Wikipedia:Reference desk/Archives/Miscellaneous/2010 June 2

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June 2[edit]

Biting cat[edit]

Kittens like to bite things but I don't like to be bitten. I want a substance that I can put on my fingers, that won't hurt me, but tastes horrible to a cat, without actually harming it. Is there such a substance? Cuddlyable3 (talk) 00:07, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

Bitter apple might work. Or you can just wait a few weeks until the kitten grows out of it... Dismas|(talk) 01:50, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
It's one of the things you need to get used to if you own a cat or kitten. If you play with them, they're likely to scratch you (which can hurt quite a bit) or bite you (which isn't really very painful). The only solution I'd recommend is not to get your hands to close to them when they're in a playful mood - either use gloves or a toy on string. --Phil Holmes (talk) 07:58, 2 June 2010 (UTC) (sitting here with both hands scratched).
With any animal, you figure out how they play. I have four cats. One of them doesn't like her stomach scratched even though she regularly lays on her back when being pet. To her, it's a game to show her stomach and she doesn't know that she's causing pain when she brings out the claws. Another likes to bite my wife's toes if we sleep in and the cat's food bowl is empty in the morning. So, we've learned to make sure they don't run out of food. Kittens don't bite that hard though and in most cases they grow out of the desire to bite at all. Dismas|(talk) 08:12, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
Cats loathe the taste of orange juice and citrus. And who says they don't like to be bitten?John Z (talk) 08:44, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
Nobody. Cuddlyable3 merely said that she or he doesn't like it. No advice to offer sorry, I've never owned a cat. ---Sluzzelin talk 11:14, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
Learn to play with your kitten in such a way that she won't bite you! Be led by the cat, rather than try and impose your way of playing on her. At the risk of stating the bleeding obvious, cats are not dogs and do not like rough play. If she bites, stop everything. Just stop. She will soon learn not to bite. This works on cats who like to play with your knitting while you're knitting too. --TammyMoet (talk) 09:38, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
There are solutions you can buy that you can put on somebody's nails to stop them biting them. That tastes horrible to a human, but I'm not sure whether it's safe enough for a cat - it's got some random chemicals and stuff that make up the horrible taste. Chevymontecarlo 12:20, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
TammyMoet's answer is the right direction. Behavior modification. ASAP. Yours and the cat's. The chemical solutions are risky, to you and the cat (and maybe human babies that enter the house, other animals, etc.) Also consider that cats are smart and sometimes vengeful. Some cats, if they think an owner is "doing a number" on them, will find ways to get back. (talk) 13:41, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
Indeed, although I should add that I've known cats that really enjoyed rough play. However, they found it hard to know when they were going too far, and needed to be trained to never bite, and to be careful with scratching. This training took about a year to be completely successful, and we had to be careful not to undermine it at later stages. You need to know what the specific cat does and does not like, and do something the cat doesn't like that doesn't hurt it immediately the cat bites you. If you can't correct the cat immediately, don't do it at all: it will only confuse and upset the cat. Things I've found worked with different cats were:
Withdrawing attention immediately, and continuing to ignore and avoid eye-contact with the cat for about half an hour.
Lifting the cat, gripping the scruff of the neck to prevent additional biting (but don't support the whole weight of a large cat with the scruff of its neck), then releasing the cat slightly roughly from about half a metre up. The cat should land in an undignified fashion without hurting itself.
Holding the cat in such a way that it is restrained and cannot bite or scratch (a kind of hug-hold) and talking calmly and quietly very close to its face until it calms down.
The first of these is always my go-to, with the others used temporarily in conjunction with it for cats who don't seem to get it. (talk) 19:42, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
Most pet stores sell 'bitter apple' spray that deters both dogs and cats from licking and chewing. We've had success with this stuff with our dogs. SteveBaker (talk) 14:19, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
Saying "No!" and simply withdrawing attention might be an effective form of conditioning. Rough play with a kitten can train it to be bite and scratch. Edison (talk) 15:25, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
From experience, I'll say that chemical solutions (heh) rarely work. First, are you really going to soak your hands in it all day long? Second, I've yet to find anything that will overcome a cat's curiosity (having tried a number on my shower curtains). Third, many things that taste bad, smell bad, especially to a nose as sensitive as your kitty's. If you did manage to deter your cat from biting, you might also succeed in deterring the cat from accepting your affections. The cat books I've read suggest that the playful bites are simply the result of ignorance - the kitten doesn't know your skin is so much thinner and more sensitive than their own. If you want to teach them that it does hurt you, you need to communicate that in their language - a loud shout and an immediate end to the interaction. Go ahead and wait out in the car for a couple of minutes. Personally, I'm okay with my cat biting me during play - and my cat does bite me during play, though only within the rules of the game. My wife and daughter don't put up with the bites and my cat doesn't bite them. Cats are smart; they can figure out their boundaries if you give them a chance. Oh - and one more thing, if the cat does bite you during play, they tend to bite down and clamp on. Whatever you do, don't jerk your hand away when they do that - their teeth point inwards! Stop moving, wait a second and/or pry their adorable little jaws off you and then withdraw. Matt Deres (talk) 23:55, 2 June 2010 (UTC)


