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September 30

Identify the play: Bird at the window means death

I wonder if anyone can identify a play, presented on US network TV in the late 1950's in which a bird flaps at a window wanting in, and when an old man opens the window over the objections of his family, the man dies. On Google I only found references to superstitions about a bird flying against a window being an omen of someone dying. Edison (talk) 04:19, 30 September 2015 (UTC)

You misunderstand, a bird flying inside a house means death.
Sleigh (talk) 05:47, 30 September 2015 (UTC)
Yes, Edison might also watch Six Feet Under through S4E5 where at imdb, "a bird some consider to be an omen and others merely to be an annoyance continues to invade the house. When Nate is insulted for allowing its return by not closing the window it originally entered through, he takes out all his frustration on the bird." This is a rather old superstition that I heard of through my grandmother, a Rusyn person. I know it is widespread through Eurasia, and assume that Marija Gimbutas's writings on the Bird Goddess will probably address it. I am not an expert on North American traditions, but someone else might comment. μηδείς (talk) 01:55, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
None of the above addressed "a play, presented on US network TV in the late 1950's" which was the info sought. I looked through all episodes of the TV drama series Playhouse 90 and that was not the venue. It could have been "US Steel Hour" or some series which presented more absurdist dramas. A site which describes all episodes of live TV drama from the 1950's "golden age of TV drama would be useful. I'm thinking 1957 through 1958. Edison (talk) 13:39, 2 October 2015 (UTC)


If Anglophone is to English speaking countries, and Francophonie is to French, then what is the German equivalent? -- (talk) 09:33, 30 September 2015 (UTC)

Just "Germanophone" (or "Germanophon" in German). German sometimes uses the Latin-derived "Germano-" for language-related things. If you study German language and literature in school, that's called "Germanistik". Adam Bishop (talk) 09:39, 30 September 2015 (UTC)
See also German Sprachraum. --Wrongfilter (talk) 09:46, 30 September 2015 (UTC)
I like teutonophone. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 09:56, 30 September 2015 (UTC)
  • Germanophones can be subdivided by dialect, of course, into branches such as the Saxophones. —Tamfang (talk) 22:46, 1 October 2015 (UTC)
  • Deutschegrammophone? Blueboar (talk) 16:54, 5 October 2015 (UTC)

History of housing?

In pre-modern times, how did housing work - have there always (since the cave-dweller days) been some people who rented their housing and some who owned? Did renting work similarly in antiquity as today - where the tenant paid some amount every month (or whatever time period) to live in someone else's property? Or did it work differently? (talk) 14:06, 30 September 2015 (UTC)Nightvid

Is there a specific area of the world that you are interested in? Otherwise the question is probably too broad to summarize here. SemanticMantis (talk) 15:48, 30 September 2015 (UTC)
Two articles to start on would be domus and insula (building), referring to the Roman era. Ancient Greeks are a bit tricky as they used adobe and it rained a bit in the inventing eons. --Cookatoo.ergo.ZooM (talk) 19:41, 30 September 2015 (UTC)
Medieval houses (going back at least as far as the 12th century) could be rented and bought and sold, and contracts and other legal documents about housing are remarkably similar to similar modern documents. They had mortgages and reverse mortgages and all that. I suspect this is because they were borrowing from Roman law although I've never looked into Roman housing law specifically (but any jurisdiction that still uses civil law probably owes a lot to the Roman law of late antiquity). Adam Bishop (talk) 20:15, 30 September 2015 (UTC)
And let's not forget feudalism and serfdom, where the serf generally owed payment in the form of crops and/or labor to their lord in exchange for their fief. Land tenure might be informative. -- (talk) 20:26, 30 September 2015 (UTC)
More specifically, Feudal_land_tenure_in_England. As far as I can tell from everything I've read about feudalism and Manorialism, rents and taxes were paid for land, not houses. I've always assumed that people (whether peasants or nobles) just built (or had built) whatever house they could afford with the resources they got from the land they rented minus those given to their lord in tax or rent. However, I realize now that I've never seen this explicitly stated anywhere, so it's possible an erroneous assumption. Here are some non-Wikipedia links on the subject:,,, The second link repeats the myth that people in the middle ages never (or almost never) bathed, so I'd be a bit skeptical about the other claims in that one. Iapetus (talk) 10:46, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
Remember though that there were more people in the Middle Ages than just peasants and nobles. There were cities too, with merchants and craftsmen and other people who were the original "middle class". Adam Bishop (talk) 11:06, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
Just on the question of timing, in Britain and Ireland rents were traditionally due on Quarter days. AndrewWTaylor (talk) 09:46, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

