Wikipedia:Reference desk/Archives/Miscellaneous/2008 April 25

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April 25[edit]

Public surveillance[edit]

I am looking for a source that shows the number of surveillance in Britain over the time period from 1990 to today. Thank you. (talk) 01:20, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

You'll have to define your terms a great deal more before it is possible to attempt to answer the question. --Tagishsimon (talk) 01:23, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Sorry, I meant public surveillance cameras. Whoops. (talk) 01:28, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
This[1] gets you some hits on Britain surveillance society, one camera for every 14 people etc. Maybe your specifics are in there too. This[2] for 1990, this for 2008: 25 million by 2007. Our article Closed-circuit television has Britain notes too. Julia Rossi (talk) 08:28, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Breed of Dog?[edit]

What kind/type of dog is found in this video, from The Holiday? Thanks for the help. -- (talk) 01:31, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Stating the obvious it seems to be some sort of terrier. There are many breeds of terrier, some recognised as specific breeds and named but there are many more mutts that are the happy consequence of a quick encounter and do not fall within the previous category. If you Google images for "terrier dogs" there are about 796,000 examples to look at, unfortunately nothing similar to Cameron's dog pops up in the first few pages. Richard Avery (talk) 07:59, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Food Cost[edit]

HOw do we reduce food cost in restaurants?

DFBM —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 02:56, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

  1. Steal it.
  2. Broker a better deal with your wholsaler(s).
Choose wisely. − Twas Now ( talkcontribse-mail ) 06:25, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Eat it and then sneak out could be another option. If you are a good sneaker that is. (talk) 06:36, 25 April 2008 (UTC)Cardinal Raven

Order the cheapest thing and fill yourself up with the bread. --antilivedT | C | G 08:51, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
  • Order the most expensive menue.
  • Select the top offering recommended by the sommelier.
  • Enjoy the magnificent food and delight in sipping the superb wine.
  • On swallowing the last bite of the dessert, indulge in a thespian performance of gasping for air, choking to near death and slide from the chair unconsciously, pulling with you the table cloth and associated porcelain, glasses and cutlery. Kick over the table in your death throes and wait for the ambulance.
  • Warning: This does not work twice in a row. --Cookatoo.ergo.ZooM (talk) 09:59, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
The answer would likely depend on whether you are the restaurant's customer or the restaurant's owner. If you are the customer, you could choose the less expensive menu items, order the daily special, or go to a restaurant with better value. If you are the owner, you could switch to a different supplier, use a less expensive grade of ingredient, use less of more expensive items, and more of cheaper ingredients (e.g. use more bread crumbs in the meatloaf), or simply reduce portion size altogether. -- (talk) 15:59, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
I consider myself to be a cheapskate extradonaire, so here is my advice:
1) If you have a partner who is also interested in saving money, go to a restaurant that offers large servings for the money, then order one meal and split it. You are less likely to get dirty looks if you explain to the waiter "neither of us is very hungry and your servings are so large, maybe you could bring us an extra plate and we can split a meal ?".
2) Instead of ordering drinks, just have water. A bit of lemon in it makes it more palatable, so ask for that. If you want, you can even add sugar from packets to make free lemonade.
3) Skip desert. If you must, have some ice cream when you get home.
4) If they have lots of crackers at the table, order soup and put many crackers in it to fill up.
5) As mentioned before, fill up on free bread or anything else free, like tortilla chips, peanuts, etc. If you run out, ask for more.
6) Also feel free to ask for extras like tomato sauce. In "uppity" restaurants they always seem to want to serve a pizza without tomato sauce, so I have to request it on the side.
7) Go to an all-you-can-eat place prepared to spend the day there. Bring a newspaper and/or laptop computer. Fill up, then use the toilet, then fill up some more. Get used to eating one large meal each day like this. This may get you thrown out once they figure what you're up to.
8) Use coupons. A very common one is "buy one meal at full price get the other meal of equal or lesser value at half price". If you're with someone who doesn't care about money, they can pay the full price while you get the deal. A good portion of the junk mail you get is probably such offers.
9) Join birthday clubs. Some will give you a free meal, others only give you a free cupcake. Some are only good on the actual day and some are good for a month. Some check your ID and some don't.
10) Never leave food on the table. Ask for "doggie bags" to take extras home (although most all-you-can-eat places forbid this). Also take home as many crackers as you can steal. StuRat (talk) 05:06, 27 April 2008 (UTC)
Or you could make your food at home, take it with you in a bag which you then hide under the table and eat from it carefully, so noone notices.HS7 (talk) 18:19, 29 April 2008 (UTC)

Oil Wells in Arizona[edit]

Are there many oil wells/refineries in Arizona? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 03:11, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

According to the Energy Information Administration site, "Arizona’s annual crude oil production is minimal. Arizona has no refineries and receives its petroleum product supply via two pipelines, one from southern California and the other from El Paso, Texas." (added)The same source says there are 12 wells producing crude oil. SaundersW (talk) 15:54, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

AP Calculus AB exam[edit]

