) —Preceding comment was added at 18:18, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
It also looks like an adjective. I'd guesss about the same as Adam: high/towering, as in a towering form. Depending on context, though, it might be a dual, which would make it something like "two tall things." What's the context? Wrad (talk) 22:51, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

If you not sure what it says, it says Ma'ali. Any idea what does say? or how about mealaya? —Preceding unsigned comment added by 76.64.52.40 (talk) 02:02, 22 January 2008 (UTC)

I don't see it in Wehr, but Googling it indicates that it means "highness", "excellence", "sublime", as in royal titles ("your highness"). Adam Bishop (talk) 10:53, 24 January 2008 (UTC)

female somali dress[edit]

Where can I see female somali dress? —Preceding unsigned comment added by 76.64.128.65 (talk) 15:52, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

Just search Google images for Somali dress. Plenty of examples there.--Shantavira|feed me 16:28, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

business classes relevant to development coop./int'l org's/NGOs?[edit]

I have a somewhat "impossible" question: Which 2 (or max. 3) management/business classes would you recommend for work in development cooperation/international organizations/NGOs?

The background of this question is that I have an opportunity to take 2 (or less likely 3) graduate management/business classes. As I hope to work in the above-mentioned fields, I wonder what would be most helpful & relevant there. I know it's a bit "impossible" because the answer will depend on a host of factors... but I have to make a decision now... So what do you think of the broad field of accounting, financial analysis, strategy, marketing, etc.--which ones are most relevant and yet accessible to someone with only a limited background in business? Which will teach you the most useful skills, the most relevant approach (mentality), etc. in this broad area? Thanks for every single answer you may give!! --Thanks for answering (talk) 17:05, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

Don't tell me, nobody here has at least a general idea about which business classes he found/would find most useful for less specialized settings (i.e., e.g., no controlling, accounting, etc.) and which ones weren't? --Thanks for answering (talk) 07:35, 21 January 2008 (UTC)

Correct Name of Month Celebrating African-American Heritage in the U.S.[edit]

Is "Black History Month" still the correct method of identifying the month of February in the U.S for celebrating the African-American heritage, or has it been morphed to "National African American History Month.?" Are either methods of description correct?70.225.71.30 (talk) 18:36, 20 January 2008 (UTC)Frank Batha

why only national? Surely "National and International" is a better term. Don't know what the rest of the acronmy would be tho. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 212.51.122.8 (talk) 20:16, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

I happen to have had a less than pleasant experience regarding this a few years ago. I was working as a reference librarian in a state university library, and was putting together a list of the library's holdings that would support Black History Month. To advertise this, I sent an announcement to the library's web designer to include on the web page. Well, that's when things got bizarre. I had always called this Black History Month, but the web designer sent the announcement back to me with a note stating that it ought to be called African American History Month. I am fully aware of the sensitivity of labelling things the right way, but this seemed silly to me. This led to several people on the staff of the library (including myself and the web designer) to conduct a very intense search to determine which form was the more correct: Black- or African American- History Month? The result was that we were told repeatedly by various people who were supposed to have credentials in this regard, such as the university's equal rights person, the local representative of the NAACP, and a local minister of a Baptist Church (all of whom were Black), was that it doesn't matter. We couldn't find a consensus anywhere, whether via direct contact with people in the community, or through the web. So I went ahead and insisted on calling it Black History Month (the web designer caved in to my demand).

Part of the problem is that the White House itself is inconsistent. Black History Month was created in the US by an African American organization called the Association for the Study of African American Home and Life (ASAHL). In 1976, this association declared February to be Black History Month. Each year since then every US President has issued an annual proclamation declaring official support for this. In other words, unlike some other nationally-recognized months or holidays, there has been no federal legislation passed that gives official status to February as being Black History Month. Not only that, but because there's no legislation for this, there is also no title for the month that has been put down in print in a legal document. Although the ASAHL calls the month they created Black History Month, this doesn't mean that they are the final authority on the subject of what to call it. As each president has issued his annual proclamation for this month the wording has changed. For many years the presidents called it Black History Month, but starting with George W. Bush it has begun to be called African American History Month. So if the White House is calling it different things, depending on whoever is in office at the time, how can we citizens be expected to be any more clear about this?