October 1

Clarington, Ontario

How many Claringtons are there in Ontario? Clarington, Ontario is a redirect to Clarington, because it was at the first title until someone moved it to the second title in 2011. However, the article has two hatnotes, both of which link to the redirect; one of them even mentions "the city in Courtice", and Courtice appears to be a neighborhood of the city that's the subject of the Clarington article, not vice versa. Is there another Clarington somewhere that should be linked? Is this just an artifact of the pagemove? I ended up here expecting that Clarington would be a redirect to Clarington, Ohio, and I'm not sure if I need to remove the currently unhelpful hatnotes and replace with {{this|the Ontario municipality|the Ohio community|Clarington, Ohio}} (because these are the only Claringtons) or create a disambiguation page (because there are three or more Clarington articles). Nyttend (talk) 13:52, 1 October 2015 (UTC)

Looks like a bit of vandalism on September 10. olderwiser 14:21, 1 October 2015 (UTC)
Most of your post I don't understand, but I can confirm that there is just one Clarington in Ontario. Gov of Ontario list. (talk) 19:38, 1 October 2015 (UTC)
Thanks for the solid source! You probably don't understand it because Bkonrad fixed the article before you looked at it. You'll understand better if you look at the article as it was when I found it. Nyttend (talk) 19:54, 1 October 2015 (UTC)

I'm sure this was just a botched edit or a vandalous one as Bkronrad said, but I'll just note that the list only shows municipalities, i.e. places that are incorporated and have an official existence. It would theoretically be possible for an unincorporated community named Clarington to exist elsewhere in Ontario. I remember reading at the time when Cambridge, Ontario, was being created and the political battle over its name had just been settled, nobody taken account of the fact that there was already a Cambridge elsewhere in Ontario. (Sorry, I have no source to cite for this.) Obviously that was because the existing community was unincorporated.

Checking the Canadian Geographic Names Data Base, and requesting populated places of all types, I find only the one Clarington, Ontario, but the other (unincorporated) Cambridge, Ontario, is here, east of Ottawa. -- (talk) 02:04, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

October 2


There was a test done in the mid 20th century on people where they would administer pain on others. I tested human response to authority figures. I forgot the name of this test. What was it called? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:42, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

Are you perhaps thinking of the Stanford prison experiment? Or would the Milgram experiment be what you want? Nyttend (talk) 00:43, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
I think what the OP had in mind was a study where people were asked to inflict pain on other people and were more willing to do it when the person giving the instruction was an authority figure. This did not happen in a prison environment. (talk) 13:14, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
Information icon (talk) is one of several London area IP sockpuppets of banned User:Vote (X) for Change. See block log, WP:BMB .
Nor did the Stanford prison experiment take place in a prison environment: it took place at Stanford University in which a prison-like situation was simulated {The poster formerly known as} (talk) 13:34, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

more respectable interconnections

I was watching a YouTube video. It was from KITV. The video featured a 9/11 memorial ceremony being held for the first time aboard the USS Missouri (BB-63). Everything gave me ideas. I was going to create some artworks to remember the victims of that fateful morning and the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. Where can I send the artworks when I finish them?2604:2000:712C:2900:91EC:A95A:18EF:2F46 (talk) 03:58, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

Northeastern University maintains a collection of memorials from the marathon bombing. Maybe you could contact them. here is a website about the project. --Jayron32 04:07, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

Are the legal codes of the various legal systems in public domain?

If the answer is in the positive, then the laws and penal codes of my current residential region as well as others can be posted in Wikibooks as law books.

OP wants clear and exhaustive reply/ies. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Mahfuzur rahman shourov (talkcontribs) 04:18, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

Well, Mahfuzur rahman shourov, I'd look at the front and back matter of legal codes of the place where you live for a notice saying that the material is donated to the public domain. If you find such a notice, it's in the public domain; if you don't, it isn't. -- Hoary (talk) 05:13, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

User:Hoary is this why there are no wikibook on the laws and legal systems of USA, The British penal codes and so on? — Preceding unsigned comment added by Mahfuzur rahman shourov (talkcontribs) 05:16, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

It depends on the jurisdiction. In Lithuania, for example, laws, draft laws and decisions regarding laws (e.g., court decisions) are explicitly not subject to copyright. It is the same in many other countries - the law is a lot less useful if it can not be freely reproduced for people to see it. That said, it may not be the same in all countries. On the subject of law books, they are not usually limited to just the text of the laws, they organize the information and often provide analysis - that is subject to copyright.No longer a penguin (talk) 07:24, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

@No longer a penguin and Hoary:my question is about the texts of the laws. example:british penal code ###, texan landowning law### and so on. rquesting for more replies by more users.

