Wikipedia:Reference desk/Archives/Humanities/2009 June 8

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June 8[edit]

Britain and EU parliament[edit]

If Britain has banned Geert Wilders from entering the country, but he has 4 party (with the same views?) members in the EU parliament, is there a concrete political/legal conflict there as Britain is in the EU but is banning its voted politicians from entering the country? Thanks for info, --AlexSuricata (talk) 02:27, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

Is there anything in UK law that says EU parliamentarians, or their associates, must have the right to enter the UK? Is there anything in EU law that says that no associate of any person banned from entering any one of its member states cannot be elected to the EU parliament?
Those are the legal questions, and common sense indicates to me that the answers are "no". --PalaceGuard008 (Talk) 08:17, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

Supply-side economics[edit]

What empirical evidence, if any, supports the principles of supply-side and trickle-down economics? NeonMerlin 05:47, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

Reaganomics#Economic record makes it clear that although there was an economic rebound that occurred after Reagan's supply-side-economics-informed tax cuts, economies are hellishly difficult to analyze, with every empirical result subject to challenge from people who think it's due to some other cause. Reaganomics#Support has more statistics (and the following Criticisms section has rebuttals). Great question that should be addressed at Supply-side economics, and I'll add it to the talk page. Tempshill (talk) 16:53, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Much of what we have seems to be at Laffer curve... AnonMoos (talk) 17:38, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Trickle-down economics and the Laffer curve are related, but distinct. The Laffer curve shows that it is possible to lower the tax rate and yet bring in more tax revenue. This can be shown to be true both logically and (give or take) empirically. I don't have a count to quote you, but my impression is that most tests that relate economic activity to economic freedom find that more economic freedom (read: lower taxes, less regulation) is associated with more economic activity. Wikiant (talk) 17:45, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

The closest the Reagan Administration came to implementing a program of supply side economic management was reducing taxes. The defense budget blowout and subsequent record-ugly fiscal deficits negated any value in using that experience to judge the value of such an economic theory. When the same attempt was made earlier in this decade, the results were nearly identical, but with a few extra zeros attached to the deficits. While it would be tempting to say that two out of two examples disprove the value of supply side economics, the truth is no one has ever tried it to the extent of both reducing taxes and reducing spending.DOR (HK) (talk) 08:56, 9 June 2009 (UTC)

What about the Ontario government under Mike Harris? NeonMerlin 02:06, 10 June 2009 (UTC)

Assassination in World War II[edit]

The Allies killed Yamamoto and failed with Rommel. But I don't recall the Axis trying it. Did they? Or did they just not have the agents/capability? Clarityfiend (talk) 07:06, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

They may have tried to kill Churchill, and ended up killing Leslie Howard instead. (Or at least this is what Churchill liked to think.) Adam Bishop (talk) 07:48, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
(edit conflict) They had a lot of attempts going, but the thing about assassination attempts is that even though it's more dramatic to try and succeed or fail, a lot of the time when you see that things aren't going your way, you just abort the attempt in order to get another chance. Anyway, the destruction of BOAC Flight 777 in 1943 is believed to be an attempt on Churchill's life, for example. According to Churchill's bodyguard, Walter H. Thompson, Churchill's life was in danger on numerous occasions from nazi agents (and other threats). Because of the distances involved, American figures on the home front were obviously safer, but not entirely so, because the Nazis did try. Operation Long Jump could've been disastrous for the Allies, had it succeeded. the mission was headed by Otto Skorzeny, a pretty fascinating figure, and the idea was to try and assassinate "the Big Three" -- Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin -- during their 1943 conference in Tehran. It didn't work out, because Soviet intelligence uncovered the plot, but if it had, it would've undoubtedly had a heavy impact on the course of the war. -- Captain Disdain (talk) 07:57, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Further searching brings up Engelbert Dollfuss and Armand Călinescu. Adam Bishop (talk) 07:59, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Consider that we cracked their codes, but they didn't crack ours, so we had a pretty big advantage when it came to both creating and stopping assassination plots. As for the Axis having/not having the resources in place, consider the effect our gloriously successful counter-intelligence effort would have had on any such attempt. Prokhorovka (talk) 23:33, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Very interestink. Dank(e) you very much. Clarityfiend (talk) 06:19, 10 June 2009 (UTC)