My teacher told us that the short answers on the exam have a 9 point rubric. Does anyone know what the rubric is? Also, anyone have any general tips for that part of the exam since I am not doing well on my practice tests? (talk) 03:15, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Considering that no one knows where you got to school or who your teacher is or what exam your are taking, there might be a few AP Calculus AB Exams, i remember the my AP calc test did not have any short answer questions. --Nick910 (talk) 04:29, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

let me rephrase that: the free-response section and every ap calculus exam in the us is the same (talk) 04:49, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Took mine in a DoD (department of defense school) about 5 years ago, so who knows. --Nick910 (talk) 05:08, 25 April 2008 (UTC) definition of rubric - depending on context, it could either mean the instructions on the front page (no calculators, no dictionaries, whatever), or possibly something about the actual mark scheme. -mattbuck (Talk) 10:56, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
This may be what you're looking for: College Board. As for advice, try to understand the concepts behind what you're doing, not just memorizing the steps, that's a problem I've seen alot of people have. (I got a five on mine...). Mad031683 (talk) 16:33, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

ok, but i was told there were specific thinks they look for in a free-response answer71.218.22.196 (talk) 20:27, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

I think you are being too literal. In the free responses, the test writers have identified certain specific items or steps they wish to see in the response, which the free response readers/graders are to look for. Obviously they would not be the same things for every questions; probably there's not always 9 of them. (That's how you get partial credit for a wrong answer, IMHO.)
-- Danh (talk) 23:55, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Yeah, they just split up each question into 9 possible points. So if the question were, say, a definite integral, you might get two points just for setting it up right, four points for integrating properly, and three points for plugging in the bounds and getting the correct value. Most of the time you can get over half the points without getting the right answer in the end if your process is solid. Keep this in mind, and work out each problem as far as you can, even if you know you won't be able to fully finish it. -Elmer Clark (talk) 01:28, 26 April 2008 (UTC)

who is this girl?[edit] —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 08:37, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

According to the page on which it appears, she is a "Catherine Bell look alike". But I've no idea who Catherine Bell is, or why she is notable enough to have a look alike picture posted on the internet. Astronaut (talk) 10:09, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Catherine Bell played one of the two principal protagonists in the TV series JAG.
Atlant (talk) 12:53, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Careful, googling her could turn up porn images. XD. Queerbubbles | Leave me Some Love 13:07, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
That girl doesn't look like Catherine Bell at all... Adam Bishop (talk) 03:29, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
I was just about to say that. Corvus cornixtalk 20:19, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
Hmm, she is pretty. That is all I know. --Blue387 (talk) 01:02, 27 April 2008 (UTC)
oh yeah, shes the bomb!Makey melly (talk) 13:26, 1 May 2008 (UTC)

I want to hover around town[edit]

Balloon/lawn chair flight So if I used 40 balloons could I hover a couple of feet and air paddle from my house to the mall? Lotsofissues 10:01, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

You probably could, but you should take care not to end up (heh) like Lawnchair Larry -- Ferkelparade π 10:14, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
(ec) Maybe it would work, but I doubt "paddling" will generate enough thrust to move you, so you would probably be better off rigging up a motor-driven propeller. On a cautionary note, just make sure you don't over do it like Larry Walters did in the 80's. Astronaut (talk) 10:15, 25 April 2008 (UTC) :(
What if I used 20 balloons and a pogo stick. Could I make mega leaps to the mall? Lotsofissues 10:35, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Yes. --Sean 13:52, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Although the balloons would be a source of drag, and would respond to the wind direction. There are assuredly easier ways of a) getting to the mall and b) killing yourself. --Tagishsimon (talk) 17:26, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Since you only intend to hover is that because you heard of the Brazilian priest with helium balloons lost in the heavens recently?[3] Julia Rossi (talk) 01:01, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
Sorry only just now went to the timesonline link – good one. Julia Rossi (talk) 01:03, 26 April 2008 (UTC)


why when one does alot of excercise and is unfit, one can start to feel quite ill. and any relative info thanks —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 10:15, 25 April 2008 (UTC) Also theres the pain in the back of the throat can that be explained? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 11:15, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Sorry, we can't give professional advice. However, if prolonged exercise causes pain or discomfort, you should immediately cease. Your body is smart-- this is its way of telling you that you're abusing it.

Consult a reputable fitness coach to find an appropriate exercise regimen. It would be wise to consult your physician, as well. Rhinoracer (talk) 13:04, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Of course, I can only answer from experience and any major issues should be taking to your doctor. But in my history, (I'm a big girl) the pain from the back of the throat is caused by breathing heavily, and the ickyness you feel when you exert yourself could be due to your blood pressure spiking because its not used to pumping so much to your muscles. More blood to the muscles takes away from the rest of your body (like your head) so you might been lightheaded and dizzy for a bit. After regular excersise though, your body becomes more efficient, and used to the extra pressure, so it begins to condition itself to being able to handle the differences. But once again, this is my own personal experience and should not be used to treat anything whatsoever... at all.  :P Queerbubbles | Leave me Some Love 13:05, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Also look at Microtrauma and Side stitch.--Lisa4edit (talk) 05:27, 27 April 2008 (UTC)

Correct form on letters in UK[edit]