For the UK, Acts of Parliament, Bills introduced to parliament, or documents made under the direction or control of either House of Parliament are protected by either Crown Copyright or Parliamentary Copyright, so they are not public domain. I'm not going to dig into the Act to work out whether there are any relevant exceptions to infringement, since that would be legal advice (which we don't do here). The short andwer is, it's going to vary by country, and will probably be much more complicated than looking at the copyright laws of just that country - e.g. the governments of other "qualifying countries" are entitled to copyright under the UK Act, even if they aren't under their own law, and whether this applies to the text of the law of that country is going to be a complex question of fact and law. MChesterMC (talk) 08:23, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
As you can see on the ComLaw website, the official online repositry of Australian federal legislation, "© Commonwealth of Australia. Unless identified otherwise, all ComLaw content is copyright of the Commonwealth of Australia (the Australian Government)".--Shirt58 (talk) 08:29, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
US federal and state laws are not subject to copyright, see Copyright_law_of_the_United_States#Federal_and_state_laws_are_not_copyrighted. NawlinWiki (talk) 17:19, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
UK legislation is copyright but available under the Open Government Licence. But it would be difficult to compile the British "legal code" given the very large numbers of statutes that are currently in force or partly in force, to say nothing of common law. rossb (talk) 18:19, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
Swedish legislation is explicitly not copyrighted, so you could post it in wikibooks. Not that it's a good idea, since there are several websites that post the updated versions of laws, sometimes even with short analyses and connected precedents. [1][2][3]. Making a wikibook means that you lose the update function. Sjö (talk) 18:35, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

Born/died out of the 48.

Apart from Obama and McCain, was there any other major party presidential or vice-presidential nominee who was born or died out of the 48 contiguous states? (talk) 20:46, 2 October 2015 (UTC)

Al Gore was born in Washington, D.C. so was born on the Contiguous United States, but not in one of 48 contiguous states per your statement and header. Natural-born-citizen clause#Eligibility challenges also has some people who were nominees who were born in one of the states, before it became a state (Barry Goldwater and Charles Curtis). Nil Einne (talk) 22:30, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
nevermind. Misread the question. RudolfRed (talk) 23:10, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
The early presidents were born before there were US states. Clarityfiend (talk) 23:38, 2 October 2015 (UTC)
There was a rumour that Chester A. Arthur was born outside of the US. It is untrue (per our article), but it does get mentioned sometimes when you research topics along these lines. (talk) 13:02, 3 October 2015 (UTC)
Alexander Hamilton, while not a President or VP, was a founding father, and was born and raised in the West Indies. StuRat (talk) 15:36, 3 October 2015 (UTC)
Ted Cruz, who is running so theoretically could get nominated, was born in Canada. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 23:27, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

October 3

Identifying a book

A few aeons ago I read a science-fiction novel that may have appeared in the '50s or '60s, whose setting was a future time when everyone on Earth is required by law to regularly attend Catholic masses. The protagonist wonders whether people in power have conspired to conceal the fact that a certain famous writer wrote certain things. At some point he concludes that the reason a short poem or the like by that writer was not found in books might not have been such a conspiracy but merely a result of the fact that (quoting verbatim) "Editors edit." I remember very little about the story and I have no idea what the name of the book or the name of the author was. Does anyone know? Michael Hardy (talk) 02:51, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

I see where you asked this same question about 5 years ago here, does that help any? RegistryKey(RegEdit) 07:03, 3 October 2015 (UTC)
I hate to direct people elsewhere, but this is the sort of question that the folks at rec.arts.sf.written can often readily answer. Just click on the "New Topic" box and copy your query above, giving it a subject line like "YASID--Compulsory mass". ("YASID" stands for "Yet another story ID".) Deor (talk) 14:27, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

Exemption from Crash testing in the US

Do absolutely all vehicles on the road undergo NHTSA crash testing in the US? Or are there some small exceptions? I'm thinking of things like mail trucks, firetrucks, ambulances. I noticed that some USPS mail trucks are designed without right side doors, to make entry/exit easier; I can't imagine that this would pass the strict auto safety standards nowadays.

One exception I can think of is farm equipment. AFAIK they don't undergo crash testing and yet they're legal on some public roads (depending on state and local laws). 731Butai (talk) 06:23, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

There was a problem with "light trucks", which includes pick-up trucks, SUVs, and full-sized vans (but not minivans), that they were classified as industrial vehicles rather than consumer vehicles, and remained so for quite some time after they should have been reclassified based on their popularity as consumer vehicles. This resulted in reduced testing requirements. I'm not sure if that situation has yet been resolved. StuRat (talk) 15:23, 3 October 2015 (UTC)
I think you're referring to this: Chicken_tax#Ramifications. 731Butai (talk) 02:58, 4 October 2015 (UTC)

is there any forum which analyzes written materials of any kind and reveals the political flavor of it

akin to politicalcompass, but for articles — Preceding unsigned comment added by Mahfuzur rahman shourov (talkcontribs) 14:27, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