I would strongly recommend that if you are facing a similar situation as I was with this issue that you do contact some people in your community to just cover your behind. If a stink is raised by someone who takes offense over the form you chose to use, you can then say that "Mr. or Mrs. So-And-So" told you that whatever method you chose would be the best. -- Saukkomies 17:28, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

What is a "formative essay"?[edit]

My course guide says: You will be asked to complete a formative essay of 1,500 words. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Telescope (talkcontribs) 20:18, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

In professional educational jargon there are two basic ways that a teacher can receive measure the students' understanding of the material that is being taught: either through formative assessment or summative assessment. To boil it all down to simply answer your question, I'll just say that a formative assessment (which in your case is taking the form of an essay) is meant to tell the teacher how much information you know about a particular subject at this point in time, but is not meant to be a "be all and end all" type of essay. In other words, it's more informal than if it was an essay that would be assigned in a final exam. Formative assessments are typically done throughout the class term in order to monitor students' comprehension level so that the teacher may tailor the instruction to best address the students' needs, whileas summative assessments are the more classicl tests or exams that are usually given at the end of a period of instruction (such as the end of a unit, a chapter or a semester), and which is meant to measure how much long term information the student has learned from the class. -- Saukkomies 18:26, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
An important aspect of formative assessment is that the student learns through carrying out the task. In summative assessment the student just regurgitates material that has already been learned. Thus a formative essay will require research to acquire information above the material that has been taught in class. SaundersW (talk) 21:32, 22 January 2008 (UTC)

"no animals were harmed during the making of this film"[edit]

Where's our "no animals were harmed during the making of this film" article? I'd like the history of that phrase, it's very notable. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 212.51.122.8 (talk) 20:54, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

I just googled on "Wikipedia" and the phrase "no animals were harmed". The article you want is American Humane Association. --Anonymous, 22:05 UTC, January 20/08.

where did Jesus go to school?[edit]

A question I glanced at above got me thinking. Where did Jesus go to school? I'm reading the Jesus article but can't seem to find the answer... —Preceding unsigned comment added by 212.51.122.8 (talk) 20:56, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

Although it never says anywhere in the New Testament (at least in any place I've encountered), Jesus (if he lived at all) was most likely given the same education as most boys were in his society - namely the ancient version of the Yeshiva. There is actually some support to this idea. In the Gospel of Luke there is a story that has been called Jesus' Finding in the Temple that relates how when Jesus was 12 years old his family visited Jerusalem. On the return trip his parents discovered he was missing and went back to find him. Jesus was sitting among learned men in the temple, purportedly teaching them. Now, what this might indicate is not that Jesus was the master and the learned men the students, but quite the opposite: he was the student, and the learned men were the teachers. The basis for this view is that one of the methods of teaching in the Yeshivah tradition is that the student will be able to provide instruction or discourse on a particular subject from the Talmud by the time the student reaches the age of maturity, which going back to the time of Jesus, was 13 years old (see the article on Bar and Bat Mitzvah). Prior to the student's reaching maturity, he or she would be given a lot of encouragement to study and practice for this big coming of age event. Thus, when viewed through this perspective, is it any wonder that someone such as Jesus would be taking the opportunity to study the Talmud in front of some astute scholars in the Big City? At least that is my take on it. I know we're not supposed to push personal theories here, but I believe that I've referenced wiki articles on the subject enough to be able to justify why I'm presenting this here. Again, however, this is all conjecture - not only are we not told anything specific about Jesus' education, but there really is no substantive proof outside of the New Testament that Jesus ever existed in the first place. One must take or leave the life of Jesus on faith alone, as there is no proof either way to support whether he actually existed or not. So take all this with a grain of salt... -- Saukkomies 16:15, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
I guess this isn't really relevant, but I don't think the point of that story was that he was doing something completely normal...that would be pretty boring. Adam Bishop (talk) 21:40, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
I think that the point of the story was that it was meant to show that Jesus had credentials for declaring himself a Rabbi, which is what some of his disciples later refered to him as. One really cannot be a Rabbi without having a good grasp of the Talmud, and Luke, who was a scholar, would have of course been someone who would have emphasized such things. -- Saukkomies 20:33, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
"Jesus (if he lived at all)..." Saukkomies? Heavens above! Xn4 00:19, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
It's a fair point - there are historical figures who could have been a real jesus (but clearly without the superpowers), but the guy in the bible is a construction. --Fredrick day (talk) 00:26, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
Re-invented, constructed, no problem with those. Xn4 00:31, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
The gospels themselves are fairly persuasive documents for testimony concerning the historical existence of Jesus. Sam Korn (smoddy) 01:24, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
No not really, I guess they could be viewed that when taken on their own but not with what we know about the historical context and how the gospels were put together and selected. --Fredrick day (talk) 01:31, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
We know next to nothing about how they were put together. We know fairly little about the forming of the NT canon.
Furthermore, there is next to no scholarly debate over the matter. (Certainly where I am studying, the Faculty of Divinity at the Cambridge University, arguments for ahistoricity are dealt with swiftly and succinctly. To say there is doubt about the historical existence of the man is, I am afraid, not supported by modern scholarship. Sam Korn (smoddy) 01:37, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
For this subject see Historicity of Jesus and Historical Jesus. --Anonymous, 07:00 UTC, January 21, 2008 AD.