To what extent (if any) are there differences between the name and address (of the recipient) put on the top of a letter vs the envelope? Kittybrewster 10:45, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Well, you don't put the recipient's address on the letter, you put yours on, and the recipient's on the envelope. As for the actual differences, you right align the letter address, and then there are two options with the actual address. You can either centre it, or you may find that people
Oh, and the whole thing about putting the stamp upside down is a myth. -mattbuck (Talk) 10:54, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
You so do put the recipient's address on the letter, if it's a business letter. It goes above the salutation, even if you're not using a window envelope. You probably don't need to put the address if it's your mother you're writing to, however. --Richardrj talk email 13:57, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
You just need name, address and post-code on an envelope (infact even without a post-code it mostly makes it, the post office do a thing most years exampling their most amazing deliveries - one I think had "you know that house on the hill down the road near the Bakers in [village]" and still made it to the correct person). The letter inside is irrelevant unless you have an envelope that shows the letter (windowed one). Like Mattbuck says you find some people do use a moving-across format but that's probably more 'stuffy' and formal than is general these days. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 10:59, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Most envelopes have the address left aligned, not right aligned or centred like apparently suggested above and the staggered format is falling into disuse. Another difference (with US letters for example) is that most personal letters, don't feature the sender's address on the back of the envelope.
On the letter itself, the senders address is usually written top right or occasionally centred.
Addresses are in the form Name, Street address, Town, Postcode (though the county occasionally appears between the town and postcode, especially if the town is not a major town or city). The Post Office tries its best to deliver, even if some important parts of the address are missing.
Astronaut (talk) 11:20, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
The Post Office request that the post town be written in block capitals when addressing an envelope. Similarly they request that you omit commas and do not stagger lines. You might not wish to follow all this advice whenever you write an address. See their advice. (That site also provides an answer to the question "I’m moving, why can’t I keep the same postcode?") William Avery (talk) 11:48, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

All nighter[edit]

Dear wikipedia,

Due to an excess of work, I am staying up all night. Right now it is 5:30 AM. Tomorrow I have a quiz and a meeting with a teacher at 4:00 PM. I am open between 2-4 PM and after 6 PM. When do I sleep so I don't mess up my internal clock too much? My relatives are coming to visit me on Saturday. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 10:36, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Moved from Language Desk - don't feel bad about putting it in the wrong place, I'm sure you're tired :) -Elmer Clark (talk) 11:10, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
In my experience it's best to stay up until as close to the time you normally go to bed as possible. I generally end up sleeping in rather a lot the next morning, but by the next day my sleep schedule is generally back to normal, more or less. So if you can stave off sleep until 10 PM or whatever, that's what I would recommend. Of course, this is all just from personal experience - I wonder if any studies have been done on the topic... -Elmer Clark (talk) 11:10, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

OK thanks, that was what I suspected. Sorry about the bad placement, I'm so used to asking wikipedia language questions that I put it in the wrong place. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 11:36, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
See polyphasic sleep patterns, also jetlag. BrainyBabe (talk) 08:34, 26 April 2008 (UTC)

Last year I ran an experiment on myself. I started working in 48-hour days, i.e. every other night, I just wouldn't sleep. I can report that it actually made me feel quite vibrant, and every other night, when I did sleep, I slept like a baby. On the down-side however, whenever I had to stay sedentary (like, if I was sat in a lecture), I would quickly drift off. But overall, I would recommend it so long as your lifestyle doesn't demand sitting still in dull situations for any length of time. Ninebucks (talk) 15:57, 1 May 2008 (UTC)

Rich list[edit]

When magazines have a top celeb rich list, like the one I saw today, Amy Winehouse 10 mill, ect how do they know? I dont tell anyone how much I earn so hoe do they know that george harrison's son has 160mill in the bank —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 11:11, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

As I understand it, it works on estimates. So if they have a source or somwthing that says Amy Winehouse gets, say, 15% of everything she sells (concert tickets, CDs, drugs), and they know how many CDs and tickets and {redacted, WP:BLP violation}, then they can estimate how much money she had made. Then they add on things like her marketability and her earning potential to give you a rough estimate of what she's worth. I doubt that George Harrison's son has an actual bank balance of $160 million, but he might own the rights to various things that are worth that much, and he probably has a whole bunch of art, too. Once you get tothose sort of levels, actual wealth is very difficult to ascertain. Michael Clarke, Esq. (talk) 22:19, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Do you have a source for the accusation that Winehouse sells drugs? That sounds like a violation of WP:BLP and, moreover, a big fat libel. Malcolm XIV (talk) 08:28, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
Definitely a WP:BLP violation and redacted accordingly. Michael, please read the policy - "This policy applies equally to biographies of living persons and to biographical material about living persons on other pages(emphasis mine). The burden of evidence for any edit on Wikipedia, but especially for edits about living persons, rests firmly on the shoulders of the person who adds or restores the material. Exxolon (talk) 20:11, 28 April 2008 (UTC)

The lists are bogus. Some years back Ali Jelali was in the rich list for his hotels. At the same time I was chasing him for his debts. It all went tit's up and he has disappeared from view. No retraction was made by the promoters of the list. They do not show their sources or methods. Just be amazed how people with minds the size of a flea appear in the list. Paul. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 22:32, 28 April 2008 (UTC)

My mother is engaged to Amy Whitehouse's accountant. Perhaps they asked her? Ninebucks (talk) 15:58, 1 May 2008 (UTC)