The Computer Desk might be a better place to ask. Software could analyze the frequency of certain words, and draw conclusions from that, but such a method is liable to miss subtleties, like satire. Many humans don't catch on to satire, either, so it's quite a task to expect a program to be able to understand it.
Then there's also the problem that the same political words ("radical", "progressive", "conservative", "democratic", "socialist",...) mean different things in different parts of the world.
Also, much political speech is rather indirect. In response to the recent college shooting in the US, I didn't hear anyone directly say "We need more guns in colleges and schools". What I heard instead was "We need to give these students the means to defend themselves". Asking a program to figure out from that last sentence that they are anti-gun control and hence politically conservative would be tricky. StuRat (talk) 15:11, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

@StuRat:it would be a forum, consisting of people, hobbyist analysts. universally accepted standards of wording will be used. as in, "conservative/liberal/progressive" in a global, neutral standard. example, a writing which is perpetrated as "progressive" by the proponent will be analyzed by this forum and checked whether political view is authoritarian or libertarian, and the percentage, whether economical view is capitalist or communist and so on. OP wishes for such a forum, so asks.

Why would people do something like that? It's a weird-a$$ activity (to do for free) Asmrulz (talk) 22:10, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

@Asmrulz:people make and edit sound, picture, video, write and edit articles, document things, code programs in various language and frameworks and many other work which are too much to type -for free. it is called hobby.

Yes, and I doubt that anyone would do what you suggest as a hobby. Writing software, composing music, generally being creative, is fun and rewarding (plus you can sometimes put it on your resume.) So is helping people. Pouring over political writing to analyze it according to some criteria is not. Also, it's so specific a task it doesn't really help anybody. There's a reason "hobbyist analyst", "hobbyist copyeditor", "hobbyist tax accountant" etc sounds weird, like "hobbyist sewage cleaner", it's because those are weird-a$$ activities people like to be remunerated for. Asmrulz (talk) 20:51, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
I think that's a bit excessive. I'm not personally interested in carrying out this task for free, but I could imagine some amateur taking it on as a challenge in natural-language processing and/or machine learning. It's well-enough defined to give focus to the research, but not so well-defined as to be cut and dried. Also, probably all of us have noticed that certain words and phrases correlate with point of view (say, "writings that use the word struggle tend to be old-left"), and people with certain types of interest might enjoy making this more precise. --Trovatore (talk) 22:51, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
The OP was specifically asking for people who do it for free. They don't seem to be interested in automation. I don't know, but such requests always strike me as either naive or, conversely, very cynical (think PT Barnum), hence my reaction Asmrulz (talk) 00:05, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
Oh, I did indeed miss that the request was for people to do it rather than a program. Probably I glanced at Stu's response and thought that was what the question was about. --Trovatore (talk) 01:52, 5 October 2015 (UTC)

@Asmrulz and Trovatore:years of ongoing debates on forums and sites regarding politics proves the opposite. all those threads and text. OP is seeking an entire dedicated forum just for that kind of analytical work.

Salvationists with articles

Are there any Salvationists who have an article for any reason other than being Salvationists? In pretty much all other denominations there is always an independently famous member. 2A02:582:C4C:1400:616A:FEDF:BEF1:A5AB (talk) 15:25, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

Going through Category:English Salvationists gives us Audrey Brettle, Derek Foster, Gordon Lorenz, Wes Maughan, and Frank Smith. I'm sure a similar exercise can be carried out with the other sub-categories of Category:Salvationists. Tevildo (talk) 15:41, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

Photo of Brigitte Kuhlmann

Does any photograph of Brigitte Kuhlmann exist? My quick search showed nothing. (talk) 16:12, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

There's a grainy B&W image at Rojomoke (talk) 16:18, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

First French-speaking king

Do we know who was the first king of Francia/France to be a native speaker of French rather than Frankish? --Lazar Taxon (talk) 16:25, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

You mean Old French? The original langues d'oïl.
Sleigh (talk) 16:51, 3 October 2015 (UTC)
Yes. --Lazar Taxon (talk) 17:05, 3 October 2015 (UTC)
It must surely be Hugh Capet, assuming that all the previous kings of the Carolingian dynasty spoke Frankish natively. This book is rather old but confirms my suspicions - the Dukes of Paris (who succeeded the Carolingians as Kings of France) spoke French while the Carolingians always spoke Frankish. Apparently Louis IV of France and emperor Otto I spoke German together (according to the contemporary chronicler Flodoard). Presumably Louis V then also spoke Frankish. But Hugh Capet and Otto II did not have a common language, so Otto spoke Latin and it was translated into French (according to Richerus). Adam Bishop (talk) 20:40, 3 October 2015 (UTC)
Thanks! And this confirms my suspicion that Charles the Bald and Gisla on the show Vikings shouldn't be portrayed as French-speakers. --Lazar Taxon (talk) 21:10, 3 October 2015 (UTC)
Odo of France was a Robertian too - would he have spoken French? (talk) 22:40, 3 October 2015 (UTC)
Hmm, I suppose he probably did...I can't find anything specific about what he spoke, aside from the book above that says the Robertians all spoke French. So by implication, Odo presumably spoke French, yeah. Adam Bishop (talk) 02:36, 4 October 2015 (UTC)