Women ruler of the Roman Empire[edit]

Who was the first woman ruling the empire, officially, with full aknowledgement, not behind the scenes? Perhaps as regent for a minor son or an absent husband? Julia Domna and Julia Avita Mamaea? Are there any more? --Aciram (talk) 10:33, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

Pulcheria was Empress of the Eastern Empire, first as regent for her younger brother, then later in her own right from 450-453. Later, Irene of Athens ruled as Empress in her own right from 797-802; this has often been cited as the jusitification for Charlemagne to be declared Roman Emperor as the West did not recognize the legitimacy of her reign. If you look at List of Byzantine emperors you'll find another half dozen or so women who later ruled teh Eastern empire in their own right. --Jayron32.talk.contribs 12:28, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Yes, thank you, but I just realised I should have specified my question more: I was talkig about the Western Roman Empire, with a focus on the Pre-Christian era. --Aciram (talk) 14:59, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
I don't think a woman ever was named Western Empress regnant officially. There may have been Empress consorts who acted as Éminence grise, but I don't think that the Senate ever endorse a female as actual ruler of the Empire. Remember that Emperors, especially under the Principate, were expected to be military leaders first and foremost; most rose to power as a result of their military leadership. Some women, like Livia, exerted considerable "behind the scenes" power but I am not certain there were ever actually "official" women rulers. Even Julia Domna held no "official" position or authority, even if she exerted considerable power. --Jayron32.talk.contribs 21:00, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Not necesseraly female monarchs, I know there has been no ruling Empress of Rome, but regents? I have heard that Julia Domna was the officiall regent during her husband's absence, just like later European queen consorts were regents when their husbands was absent, but the article here does not make this clear. Julia Avita Mamaea, Julia Maesa and Julia Soaemias appear to have ben regents during the minority of the emperor. These are the only cases I have ever heard of. --Aciram (talk) 22:24, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
I think then under your definition Livia is the best shot. She certainly held considerable power, and was granted the title of Augusta indicating her significance. It was widely held that Tiberius only became emperor because of her, and that he owed her his throne; and she weilded power as though that were so. --Jayron32.talk.contribs 04:01, 9 June 2009 (UTC)
Try Emperess Ulpia Severina. There isn't cold hard evidence of her reign as Empress regnant but she may have ruled briefly after the death of her husband Emperor Aurelian].--Queen Elizabeth II's Little Spy (talk) 00:57, 10 June 2009 (UTC)
Thanks! I have heard that Julia Domna was regent in Rome when her spouse was absent, just as Catherine of Aragon was regent for king Henry when he was in France in 1513, but I do not not exactly when that was, which year, if she was appointed by her spouse or the senate, and wath she was called as regent. And regarding the regents Julia Avita Mamaea, Julia Maesa and Julia Soaemias: wath were there called as regents, and who appointed them? --Aciram (talk) 17:37, 10 June 2009 (UTC)

The last execution of heresy in Europe[edit]

When was the last person executed for heresy in Europe? I beleive it was sometime in the 18th-century. Does anyone know?--Aciram (talk) 10:33, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

Christian heresy says schoolmaster Cayetano Ripoll was "accused of deism and executed by garroting July 26, 1826 in Valencia", and this was the last by the Spanish Inquisition. There may have been later killings by other religious authorities. It's possible that after this date some Muslims were executed for apostasy in the Ottoman Empire, though modern Turkey has been secular since its foundation. --Maltelauridsbrigge (talk) 11:16, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
The last in the UK was Thomas Aikenhead. The last in England was even earlier (already in the latter 16th-century, Queen Elizabeth disclaimed any ability or desire to see into men's souls, and conspicuously refused to execute Catholics for heresy, but only for treason -- something which certain Catholic leaders obligingly made it very easy for her to do with stupid moves like Regnans in Excelsis, which declared treason to be a binding obligation on all English Catholics, and the incredible bloodthirsty ranting tirades of Cardinal Allen...) AnonMoos (talk) 14:46, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Thank you very much! It would also be interesting to know when the last woman heretic was executed, Is this known? As well as the equivalents for the different countries; I'll cant ask that, but perhaps you can tell me the last heresy execution in France? --Aciram (talk) 15:04, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Our article Peronne Goguillon says she was one of the last women executed for witchcraft in France, and "the last person to be executed for sorcery in France was male, Louis Debaraz, who was executed in 1745." I don't know if there was anyone after that for heresy, rather than specifically witchcraft. Adam Bishop (talk) 23:44, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
This book on Huguenot heritage states that the last Huguenot executed for heresy in France was François Rochette in 1762. Warofdreams talk 09:24, 9 June 2009 (UTC)
And in Spain, the last person executed for heresy was Cayetano Ripoll, in 1826. Warofdreams talk 09:32, 9 June 2009 (UTC)
Thanks! As for the last woman heretic executed in Europe, I was thinking more in the lines of heresy other than witchcraft. Can anyone help me with this? --Aciram (talk) 17:40, 10 June 2009 (UTC)