Hi! I have faced to a problem: I cannot get a girlfriend. I'm healthy, clean, and usually well-dressed guy. I'm not poor. And I'm not too shy for accomplishing such tasks (finding girlfriends). I'm 22 years old. But when I get acquainted with some girl, and I ask her about dating (and stuff like that, you know), always it turns out to be that she has already a boyfriend. Yeah, I'm aware of Murphy's law, but I haven't been thinking that it works all the time. So the very question is: what should I do in order achieve a girlfriend? PS. Wikihow couldn't help. (talk) 11:55, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Keep trying. Keep in touch with girls you like; "other boyfriends" aren't always permanent. Ask friends to "fix you up". And (did I say this already?) keep trying. And never, ever "settle" for a partner you don't actually care for; it's not fair to you or to her.
Atlant (talk) 12:57, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

As the other said aboce keep trying. There is no end to who is willing to spend time with you. Respect, honor, and trust are the most important things in the world.Cardinal Raven (talk) 18:15, 25 April 2008 (UTC)Cardinal Raven

If you try and try and try at something and don't get anywhere, it's never a bad move to back away and reflect on the situation. Us males are prone to the belief that if we aren't getting any action, there's something desperately wrong with us that needs to be addressed. There may be something desperately wrong, but a good first step is to give up the expectation of having a girlfriend. Often times, only by resigning ourselves to defeat can we take the first step toward victory. Vranak (talk) 19:07, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
  1. You're 22. Often, people dating at this period are just looking for companionship, not long-term relationships. You may just be talking to folks who aren't willing to commit, and get the impression that you are (or the reverse, as the case may be).
  2. Vranak is right. Don't worry about it. Just make friends, socialize and enjoy this part of your life. Most folks (myself included) didn't find their partner by looking, they found them because a friend just happened to introduce them. Most folks looking for dates are going to bars, clubs, social events, etc. and just asking folks they find attractive. That's not a good way to find someone, IME. -- Kesh (talk) 22:31, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Make a list of what you are looking for in a girlfriend. What of your interests do you want to share with her. Then mingle in crowds or attend groups that make it likely that you find a "soulmate". Then don't try. Very few people want their boy/girlfriend to appear desperate or clingy. Good luck. --Lisa4edit (talk) 05:18, 27 April 2008 (UTC)

Be aware that sometimes a "boyfriend" is a nice way of letting you down. It's not a bad thing to be turned down. Disappointing, maybe, but not something to dwell on. Steewi (talk) 02:44, 28 April 2008 (UTC)
Sad, but true Abdullais4u (talk) 13:37, 28 April 2008 (UTC)
That makes two of us Mr. IP :) --Lenticel (talk) 14:05, 28 April 2008 (UTC)

Consider that you might be trying too hard. If you treat women as gorgeous but disposable you can have a lot of fun. If you want to get married and all the rest join a church. Women are nice and I have eaten a whole one. She was good. Paul. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 22:28, 28 April 2008 (UTC)

Jesus Chist. Wipe the tears and grow some balls. Green t-shirt (talk) 12:09, 29 April 2008 (UTC)

Perhaps if you didn't try so hard? I'd wager that I'm less healthy, clean, and usually well-dressed than yourself, and almost every relationship I've had has been initiated by the other person. Ninebucks (talk) 16:01, 1 May 2008 (UTC)

so much noise[edit]

In pornos the woman always moans and screams a lot. Is this typical of normal sex? I've only been ith one woman and she was pretty quite throughout the experience. (talk) 12:02, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

It varies from individual to individual. Some people find making noises adds extra pleasure to proceedings (both for him and/or her), others don't. From an adult-movie perspective it's another way for them to add to the viewer's enjoyment of the performance. It's really just a case of them catering to what they think the consumer wants. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 12:56, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
It depends on who you're with - some people are quite vocal, some are not. Of course, you might also be contributing to it - one person being quiet means the other person is more likely to be quiet, and vice versa. -mattbuck (Talk) 14:45, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
I'm not surprised the lady you were with said nothing; she was probably willing the whole experience to be over a quickly as possible. Wikipedia is not a forum. Ask your question somewhere else. Green t-shirt (talk) 12:06, 29 April 2008 (UTC)
I've always found it weird that porn-chicks are always so vocal. I mean, I maybe could have understood it in the days of VHS pornography, but in the internet-age, many more porn-consumers would prefer a level of discretion in their porn - it'd be just as sexy if the ladies kept their voices down, and it would stop many of us having to panic with our hands clasped around our volume controls while we're trying to get aroused. Ninebucks (talk) 16:04, 1 May 2008 (UTC)


So the other day I was thinking about time travel, the Grandfather paradox specifically. Then I thought of this little thing from an old PC game about pipes. I made a little illustration to help.