What records are there, if any, of nazi criminals who evaded or tried to evade capture by assuming Jewish surnames after World War II?

Thanks.Rich (talk) 23:06, 3 October 2015 (UTC)

October 4

Type of fallacy

Here's a type of fallacy I sometimes notice in public debate:

Person A: Studies show that people with green hair are statistically more violent than other people.
Person B: That's wrong. Bob from accounting has green hair, and he's not violent at all.

Is there a name for this kind of fallacy, when someone thinks they've disproved a generalization by pointing out an exception? Thanks! 2607:FCC8:87C5:100:78FA:8B26:2B8C:66C1 (talk) 00:54, 4 October 2015 (UTC)

Fallacy of Division. Omidinist (talk) 05:10, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
Isn't it more of an anecdotal fallacy? Sjö (talk) 06:50, 4 October 2015 (UTC) Added: That link redirects to Misleading vividness which is kind of strange, anecdotal evidence might be a better link, or [4]. Sjö (talk) 06:58, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
Accident (fallacy) seems to be appropriate. Tevildo (talk) 08:13, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
There's also a certain smack of affirming the consequent Asmrulz (talk) 12:01, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
Well, if anything, it's denying the consequent (modus tollens), which is a logically valid way of reasoning. The mistake is in going from "people with green hair are more likely to be violent" to "all people with green hair are violent". Tevildo (talk) 13:13, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
Right, my mistake. It'd be a.t.c. if the argument went "Bob is violent, but his hair is not green." Plus the whole thing is a different "logic family", i.e. not predicate logic but something else Asmrulz (talk) 21:46, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
Along those lines, moving from a correlation to a universal implication is a faulty generalization. SemanticMantis (talk) 15:52, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
Person B's argument is "Bob has green hair; Bob is not violent at all; therefore people with green hair are not statistically more violent than other people." That doesn't fit most of the patterns linked above. I think it's just a hasty generalization. -- BenRG (talk) 16:58, 4 October 2015 (UTC)

Sun Style Tai Chi for Arthritis

An acquaintance unfamiliar with the internet has asked me to find a helpful DVD course based on Sun-style Tai Chi for people with arthritis. She studied it years ago at the gym under the aegis of the "Arthritis Foundation" in the US. She did such moves as:

Waving Hands in the Clouds
Pushing the Mountain, aka Spreading the Sheets
Parry and Punch
Repulsing the Monkey

She would like to find a similar program with videos on line, or the description of a program she can buy satisfaction guaranteed (many such disks are quite expensive) on line. I am as ignorant of tai chi as she is of the internet, so together we are like a leaky boat with one paddle.... Basically a somewhat familiar but somewhat challenging routine that can be done in front of the TV would be ideal. Thanks for any suggestions. PS, she has ordered Paul Lam's original 1997 24 positions. But he gives very few examples on line, while other people give much more complex programs. She is most interested in the sun (same vowel as book) style. Again, thanks, μηδείς (talk) 03:57, 4 October 2015 (UTC)

Been meaning to look into Tai Chi for my mom. Youtube seems to have a fair amount of stuff, though some of it is short, and some of them are just samples for videos you can order. If you find any she could use, you can use Keepvid to download the videos. Ian.thomson (talk) 04:19, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
Thanks. Yes, my mom (the she of my example) simply has no clue. She buys 4.7GB DVD's and has my dad print 25kb of info one one at a time to take to the photo developer. I have told her that if she gets the disks I can record the videos, and that I should be the one to buy the proper disks for images and videos, since they usually burn about 8MB or far less per 4.7GB disk they buy.
That being said, searches under sun, paul lam, arthritis, and tai chi all seem to give promotional videos for lam, which cover one move she is familiar with, such as commencement--they are videomercials. So the question is not really how to download, since I can handle the tech, The question for her is, what are the best sun-Style videos available, the ones that have some of the moves she knows, and introduces sun-style ones she doesn't. μηδείς (talk) 04:49, 4 October 2015 (UTC)