Is there a website where I can find different designs and colours of the Somali dress guntino? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:11, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

If you are doing a search for this - the more usual spelling is "guntiino" (two 'i's). SteveBaker (talk) 14:15, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

NRI Details.[edit]


I require the current NRI population and their financial wealth break up for each country.

Also the exposure to emerging markets.


Bhavnesh Thakkar. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Bhavneshthakkar (talkcontribs) 13:36, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

The Non Resident Indians and Persons of Indian Origins Division of the Indian Ministry of External Affairs has a report on the global NRI population. It includes population estimates for every part of the world. It is about 8 years old, but it is apparently the only comprehensive survey. This report does not contain detailed information on the financial wealth of these people, much less on their exposure to emerging markets. Such information is of course personal and confidential, and I don't think that it would be possible to collect it without violating privacy laws. Therefore, it is almost certainly not available. Unfortunately, each chapter of this report has its own URL. For example, Chapter 1 is at, Chapter 2 is at, and so on. I would have to manually adjust the chapter numeral in each URL to list them all. I trust that you are clever enough to do this yourself. Marco polo (talk) 15:16, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

the essential managerial tasks of Benz ?[edit]

the essential managerial tasks of Benz (leading, controlling, planning, organizing ) (talk) 15:04, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

Sounds like a homework question and you should do your own. One key, by the way, to asking good questions that invite getting useful answers, is to identify your subject very well. Here, "Benz", standing alone, is not very illuminating. Maybe it's something from the list at Benz?-- (talk) 22:42, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

Acting - How to sound female without sounding silly?[edit]

Simple question - If you are male, how do you sound female without it being an obvious falsetto or painfully bad 'lady' voice?

Sfan00 IMG (talk) 16:09, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

The article on voice therapy for the transgendered has some links to vocal technique sites (and could use some going over, from the looks). It's not something one can do overnight, so far as I know. It takes quite a bit of practice to "move the voice higher in the throat" to raise the pitch without breaking into a falsetto. Somewhere I remember reading the technique is similar to that used while straining to force a belch. Some jerk on the Internet (talk) 17:06, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

The article Falsetto notes that it, when properly used, can make possible some desirable tonal effects. That combined with feminine dress can be convincingly ladylike, as demonstrated by Davina Pons [1] (video) Cuddlyable3 (talk) 17:51, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
Some women (myself included) have naturally deep voices (I used to sing tenor in a choir). Men with higher voices have fewer problems sounding "female" than those with lower voices. However, trying to sound "female" just sounds forced. I'd be interested in the replies to this as I have a couple of TG friends with this predicament. --TammyMoet (talk) 20:32, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
My reason was asking was acting related as opposed to TG, but yeah simmilar techniques might be applicable :) Sfan00 IMG (talk) 22:07, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
Note that where your voice is to start makes a huge diff. If you are a bass, then you probably won't be able to do a soprano, but might be able to manage an alto or tenor. Also, you might consider electronic voice alteration. This would be tricky for a real-time stage performance, but easier for a recorded performance. StuRat (talk) 05:06, 3 June 2010 (UTC)
Pitch is one thing, but timbre and tone are arguably more useful. Men tend to speak in a crisp, declarative voice, while women tend to use softer or more muted eliciting tones. in essence, when you want to talk like a male, speak as though you're talking to an entire room even when you're speaking to one person; if you want to talk like a female, speak as though you're talking to one person, even when you're speaking to a room. Women also tend to have more emotional inflection in their sentences, but be careful with that because too much emotional inflection sounds like a stereotypical gay male rather than a female (even women sound like gay men when the overdo emotional inflection). Best thing you can do, really, is to listen to some of your female friends talk - ignore the pitch but listen carefully to inflection, pacing, emphasis, how they respond to conversational signals from each other - gender differences in those kinds of unnoticed things are ingrained in people at a very young age, and people respond to them on an unconscious level. if you can capture them, pitch will become a lot less important. --Ludwigs2 06:52, 3 June 2010 (UTC)
The film Tootsie is pretty much all about this. --Phil Holmes (talk) 08:40, 3 June 2010 (UTC)
I don't know *how* he did it, but in the film "Soldier's Girl" ( Lee Pace does a remarkable job of talking like a woman. There are youtube interviews with him from when they were filming the movie and he did the interviews in character; my guess was that once he'd figured out how to get his voice there it was probably best to just leave it there as long as it was needed. --Plokiju