What happens after that? Disregard gravity (imagine it's on ISS), assume constant pressure throughout the pipe, assume absolutely no leakage. Can as answer here be used to answer the Grandpa paradox? Aurora sword (talk) 12:46, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Well, since you've got open spots in the pipe where two streams of water collide at 90 degrees, I imagine that basically water would go everywhere and be a major pain to clean up. Beyond that I'm not sure what you're getting at.APL (talk) 13:45, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Is this the same as "what could happen if you shine a light in a box made of mirrors?" I guess if the pipe were sealed the pressure would remain constant, but nothing would cause the water to move around the pipe. How does this relate to the Grandfather paradox? Think outside the box 14:41, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Does nobody think like me? First, water travels from the first pipe, straight into the second pipe because there is no gravity. Then the water change direction according tot he shape of the pipe. The stream coming out, down from the pipe will intercept the horizontal stream, causing it to miss the entrance of the second pipe. But if it misses the pipe, it wouldn't have been able to come out from the second pipe to intercept itself, which means that it should've travelled to the second pipe successfully, and so on. I find that very similiar to the grandfather paradox. One answer that sounded probably was...alternation. So the flow of the water goes on&off repeatedly, but how would this apply to the grandfather paradox? Aurora sword (talk) 15:34, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
You'll likely set up an oscillating behavior (more probably a chaotic system). There is a short time delay from when the water first enters the second pipe and when it intercepts the incoming stream. During that time you'd have no interruption in flow. But once it hits, the flow will get interrupted. Due to momentum, the water coming out of the second pipe will continue to move for a short time after the incoming water stops. Once that clears, the incoming stream will be restored, resulting in flow into the second pipe for the short period of time it takes before the pressure wave moves to the pipe outlet. Lather, rinse, repeat. Since there's a time delay for the water pressure to travel through the pipe, and due to the momentum of the moving water, you'll never get into a self contradictory grandfather paradox type situation. -- (talk) 15:50, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Ah, I see now. has it right, the momentum of every single water molecule will be enough to continue it's movement, without the need for pressure from behind. Think outside the box 16:37, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
All of you are wrong, and apparently didn't receive any schooling, either. Water would not be allowed to freely float about on the ISS with such delicate and expensive equipment on board. Green t-shirt (talk) 12:07, 29 April 2008 (UTC)

Animals we eat[edit]

I'm sure this will have come up before but...Is there any reason why most of the animals we eat are non-meat eaters (chicken, cows, sheep, turkeys & pigs being my main meat consumption)? I guess it's easier to catch non-predatory animals but just wondered if there was a more indepth reason why - you know like eating something that eats something is somehow more dangerous etc. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:00, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

It could be due to the fact that those animals are easier to domesticate since they arent trying to imagine you in an oven... just a thought. Queerbubbles | Leave me Some Love 13:09, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

There have been numerous studies suggesting a link between meat eating and increased propensity for disease. The last I saw suggested that eating a sausage a day improves your chances of developing colorectal cancer. If there is something inherently unhealthy about meat, perhaps it is compounded through the food chain, like mercury into tuna. Speculation, of course. Vranak (talk) 13:16, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

This is probably caused just as much by the preservatives used in sausages as the meat in them. Aaadddaaammm (talk) 02:27, 26 April 2008 (UTC)

It's simply more expensive. Predators are at the top of the food chain, so they consume a lot more. If we raised wolves for food, for example, we'd have to feed them meat; much more efficient to raise herbivores such as cows, or omnivores such as pigs.

That being said, there is one type of carnivore we eat large quantities of-- fish, such as tuna or salmon. Even then, farmed salmon is expensive to feed, and pisciculturalists are constantly looking for non-meat protein feeds.

Dog is raised as a delicacy in China and Korea, and even in America hunters won't turn up their nose at a nice bear steak! Rhinoracer (talk) 13:20, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Dogs can be non-meat eaters. But as Rhinoracer said, its inefficient to raise carnivores because on average only 10% of an organism's energy is passed on to its predator. The other 90% is used for its life processes or it is lost as heat to the environment. Think outside the box 14:36, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
With dogs ans some carnivores you have to avoid eating the liver, as it's high vitamin A content can be toxic. -- Q Chris (talk) 14:47, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Chickens and pigs are omnivorous foragers; that is, in the wild they eat a wide variety of foods that they find. Chickens consume a lot of insects, for example. Under factory farming conditions, normally vegetarian animals such as cows, have been fed on industrial supplements that include(d) bone meal, resulting in , notoriously, mad cow disease or bovine spongiform encephaly. BrainyBabe (talk) 08:41, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
The argument that carnivores are more expensive to raise only applies if you supply them with meat. Eating carnivores which forage for meat themselves doesn't have this problem. This includes (as mentioned previously), many fish, and hunted animals like bears, crocs, tigers, and whales. StuRat (talk) 04:39, 27 April 2008 (UTC)

Don't forget religious objections to eating other meat-eaters. Generally, carnivores are treyf to Jews and probably forbidden in other religious traditions. --D. Monack | talk 13:25, 29 April 2008 (UTC)

I wonce ate a spider! lol it didn't taste of anything rally but was kinda crunchy. my gf vomited when i ate it lmao!Makey melly (talk) 13:27, 1 May 2008 (UTC)

All organic life-forms are inefficient, i.e. they can never use as much energy as their consume, most of it is simply wasted. So, assume a gram of grass contains 100kC; the cow eating that grass will only be able to absorb about 10kC of that, and so then, when we humans eat that beef, we are eating flesh that contains only around 10kC per gram. If extra tiers were added to this food chain, we'd be left with only 1kC/g, or even 0.1kC/g. The most efficient diet would be purely vegetarian, (leaving aside all the nutrients that are best delivered from meat), this is, IRC, why all of Star Trek's Vulcans are vegetarian. As an aside, I recently did some research surrounding the eating of insects, it turns out grasshoppers are eight times more efficient at converting their food into consumable energy than cattle. So, if cattle-farming were to be replaced by insect-farming, there would be a lot less hunger in the world. Ninebucks (talk) 16:19, 1 May 2008 (UTC)

Where is the right place to discuss EB WebShare as reference source?[edit] --Historiograf (talk) 13:02, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Hello my name is Ann.[edit]

I write an article to newspaper and I need your help.
If your partner comes from the different country and you use several languages simultaneously. Mabye you speak two or more languages.
If you have the dog.