Eleanor Roosevelt's preference in the 1948 election

Who was endorsed by Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1948 presidential election? Did she favor incumbent Democratic President Harry S. Truman or Progressive candidate, former VP Henry Wallace? -- (talk) 09:16, 4 October 2015 (UTC)

Truman, unambiguously. "Dear Mr. President: I understand that there is some comment in the newspapers in the United States that I have not come out for you as the Democratic candidate and prefer the election of the Republican candidate. I am unqualifiedly for you as the Democratic candidate for the presidency." - October 4, 1948. [5] --jpgordon::==( o ) 14:49, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
The question referred not to Republican candidate Thomas Dewey but to a third-party candidate, Henry Wallace of the Progressive Party, who it was thought might draw votes away from the Democrats. However, on the same page of letters cited by jpgordon, there is an earlier one where Eleanor Roosevelt writes: "The great trouble is that Mr. Wallace will cut in on us". In other words, she stood with the Democratic Party and did not support Wallace either. -- (talk) 19:42, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
Indeed. She didn't much care for Truman, but she was loyal to her party. --jpgordon::==( o ) 03:21, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
And not her uncle's party then.Hayttom (talk) 03:22, 7 October 2015 (UTC)

Receiving funds in France from the US… What forms to fill ?

Hello, I’ll won a security bounty from a big company (the account has been confirmed by the company).

According to and It see seems there are many exception where a W8_BEN should not be filled.
However, I’m having problem understanding legal English, so I’ve been unable to find my case inside the treaty (the case of a one time payment from a US company to a French citizen).

The Company is telling it’s up to their bounty hunters to do the necessary work for staying fine with US IRIS and their equivalent in their local country. 2A02:8420:508D:CC00:56E6:FCFF:FEDB:2BBA (talk) 10:31, 4 October 2015 (UTC)

I'm afraid we can't give legal or financial advice on the Reference Desk. You should contact an accountant or lawyer (independent of the company that's offering you the money). Tevildo (talk) 11:41, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
... and, of course, never pay the "big company" any administration fee in advance, just in case it's a scam. Dbfirs 07:39, 5 October 2015 (UTC)

whar are the formal terminologies describing the sliding scale between hard serious attitude and apathetic jocular attitude

want to know the names of the various related philosophical views. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Mahfuzur rahman shourov (talkcontribs) 15:32, 4 October 2015 (UTC)

I suppose, using the humoural theory, this could be regarded as the choleric/sanguine axis. According to this paper, "the most frequently used measure for aggression is Buss Durkee Hostility inventory." We don't have an article on this, but it's mentioned in a footnote to the Bobo doll experiment. Tevildo (talk) 18:04, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
Are we sure that there's a sliding scale? In Internet forum discussions we quickly become aware that a statement is either meant literally or sarcastically. Itsmejudith (talk) 18:11, 4 October 2015 (UTC)
Generally when trolling we choose language to convey such attitudes as earnestness and irreverence. Bus stop (talk) 13:24, 5 October 2015 (UTC)

@Itsmejudith and Bus stop:sliding scale in that the intensity of seriousness vs jocularity in all aspects of life varies in a percentile amount or any other measure of ratio.

"LEAD competencies" ("Leadership, Excellence, Achievement & Development")

The titular phrase seems to surface here and there as being something useful for managers. Example sites: Tennessee government UM-Flint. But everyone seems to have their own formulation, the number of competencies might be six or eight, and nobody seems eager to give credit.

  • What is the point of origin of the phrase and idea?
  • Has any objective test been made of its effectiveness?

I should add that I'm wondering whether it is possible to loot a perhaps demystified version of the idea, rebalanced toward leadership among equals, as something for Wikimedia editors to use. Wnt (talk) 22:19, 4 October 2015 (UTC)

October 5

Rebeka Montoya

how old is she?--Hijodetenerife (talk) 05:02, 5 October 2015 (UTC)

Thirtysix. According to this web page, she was born the 9th of March 1979 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. --NorwegianBlue talk 14:57, 5 October 2015 (UTC)

Trying to identify building in Madrid

Please take a look at this picture. Looks like a mosque. I took almost an identical picture some weeks ago. I was standing a couple of 100 meters to the right of the Royal Castle (my right when facing the castle), in Calle Bailén. I was facing the Jardines de Sabatini, or perhaps looking almost along the continuation of Calle Bailén. The building has clearly been renovated since the picture I linked to was shot. Otherwise, I can recognize every chimney on the rooftops. the angles match so perfectly that is must have been taken from the exact same spot. I've spent some time with (trees get in the way of the rooftops) and web-searching, without being able to identify the building. Can anyone help? --NorwegianBlue talk 14:19, 5 October 2015 (UTC)