Business Ideas[edit]

I am trying to think of products to sell online, but I can't think of any. Are there any products you have wanted but haven't been able to get online? —Preceding unsigned comment added by 64.119.61.7 (talk) 21:37, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

YES! There are things I can't get online (for example an EEE PC shipped to Hungary, where I am :(... I have some more things too, some you can sell electronically (ebooks I haven't been able to find online, some could get written by an author hired expressly for that purpose, I just don't have the time to do all the research and haven't been able to find a better solution. My emmail address is: expat442 (at) gmail (dot) com, drop me a line and I'll tell you more things I just can't buy online. Good luck! —Preceding unsigned comment added by 212.51.122.8 (talk) 22:01, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
There are many services I want, but are not available online. Developing services is probably a much better business idea than re-selling stuff. Mr.K. (talk) 23:43, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
What are some of the services you'd like to see? —Preceding unsigned comment added by 212.51.122.8 (talk) 01:01, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
That's one of those questions I was afraid to ask. I think I have seen every possible service offered on the Net, so I am curious about what I might have missed, but I may be sorry we asked. Bielle (talk) 02:19, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
Descent personal assistants (24 hours, multi-language, buy on demand); a descent marketplace to sell/buy services (with screening of participants, low commissions); real international banking (just open an account on one country, have an account everywhere).Mr.K. (talk) 02:34, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
I wonder if the true "international bank" is possible, given that the laws with respect to banking vary enormously from nation to nation. It is possible from many countries to have access to the funds in an account in another country by way of banking machines, but as for other banking services, that might be tricky. Bielle (talk) 17:01, 22 January 2008 (UTC)

M.L.K.[edit]

Which state in the U.S. did not acknowledge Martin Luther King day because they believed him to be a communist? lilreglastthug —Preceding unsigned comment added by 75.13.50.234 (talk) 22:35, 20 January 2008 (UTC)

A state cannot believe something. Legislators and governors can believe something. Many people, such as Arizona Governor Evan Mecham and U.S. Senator Jesse Helms, were against an MLK holiday for various reasons. One of the objections was that King had connections with Communists -- which was true, since Communists were among the first significant supporters of the civil rights movement. King himself was a Christian minister and hardly one to support Marxist ideology. -- Mwalcoff (talk) 23:56, 20 January 2008 (UTC)
Well, he was a socialist. Not a member of the Communist Party (and not subject to Party discipline), but he had a lot of CPUSA friends and supporters. But as you note, that's not too surprising, giving that the radical left were among the few supporters of the Civil Rights movement in the early days. But this aspect of him is largely written out of the popular knowledge of King—he becomes more passive, less radical, less contentious, more watered-down in his current, elementary school incarnation. --24.147.69.31 (talk) 00:42, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
Indeed. Every year, we hear the end of the I Have a Dream speech, but not the beginning or middle, in which MLK recounts all the ways America has mistreated black people:
There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by a sign stating: "For Whites Only." We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until "justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream." -- Mwalcoff (talk) 01:09, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
Which sounds like a perfectly reasonable position to me. DuncanHill (talk) 11:19, 21 January 2008 (UTC)
I think we're all in agreement on that. In the US though he's become one of these secular saints, watered down to nothingness, a black Santa Claus who brings freedom instead of toys and just talks about how we should all love one another and never says a thing about the real problems, some of which never got resolved. The real Dr. King would not be happy at the moment (can you imagine what he would have said about New Orleans? about the state of health care in the United States? about the racial divides in poverty statistics, AIDS infections, and educational gains?). He'd see less cause for the self-congratulatory "celebration" than is done in his name. If you want my opinion. --24.147.69.31 (talk) 22:51, 21 January 2008 (UTC)

In Utah, where I was raised, this particular sentiment was prevalent. In fact the holiday was called "Human Rights Day" until recently. See Martin_Luther_King_Day#Alternative_names.--The Fat Man Who Never Came Back (talk) 07:14, 21 January 2008 (UTC)

The NFL specifically refused to hold the Super Bowl in the state of Arizona until they passed a Martin Luther King Day holiday. Corvus cornixtalk 23:52, 21 January 2008 (UTC)