Please answer this questions:

  • How do your dogs bark?
  • Do your dogs react to commands given in the different language?
  • Do you teach your dog commands in the different language?

Please write your, your partner and dog name (what races the dog is) J Could you also write the country from which you come.
Thank you for your patience and sorry for my english Best regards —Preceding unsigned comment added by Odd helop mangoon (talkcontribs) 16:10, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Dogs can be trained to follow commands in any language. Even gibberish languages that don't mean anything. A dog only knows to sit when you say "Sit" because you taught him that. You can teach a dog to sit when you say "Stand" just as long as you are consistent with the commands that you use. Many dogs in the U.S. are taught commands in German. See Schutzhund for a bit of background info on that. The key is to be consistent with the commands given. Trying to train a dog to sit by using both "sit" (English) and "sitzen" (German) may confuse the dog since while they sound similar, they aren't the same word. Dismas|(talk) 17:30, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
I take it that this means is you and your partner need to agree on the same word to use for each command and stick to it, for the dog to understand, for example "sit" or "sitzen" – not both. Julia Rossi (talk) 00:50, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
That's what I was trying to get across, yes. Dismas|(talk) 03:50, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
Sorry, but the command form used in German would be "sitz!" "Sitzen" is the base form of the verb. With humans you'd use "setzen".--Lisa4edit (talk) 05:03, 27 April 2008 (UTC)
Not necessarily, depending on the similarity of sounds. With sit/sitzen (above), a pair of commands sharing an identical first syllable, the dog might not have difficulty discriminating between them. In our (bilingual) household, our dog, incompletely obedience trained, will only halfheartedly respond to either "Sit!" or "שבי" (shvee!) and "No!" or "לא" (lo!) when she doesn't want to, unless we load the delivery with increased volume, body language, tone of voice, etc. Consider also the dog's motivation: this indoor dog is walked only on a leash, and has learned to demonstrate animated enthusiasm if anyone within earshot uses the word "walk" or the initial letter "W" (as in w-a-l-k; she's yet to learn the other evasive synonyms we've adopted such as "stroll," "perambulate," etc.). This dog is a Lab/Amstaff mix; the same behavior and circumstances were true for my parents' purebread silky. -- Deborahjay (talk) 12:09, 26 April 2008 (UTC)

Hello Ann. We are English but live in France. Our dogs bark just like others throughout the world - but the description of the bark in English is something like woof woof. In French they say ouah ouah. Our dogs (Shepherd and poodle) respond to both languages but, as has been said, a lot of it is to do with body language and situation (i.e. at the post office the dog expects to sit). Neither respond to the commands from people not in the family. (talk) 14:04, 26 April 2008 (UTC)DT

Funny thing, though, they respond differently. True story: a friend of mine once went on a trip to Mexico and saw a cat on the street. Calling "kitty, kitty" didn't make it come. After a while, she called, "gato, gato" and the feline came purring along. I might also add that the mewings of cats in different languages are used differently ("meow" in English, "meo" in Southeast Asia, etc.)--LaPianísta! 15:32, 26 April 2008 (UTC)

Animal brains aren't designed to recognise and respond to different phonetic noises in the same way the (frankly amazing) human brain is. A dog will be able to differentiate certain noises, like a hissing sibilant, or an emphasised plosive, but mostly they respond tonally. I used to be able to get my dog to sit by basically saying any monosyllabic word, so long as I toned it the same as 'sit!', it became a bit of a game, as we'd go to the dog and shout things like 'pint' or 'belt', and still get her to sit. My conclusion, I guess, is not to anthropologise a level of linguistic understanding onto an animal. Ninebucks (talk) 16:34, 1 May 2008 (UTC)


When one is accused of racism, what is the best way to counter this argument, as I have lots of ....friends does not cut it as seen on the Humanities desk. How can a normal suberban white guy prove that he is not racist? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 16:20, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