Last one in Iceland was in 1685. One Halldór Finnbogason confessed to praying to Satan ("Our Devil who art in Hell, accursed be thy name, thy kingdom come, thy will be done, on Earth as it is in Hell etc.") Haukur (talk) 18:00, 10 June 2009 (UTC)

examples of common charity causes?[edit]

—Preceding unsigned comment added by 218.186.12.229 (talk) 14:09, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

Salvation Army? The Red Cross? APL (talk) 14:40, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
A cure for cancer, prisoner and human rights, universal medical care, preservation of animal species, eradicating world hunger -there are as many causes as there are problems in the world. // BL \\ (talk) 15:07, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
United Way, UNICEF... Adam Bishop (talk) 15:12, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

See Category:Charities --Dweller (talk) 11:39, 9 June 2009 (UTC)

Cost of food?[edit]

Is there an index or way to calculate the cost of feeding an adult Canadian healthy food for one day? Or something similar to that? --69.165.160.171 (talk) 15:51, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

First you have to define "healthy food." Ask 10 people what it means and you will get 10 different answers. -- kainaw 18:18, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Indeed, I've seen blogs of people living off of $1 a day (in the US), and while it's probably not super fun eating rice 3 times a day, I don't think it'd be too unhealthy. If you're interested in how Canadian food prices compare to those of other countries, maybe you'd be interested in the Big Mac Index... TastyCakes (talk) 20:04, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Hmm Canada isn't in the article, but from the 2009 article Canada is given as having a US$3.36 big mac. TastyCakes (talk) 20:07, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
Seriously?! I'm in Toronto and a Big Mac is no way that cheap. Lesath (talk) 03:54, 9 June 2009 (UTC)
That's US dollars though...it's almost $4 Canadian. (Although I seem to recall a Big Mac is still more expensive than that.) Adam Bishop (talk) 06:24, 9 June 2009 (UTC)
Yes, CDN$4.16 according to the article. TastyCakes (talk) 14:11, 9 June 2009 (UTC)
Well, just rice would not be a balanced diet. You couldn't last more than a few weeks without some other source of nutrients. You need rice and something (rice and beans is good, that gets you all the proteins you need, you would probably be missing some vitamins and minerals, though). There is no harm in rice being your only carbohydrate, though, plenty of people in the world live off rice. --Tango (talk) 21:13, 8 June 2009 (UTC)
I read (somewhere, years ago) that you can live healthily on a diet of peanut butter and cantaloupe. I used to live on canned tomatoes and elbow macaroni. It probably wasn't nutritious, but it was cheap. Who then was a gentleman? (talk) 17:29, 9 June 2009 (UTC)

benefit concert[edit]

Although A Concert for Virginia Tech was a free event, I read $65 tickets were sold to the general public. How much money has been raised by the concert?69.203.157.50 (talk) 22:38, 8 June 2009 (UTC)

Uganda and Tanzania guys in divorce??[edit]

From this siad Yoweri and Janet Museveni is practically divorce each other, article said Musevenis was exile in 1971. Is Ali Hassan Mwinyi and Siti Mwinyi together or divorce? Since we have no informations about Siti Mwinyi and photos of Siti Mwinyi?--69.226.38.106 (talk) 23:27, 8 June 2009 (UTC)