My Dental Records[edit]

I recently called my old dentist to have my records transferred to my new dentist, and that got me to thinking: who is the rightful owner of the records - me, since they are of my teeth; the dental office, which takes the x-rays and records any notes during an exam; or the insurance company which pays for everything? What about when the dentist retires or dies - are the records destroyed, or saved? How then would they be accessed if needed? Hemoroid Agastordoff (talk) 17:53, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

Surely this depends on the law where you live. This California government page says that in California, medical records — I assume dental records are subject to the same laws — don't belong to the patient, but to the medical provider; but that the patient has a right to view the originals and obtain copies. It goes on to state that if the doctor dies, there's no central repository for medical records, so it's up to you to find out if another doctor took over the practice, or to find the executor for the doctor's estate if not, so you can ask the executor for copies. And that after a while the executor can have the records destroyed. Comet Tuttle (talk) 18:17, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
Note that in many jurisdictions, a dentist will have a retaining lien on the files if you owe them money, meaning they don't have to provide you even with copies until you settle your bill unless there's a life threatening condition associated with the records.-- (talk) 22:38, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

Royal mail new posting rules[edit]

If i want to send a letter in a normal sized envelope, but containing also a package that is perhaps 9, maybe 9.5mm thick, would I need any extra stamps?

Also, suppose I wanted to send a parcel of around 290*210*20mm, what would I have to do then? And how might I go about wrapping it? Do they still sell that brown paper? (talk) 18:33, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

Complete this online form ( and you'll find out what it should cost you. It first asks 'where to' and 'weight' then what size 'envelope' etc. ny156uk (talk) 19:16, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
My local post office still sells brown paper! --TammyMoet (talk) 20:30, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

What if I don't know the weight? (talk) 21:05, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

Weigh it, dear sir. ╟─TreasuryTagsecretariat─╢ 21:06, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
(Edit Conflict) Re the envelope: the maximum size and weight for a (standard) Letter requiring only a single 1st- or 2nd-class stamp is
Length: 240mm max
Width: 165mm max
Thickness: 5mm max
Weight: 100g max
so your 9mm-thick enclosed package would exceed the thickness limit. You would need to pay the Large letter rate whose limits are
Length: 353mm max
Width: 250mm max
Thickness: 25mm max
Weight: 750g max
which would also cover the proposed size of your parcel. Post Offices are supposed to display templates with slots of the maximum dimensions so that you can try out your envelope. Further details also covering parcels proper, from the same website as Ny156uk linked, are here. (talk) 21:14, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

Raisins and sunflower seeds[edit]

Hi. I've found that when I eat sunflower seeds and raisins, most of them taste so-so, not really noticeable. Some, however, taste really good, in a way that's difficult to describe. I guess one could say that they are more savory or more rich, but that's not quite right. Has anyone else noticed thhis? Is their any name for it? (talk) 22:13, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

Our Taste article will be of interest. Some people have claimed that umami is a "primary" taste, if primary tastes do exist. Comet Tuttle (talk) 22:17, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
It's possible that given the mass production way that those two items are processed before being bagged and sold has some gaps in it. Maybe the sunflower seeds that you like were on the outlying areas of the roaster and weren't roasted as much. Maybe those are the ones that you find particularly tasty. Basically, a producer tries to make everything according to a certain tolerance. Think of it like a bell curve they aim for that center point. They've found that the market likes it and that's what they shoot for. But with anything, there is some variation and you happen to like the variants more than the ideal. Dismas|(talk) 22:27, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
Going with the same sort of processing variation, maybe the ones that are better than the rest are the ones that weren't as well saturated with BHT;-)-- (talk) 22:35, 2 June 2010 (UTC)
[citation needed]. Butylated hydroxytoluene doesn't mention anything about an effect on taste. In fact it seems likely having less antioxidant could easily negatively affect the taste over time and exposure as the fats go rancid and other components that impart taste are damaged (well it's possible that's what you meant but I don't think many people prefer the taste of rancid oils although this [2] suggests some do) Nil Einne (talk) 02:16, 3 June 2010 (UTC)