What prompted the charge of racism in the first place? -- Coneslayer (talk) 16:39, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Racism by a minority who assumes that all white men are racist. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 16:54, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
I don't think you can ever disprove it. My mother was once accused of being racist towards a group a member of which she had been married to for more than 20 years and whose culture she had brought her children up in. There's no real point trying to counter the accusation, beyond scorn. Perhaps try and work out what prompted the charge since, even if you weren't being racist, there may be something to learn there. (talk) 16:56, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Saying "Actually, I do have some inherent prejudices; I'm aware of them and try to resist them and think of everyone as a person" will get you much, much, much further than flat denial. --Masamage 17:15, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Why not just accept their accusation with humility, assume that they are right, and move on from there. People don't make arbitrary accusations just for the fun of it. Vranak (talk) 19:00, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Why should you assume they are right, and that people don't make arbitrary accusations just for fun? That implies that no one was ever falsly accused of being racist. Racism is an ugly accusation, and it affects the way people perceive you, so ignoring it is not really a viable optionespecially if the accusation has personal consequences. In terms of proving you aren't racist, there is no real way other than showing through your actions over a long period of time. Mad031683 (talk) 20:16, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
People don't make arbitrary accusations just for the fun of it. There must at least be a kernel of truth to an accusation, even if on the whole it is wrong. Vranak (talk) 00:48, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
There are all sorts of reasons to make false accusations of racism. They can be made to win an argument (say with someone opposed to a quota system for minorities), they can be used to get a guilty person acquited (like O. J. Simpson), and possibly even to win the US presidency ("if you don't vote for Obama, you're a racist"). StuRat (talk) 04:29, 27 April 2008 (UTC)
And some people really do make arbitrary accusations for the fun of it, or because they have problems. And some people just can't tell the difference between racism and not agreeing with someone about something that involves 'race'. (talk) 14:09, 27 April 2008 (UTC)
Ask the person "Why do you think I'm racist?" Either they have a valid reason, or they don't. If they have a valid reason, it's best to accept the criticism and move on with the conversation. If it's unreasonable ("All white people are racist," "all black people hate mexicans," "You're a Republican," "you disagree with (political/religious figure)'s opinions", "You're from (nation)"), then point out that it is not a reasonable argument. At that point, it often degenerates into yelling or just insisting that you are racist for disagreeing, so it's best to sever ties with that individual. -- Kesh (talk) 22:38, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
I've often found the phrase "I hope you won't hold it against me that I'm ####" rather useful. (### being whatever trait or feature your opposite might want to object to.) If your opposite is in a civil frame of mind they'd usually not want to say "yes" because they are trying to paint themselves as the hapless victim or having the moral upper hand. Another way of moving yourself into the other corner of the ring is saying "Well, you have me at a disadvantage here. You are obviously very experienced at accusing people of being ###. But no one in their right mind has ever accused me of being ### before, and I have absolutely no clue how to respond to that." If you don't mind the possibility of things getting ugly you could say: "I know 2 facts here. I know I'm not ### and you are making false accusations without checking your facts." Another thing is to check why your opposite is making the accusation. Unfortunately humans haven't developed that far from their tribal roots. They try to make points with their "pack" and try to segregate it from "outsiders". Anything that will give them an angle will do and the list is endless. Your opposite may not be in a frame of mind to listen or argue logically. Thus, anything you say might not be heard or turned against you. People who lack the communication skills to make their point stick verbally, often turn to violence to show others they're boss. You should try any means you can think of to prevent that. There are many books on "verbal combat" / "verbal self-defense". But a. you have to remember what the book said just when you need it and b. what the book said may just not work for you in that particular situation. Good luck. --Lisa4edit (talk) 04:52, 27 April 2008 (UTC)

Sarcasm can get you out of any situation.--Dlo2012 (talk) 13:42, 28 April 2008 (UTC)

Almosteveryone is a little bit racist. Instead of trying to prove that you've never jumped to a conclusion about someone based on their race, instead try to prove that you've never acted upon a racist prejudice in an unjust manner. Ninebucks (talk) 16:37, 1 May 2008 (UTC)

University or technicon?[edit]

I want to study mechanical engineering next year but I am not sure which institution to study at. Both universaties as wel as technicons in South Africa offer qualifications which is wanted by the industry. What I want to know is: what exactly are the practical implications of using one and not the other? How will it affect my job, job description, pay and possibilities to be self employed one day? Yours Truly -- (talk) 17:34, 25 April 2008 (UTC)Christo Cronje

Potential employers are the best to answer this question. Why not contact the Personnel (Human Relations, whatever) of firms in the business and simply ask what they look for. Alternatively (and also) look at job ads. Send for job descriptions as though you are wanting to apply. (You will, one day.) Good luck, good question. (talk) 13:59, 26 April 2008 (UTC)petitmichel

Time spent creating Wikipedia[edit]

I vaguely remember seeing this before somewhere, maybe here, but are there any estimates of the total amount of time that has been invested to get wikipedia to its current state? JMiall 18:03, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

As WP articles are compiled by thousands of private contributors, I doubt that any realistic estimate can be made.
Bear in mind that there are articles where research is minimal (your textbooks, Britannica or a translation from language xy.Wikipedia); others may require some visits to a library or your bookshelves; still others need photos or time consuming graphics. Also consider that many articles are deleted for being non-notable or need to be heavily edited because the original creator may have been biased or poorly informed. If you have a look at some of the discussion pages you will realise how much "invisible" time is spent by many on this project.
Finally the question arises of what to count as an effort sine qua non WP. If the study of linguistics or philosophy is a prerequisite for writing a useful article on subject X, if having seen 12 actors interpret Hamlet in different ways is needed for another, if knowing classical Greek / perpendicular Gothic or IPA is required for a third, is the gaining of such knowledge part of the "construction time" ?
I think that any estimate would be a useless stab in the dark of no representative value.
--Cookatoo.ergo.ZooM (talk) 20:02, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
Just for me, it's 4 hours a day since March 2002 (I'm retired) so that's about 6 years times 350 days times 4, which is 8500 hours - Adrian Pingstone (talk) 20:27, 26 April 2008 (UTC)

Clay Shirky wrote this a few days ago, by coincidence: "So if you take Wikipedia as a kind of unit, all of Wikipedia, the whole project--every page, every edit, every talk page, every line of code, in every language that Wikipedia exists in--that represents something like the cumulation of 100 million hours of human thought. I worked this out with Martin Wattenberg at IBM; it's a back-of-the-envelope calculation, but it's the right order of magnitude, about 100 million hours of thought."--Tagishsimon (talk) 15:21, 27 April 2008 (UTC)

Cheeky greek philosopher[edit]