Church of Santa Teresa y San José (Madrid). Lots of photos here. --Viennese Waltz 14:48, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
Thanks! That was fast. Did you recognize it, or did you search smarter than I did? --NorwegianBlue talk 15:01, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
I searched google images for "madrid colored dome". It was the third hit. --Viennese Waltz 15:02, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
So close! "Madrid dome" was one of many variations that I tried. "Colored" was of course the important keyword. And I scrutinized the block just left of the correct one in google maps. --NorwegianBlue talk 15:12, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
Weird, it's actually the first hit when I search google images for "madrid dome", although maybe that's because I recently visited the page and it's now bringing it to the top of my search for some reason. --Viennese Waltz 15:37, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
It came up first for me too. Perhaps it depends on your location when you Google, but who knows?
That's the thinnest Wikipedia article that I've ever seen! I'll have a bash at finding some basic details later if I have time. Alansplodge (talk) 16:40, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
You'd be better off translating es:Templo Nacional de Santa Teresa de Jesús y Convento de los Padres Carmelitas Descalzos, or getting someone to do it for you. --Viennese Waltz 16:54, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
There was a complete dearth of any meaningful English references on Google, so I've picked out the bare bones of the Spanish article with the help of Google Translate. Perhaps a Spanish speaker (or reader) could cast an eye over my efforts. A year spent studying Spanish when I was 12 was largely wasted, not helped by me impetuously deciding not to try too hard in protest at the continuance of the Franco regime. It probably didn't contribute much to the end of Fascism. Alansplodge (talk) 18:26, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
A google image search for "Madrid dome" now returns several images of the Iglesia Parroquial de Santa Teresa y San José in the first result page for me too. Must be the search bubble effect. With DuckDuckGo, the first hit is Madrid Dome, followed by several booking pages offering rooms at Hotel Dome las Tablas. But number 11, titled "Byzantine Dome in Madrid", lead to this page which identifies the church. A search for "Madrid colored dome" gave nothing relevant for the first 30-40 hits or so. --NorwegianBlue talk 21:12, 5 October 2015 (UTC)
Thanks for your efforts, Alan! --NorwegianBlue talk 21:24, 5 October 2015 (UTC)

Does the Trans-Pacific Partnership imply any change in the free movement of workers?

Does the Trans-Pacific Partnership imply any change in the free movement of workers? I mean, now or in the future, is the treaty headed into this direction? Otherwise, i don't see why countries with high labour costs would be able to keep their factories.--YX-1000A (talk) 22:00, 5 October 2015 (UTC)

To answer your basic question, no. The Trans-Pacific Partnership doesn't mention migration, and that's unlikely to change: anything that relaxed the US-Mexico border would be political suicide. Even when trade laws are very relaxed, factories can thrive in high-labour cost countries, as long as it's industry that requires skilled/educated labour. Germany (a member of the EU with absolutely zero trade barriers between it and low-wage countries like Poland, Portugal and Romania) has a massive industrial sector because it has modern, high-tech factories with skilled workers producing high-quality products that people are willing to pay a premium for. Similarly, despite millions of factory workers losing their jobs as wages increased in the second half of the 20th century, the UK actually manufactures more than it ever has before – it's just that its factories are largely automated and only need a few highly-educated workers instead of hundreds of manual labourers (it's vehicles and medicines that roll off British assembly lines these days, not pottery and steel). This is more or less independent of free movement, because high-labour cost countries are also the ones with enough capital to invest in modern factories and strong education systems – US industries underwent the exact same process, even though the American labour market is pretty closed off and the US has a lot of trade tariffs and Buy American clauses. Smurrayinchester 09:49, 6 October 2015 (UTC)
by "relax", do you mean "strengthen"? Asmrulz (talk) 17:06, 6 October 2015 (UTC)
According to this article, liberalizing trade has resulted in a loss of manufacturing jobs in the United States. These losses were not solely due to automation. Some were due to the inability of U.S. labor to compete with Chinese labor on cost. Free trade promotes global labor arbitrage, which tends to lower wages in high-wage countries. It also has the effect of boosting wages for highly skilled workers whose skills are in short supply but face increased demand in a larger global market. Examples would be the highly skilled software engineers employed by the likes of Apple in Silicon Valley, who have probably benefited from free trade. Free trade can also boost earnings for corporations that benefit from global labor arbitrage and finding larger markets for their goods. Higher corporate earnings tend to benefit a small segment of society comprised of large investors and corporate executives. On the other hand, higher earnings from trade may also lead corporations to increase domestic nonmanufacturing employment in areas such as design, marketing, and finance. Those employment gains, again, tend to benefit people in high-wage countries with above-average education. Less educated or affluent people in high-wage societies benefit from free trade as consumers, as cheaper goods imported from low-wage countries replace more expensive domestically produced goods. What isn't clear is whether the benefit to them as consumers fully counterbalances their losses as wage earners. What is clear is that the effect of free trade in high-wage countries varies by class. Marco polo (talk) 19:01, 6 October 2015 (UTC)