Proper adhesive[edit]

My car side view mirror was smashed, so I ordered a new one. Not the whole mirror unit but just the glass. I affixed it to the housing using liquid nails and it fell out and broke. I've just gotten a new one and I don't want to repeat history. Anyone have any advice for the proper adhesive to use? Epoxy? Thanks in advance.-- (talk) 22:33, 2 June 2010 (UTC)

Sticking things to glass (or glass to things) is tricky. There is special adhesive they sell in car parts stores for sticking rear-view mirrors to the windshield - I kinda suspect that's the stuff you need for the door mirrors. Cars produce lots of vibration and have crazy-large temperature changes to endure - I don't think just any old glue will do. I'd find local car-parts store and ask there. If all else fails, I recommend the web site. It recommends Loctite 349 Impruv for both glass to plastic and glass to metal - but notes that it's intended for transparent glass because it needs UV light to cure it. The fall-back suggestion is JB Weld - which is an epoxy - but much better than regular epoxy glues in cases where appearance isn't everything! My only slight concern is that the back of your mirror isn't really glass - it's some kind of's anyone's guess what that might be made of. Could you tell what kind of glue was used on the original mirror when it broke? Was it hard (like epoxy) or soft? SteveBaker (talk) 00:02, 3 June 2010 (UTC)

Many dealerships carry the OEM adhesive used for attaching those mirrors. I reccomend going to your local dealership for the brand of car you drive and visiting the parts counter to see if they either have it or can order it for you. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 03:33, 3 June 2010 (UTC)

On the several occasions I've had to install a replacement side view mirror glass, it has always come with its own adhesive backing (covered by protective paper which has to be stripped off) over the whole of its rear surface (rather than leaving the user to guess and supply an adequate fixing method). Provided one also follows the accompanying instructions about preparing the surface on to which it's being stuck, there ought not to be a problem.
Are you able to get to a reputable large car parts store (in the UK Halfords is one of several such chains) to select the appropriate replacement glass for your particular make and model? If not, you might still be able to select and order one from such a supplier online. If you ordered a mirror from the actual manufacturer of your car, it's possible they sent a standard new item needing a technique or materials known or usually available only to a professional garage to fix it properly, rather than one specifically designed to be fitted as a replacement by a lay person. (talk) 05:06, 3 June 2010 (UTC)
I had a problem with the rear view mirror that had fallen off the inside of a medium sized van. The fixing was a flat shiny hard plastic to the glass windscreen. I bought some rapid-hardening epoxy glue. It took about three minutes to harden and has been firmly in place for 18 months. I took time to clean both surfaces with alcohol before applying the glue. Caesar's Daddy (talk) 06:57, 3 June 2010 (UTC)
Yes, I've had success with epoxy resin in the past, but I've also had failure because it creates a very rigid bond so cannot absorb a shock. The thin foam pad is the usual fixing method because it absorbs vibration and sudden shocks. A professional grade of adhesive is necessary because that on the hobby grade foam pads will soften in hot weather, and cleaning of the surfaces is important as mentioned above. Liquid nails is not a suitable adhesive for adverse conditions. Dbfirs 07:20, 3 June 2010 (UTC)
Thanks all. I'm going to go with a professional grade epoxy, clean the surface well, read all the backs to find one that says it good for glass to metal and so on. Just so you know, the glass comes with these pathetic little foam sticky pads, three and very small. The first mirror that fell off: I used those as well as the liquid nails. It lasted a month.-- (talk) 22:45, 3 June 2010 (UTC)
That may be your problem. The pads by themselves might have done the job just fine - but by adding the liquid nails, you prevented the pads from dampening out the vibrations so that the next time you drove over a bump, the glass shattered. If the mirrors have pads - then you should use them and nothing else. Be sure to clean all of the old crud from the liquid nails off first - and clean the surface you're going to be sticking the pads onto carefully. SteveBaker (talk) 19:51, 4 June 2010 (UTC)