I read somewhere a story about a greek philospher/mathematician/all-round smart guy who went around saying he had the brainpower of 100 men. The local king heard this, and got annoyed, because this guy was a pretty pasty git who spent too much time lifting books and not enough lifting weights, and said back to him, "If you've got the brainpower of 100 men, then you must have the strength of 100 men too. I happen to have a ship that's beached over there. Drag it back to the sea alone or I'll kill you." The philosopher guy thought about this. He couldn't drag a heavy warship all the way from high up a beach to the sea, all on his own. The night before the day he had to try and drag it, he was despondent, and felt doomed to die. Then he had a brainwave. In the morning, when the king and his entourage turned up, they saw an elaborate system of dozens of pulleys firmly set into the ground in front of the ship, with one end tied to the ship and the other in the philospher's hand. He says to the king, "Are we ready to begin?" and the king nods, not understanding the principle of pulleys. He gives the rope a little tug, and the ship slides out, into the waves. The king is astounded, and never messes with the cheeky philosopher again.

I might have the details wrong (I pieced it together as best I could, for narrative effect), but the single-man-pulling-pulleys-pulling-ship thing is the main thing. The question is, who was this philosopher, and did it actually happen? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 18:36, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

I remember the story, it may well be attributable to several people, but Archemides springs to mind, although I'm probably wrong. -mattbuck (Talk) 19:23, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Try Archimedes instead, "Discoveries and Inventions". It's not much like the silly story above, but it's probably related somehow. Matt Deres (talk) 20:05, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

and incidentally it wouldnt be a "little tug", moving that weight would involve pulling a very long length of rope through the pulley system (talk) 00:24, 26 April 2008 (UTC)

125.237 is right, if he was to have the strength of 100 men he would have to pull the rope 100 feet to move the ship 1 foot, and that is assuming frictionless pulleys. In reality the combined friction from ancient pulleys would have made the whole thing useless. Mad031683 (talk) 15:58, 28 April 2008 (UTC)

How clean is the rice?[edit]

From where I grew up, we always rinsed the rice thoroughly before cooking. I've read that this washing takes away much of the vitamins and other nutrients. So how clean is the rice from supermarkets? Imagine Reason (talk) 20:34, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Hi. Some rice I've seen at supermarkets says no washing nessecary. However it is usually good to wash your food to get rid of the chemicals. Especially in second and third world countries washing rice is almost universal even if the water isn't clean. Thanks. ~AH1(TCU) 21:25, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Depends on where you get rice. I usually wash rice once for high grade rice and twice for low grade rice. Low-grade rice and rice that was stored for a long time tend to be infested with rice weevils so you have to double wash to get rid of the insects. I don't think that you need to worry about the vitamins though as carbohydrates are the nutrients that you want from rice and the vitamins are compensated by the meal (vegetables or meat) that you eat with the rice.--Lenticel (talk) 23:39, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
Agree. I would have thought with white rice the nutrients are lost in the processing not in the washing (unless it's to do with loss of "enriching" by the manufacturer as in the US but not clear how this is done or lost). See brown rice. Julia Rossi (talk) 00:39, 26 April 2008 (UTC)

Most people wash their long grain rice to get rid of excess starch, making the cooked product less sticky, more fluffy. Rice in the United States is sometimes fortified with vitamins and minerals through a dusting of powder and rinsing will also remove this Mhicaoidh (talk) 03:07, 26 April 2008 (UTC)

I once read that people from the Third World get a great deal of their protein from insect larvae present in their grains. So maybe not washing your rice is better for you? Ninebucks (talk) 16:48, 1 May 2008 (UTC)

Fine, I'll wash the rice. Geez. Imagine Reason (talk) 01:05, 2 May 2008 (UTC)


Restored per consensus on the talk page. --S.dedalus (talk) 21:03, 25 April 2008 (UTC)

Is it normal for semen to be yellow, every time?--BootAsdew (talk) 00:50, 24 April 2008 (UTC)

I don't know, and we couldn't tell you anyway. Why don't you ask your doctor? — Kieff | Talk 21:03, 25 April 2008 (UTC)
I don't think it's providing medical advice to report the factual information that drinking a lot of coffee can produce yellow semen (and yellow urine). That, combined with not drinking enough water unpolluted by coffee. But it doesn't always happen that way, and there may be an entirely different cause in your case, so I agree you should check with your doctor. -- JackofOz (talk) 01:31, 24 April 2008 (UTC)
According to Semen#Appearance_and_consistency_of_human_semen, it can sometimes be "yellowish in color." -Elmer Clark (talk) 02:05, 24 April 2008 (UTC)
Hypothetically, yellowish semen can be in indicator of an infection, and one should consult their doctor. Neıl 10:51, 24 April 2008 (UTC)
I don't have a source for you, but I believe I read somewhere that the white color was due to the seminal fluid but a yellowish tint may be added with lots of sperm. I think it mentioned something about eating lots of protein makes your semen more yellow, and that (excepting infection, etc) the more yellow the ejaculate the more sperm it contains... -- (talk) 01:48, 26 April 2008 (UTC)
My cum is always white, like iceing sugars. But, once I ejaculated into a plastic evian water bottle every day to see how much I coud cum in a week ( i was also using it on a friend). By the end it had gone very yellow and smelled like high strength wood glue.Makey melly (talk) 13:18, 1 May 2008 (UTC)