Russian brides

Are those ads about getting a Russian bride just scams? If not, how much do a bride cost?--Scicurious (talk) 23:00, 5 October 2015 (UTC)

Mail-order-brides in general tend to be women who want an easy way to immigrate to the nation. So, how much of a "wife" they will be is debatable. They might very well file for divorce as soon as enough time has passed so they can remain in the nation legally. StuRat (talk) 01:23, 6 October 2015 (UTC)
And, of course, for our article, see Mail-order bride. Dismas|(talk) 01:57, 6 October 2015 (UTC)

October 6

Time zone offset covering largest area

Which UTC offset covers the largest geographical area of land?

I would guess it's either UTC+08:00 (China, parts of Russia and Mongolia, lots of southeast Asia, Western Australia]]; UTC+01:00 (most of western and central Europe, a large swathe of Africa); or UTC−03:00 (Greenland, some of Canada, much of South America).

This surely must be answered somewhere, but my google-fu is letting me down. --OpenToppedBus - Talk to the driver 13:22, 6 October 2015 (UTC)

I wouldn't have discarded UTC+5.5 (India) right away, but having such a unique UTC implies that Indians are not in the same as others. The problem with UTC-3 is that it excludes Brazil. UTC+1 excludes the UK, South African, Kenia, and Sudan, which have large populations.
Though the question is about geographical area (of land), not population. -- Q Chris (talk) 13:58, 6 October 2015 (UTC)
At the end the winner is UTC+8. It's difficult to compete with the whole of China in the same time-zone. [6]. --Scicurious (talk) 13:53, 6 October 2015 (UTC)
Though the question is about geographical area (of land), not population. -- Q Chris (talk) 13:58, 6 October 2015 (UTC)
Sorry misread the question. Maybe the calculation of the link above can be adapted.--Scicurious (talk) 14:01, 6 October 2015 (UTC)
It may still be China. It looks largest but I know that map projections can be misleading. -- Q Chris (talk) 14:02, 6 October 2015 (UTC)
Looking at it in Google Earth (i.e. on a globe), I also think that UTC+8 (China etc.) appears to be the largest, with the closest competitors being UTC+1 and UTC+3. - Lindert (talk) 14:52, 6 October 2015 (UTC)
Thanks for your answers everyone. I'm really surprised there's no definitive answer available anywhere - I'll have to go on appearance. --OpenToppedBus - Talk to the driver 09:43, 7 October 2015 (UTC)

Religious articles sought

I'm searching for articles that are relative to the human growth developement? E.g., what happens a soul or an egg before/after birth... Can you guys help me please? -- Space Ghost (talk) 21:36, 6 October 2015 (UTC)

I'm not sure if that's what you're asking, but the moment that people are hypothesized to receive a soul is called Ensoulment. - Lindert (talk) 21:42, 6 October 2015 (UTC)
An egg, in mammalian terms, is merely a gamete, a cell. It is not a human being and does not have a "soul". ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 01:42, 7 October 2015 (UTC)

Roughtor, Cornwall, given to the nation

On Roughtor in Cornwall is a plaque saying it was given to the nation in memory of the men of the 43rd (Wessex) Division who lost their lives in the North-West European Campaign 1944/45. What I would like to know is a) by whom it was given, and b) to whom - was it the National Trust, some organ of the State, or some other such body? DuncanHill (talk) 23:09, 6 October 2015 (UTC)

October 7

Araminta Ross

Why were Harriet Tubman and her parents surnamed Ross? Did this come from a previous slaveholding family who owned the family before the Pattison's or Brodess'?--KAVEBEAR (talk) 00:28, 7 October 2015 (UTC)

Feist v. Rural concurring opinion

Can someone find me an online copy of Justice Blackmun's concurring opinion in Feist Publications, Inc., v. Rural Telephone Service Co.? Our article links to the FindLaw edition of the majority opinion, but following the official decision of reversal of the appeals court, the only text is "JUSTICE BLACKMUN concurs in the judgment." and an unrelated footnote. The same is true of Justia and everything else I've checked. I've never checked print editions of the United States Reports, so I don't know if they would help. If they would, any idea where I could find systematic digital editions of them? The Supreme Court's website includes a digitized volumes page, but the earliest is vol. 502, and Feist v. Rural is vol. 499. Nyttend (talk) 01:17, 7 October 2015 (UTC)

Life After Feist by Philip H. Miller says "Although Feist was a unanimous decision, Justice Blackmun concurred only in the judgment. He did not file a separate opinion." So apparently this is it. -- BenRG (talk) 04:31, 7 October 2015 (UTC)