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July 21[edit]

Country in Europe with highest rape rate[edit]

Which country has the highest rate of rape in Europe? — Preceding unsigned comment added by 206.87.100.5 (talk) 00:15, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

First take a giant boulder of salt: Apparently Sweden. However, rape is believed to be severely under reported in every country, and data gathering methods and even the definition of rape vary from country to country. Sweden has the most rapes reported to the police of any European country, but there is no reason to suspect this statistic correlates to actually having the most rapes. The article I linked goes into the details for each country that make it hard to compare the national statistics. Most countries have also had scientific surveys conducted in an attempt to estimate the true rate of rape, but comparing these from country to country puts you up against methodological differences and once again, culturally distinct definitions of rape. Someguy1221 (talk) 03:51, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
"Sweden has the most rapes reported to the police of any European country" - probably true but I'm not sure if we have actual evidence it's true. The article you linked to discusses Sweden having the highest reported statistics to UNODC worldwide but this is a somewhat distinct point. Far as I can tell (and supported by our article), there's nothing stopping countries reporting whatever statistics they want to the UNODC other than pressure from their populance and others. Even if a country has published statistics of police reports, they could report something completely different to the UNODC, I'm not seeing anything in the article suggesting anyone has actually looked in to this possibility. More importantly would be those who collate but don't publish police reports statistics, and report something else to the UNODC. Then there will be those who don't collate police reports, but somehow come up with figures to send to the UNODC. And in either case, a country could also publicise the UNODC figures as police report figures even though they aren't. In the absence of a whistle-blower or public admission, we'll have no way of even knowing for sure about these. And I'm not even sure the UNODC figures are supposed to be police reports, or whether convictions etc would be something a country could resonable feel is what they should report.
Perhaps not so relevant here but a country could just not report to the UNODC. Various pressures means European countries are more likely to report. In fact the only ones who aren't on the 2013 UNODC list seem to be Kosovo and Vatican City who I presume probably can't report as they aren't members of the UN, San Marino who maybe don't bother given their tiny size, but most interesting of all Italy. Italy do report sexual violence and sexual offences against children, but aren't in the rape section. Since the sexual violence figures are supposed to include rape and they are lower than the Sweden rape figures, this means Italy can't be higher. (Strangely our article includes the sexual violence figures for Italy for the first few years.) A few also didn't report in 2013 or a few years before, although their previous figures were significantly lower than Sweden. Still the point is even if we were to take the 2013 UNODC report as a completely accurate tally of police reports, we couldn't actually say Sweden is higher than Malaysia or Cambodia from the report since neither are included.
Nil Einne (talk) 18:28, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

This is a simple question that you'd think would have a simple answer, but it's not so easy because rape is often not reported - sometimes wisely. Our article cites a UN document that does in fact show Sweden with the highest rate, 53.2 per 100,000 in 2008, up from 24.9 in 2003 in a steady rise over those years. The only higher rate is Lesotho with 91.6 per 100,000. The catch is that Egypt, for example, has a statistic of just 0.1 per 100,000 - literally 1 in 1 million. So we have rape statistics but they are not real. Wnt (talk) 18:11, 22 July 2016 (UTC)

the Bomb[edit]

I wonder which event "the Bomb" in the following sentence refers to. "After Pearl Harbor and before D-day and the Bomb, there was the Doolittle raid on Tokyo." ( "'Target Tokyo' brings a well-known WWII story back to life" by Tony Perry) Thank you! — Preceding unsigned comment added by 114.249.234.99 (talk) 00:20, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

Dropping the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tgeorgescu (talk) 00:38, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki — Preceding unsigned comment added by 86.20.193.222 (talk) 01:47, 22 July 2016 (UTC)

Was there an underground railroad to Mexico for escaped slaves?[edit]

I know there was the Underground Railroad to Canada for American black slaves. Mexico abolished slavery in 1829. Right? Was there a similar underground railroad to Mexico for escaped African-American slaves? Did more slaves go to Canada or go to Mexico? 2607:FEA8:A760:35C:ADB0:8DB4:AE65:6453 (talk) 02:39, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

Underground Railroad states in the first paragraph "Various other routes led to Mexico or overseas." The article "South to Freedom" agrees. Clarityfiend (talk) 02:58, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

Non-Nazi swastika[edit]

Besides the example surrounding the controversy over a Pokemon trading card are there any other similar cases of Westerners being offended or trying to ban the use of non-Nazi swastika especially in Asia.--KAVEBEAR (talk) 02:46, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

See the "Efforts to remove historical swastikas" section of Western use of the swastika in the early 20th century. Apparently one idiot wrote in my campus paper, when I was still working on campus, in an attempt to get the swastika tiles removed from the Men's Gymnasium (Indiana University). Nyttend (talk) 03:34, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
Prior to the rise of Nazism and its adoption of the swastika, some editions of Rudyard Kipling's books were bound in covers decorated with the Indian symbol. He ordered the discontinuation of this when the Nazis rose to prominence [which I now see is mentioned in Nyttend's first linked article], and while offhand I'm not aware of any instances of offense taken and complaints, investigation might reveal some.
Incidentally, as well as being asian, the swastika (which has various other names), often considered as a "sun-wheel" symbol, appears in the very ancient European Vinča script – which may or may not have been a form of writing – as illustrated in the second external link of that article. {The poster formerly known as 87.81.230,195) 2.123.26.60 (talk) 03:45, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
Not mentioned in the article is the Navajo/Hopi (Anasazi) use of the symbol. (Do your own search; I'm too tired right now --g'nite) 2606:A000:4C0C:E200:79CC:9632:9DD5:631F (talk) 05:49, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
The Customs House in Sydney uses swastika ("fylfot") tiling, and the approach of the building's management has been to erect an explanatory sign. This article also talks about other approaches to dealing with pre-Nazi swastikas in the West.
In East Asia, swastikas are traditionally used as a shorthand symbol for Buddhist temples or Buddhism, but Japan recently bowed to international confusion and stopped using it to indicate temples in tourist maps. But it's still commonly seen in Buddhist iconography even today, as far as I can tell without any local controversy.
The charitable Red Swastika Society, though not as influential as it was before World War II, is apparently still alive and well. --PalaceGuard008 (Talk) 09:21, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
  • On the flip side, see Swastika Laundry, an Irish laundering service that not only used the swastika as its logo, but painted it in black on a white field with a red background, yet somehow managed to keep its design until the 1980s. Smurrayinchester 12:31, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
  • In Carl Sagan's book Comet, meant to coincide with the last return of Halley's Comet, he speculated that the worldwide prevalence of the Swastika might have to do with the appearance of a four-tailed rotating comet. Such multi-tailed rotating comets have been historically attested. μηδείς (talk) 18:36, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

1848-1849 in Europe - Government system changes?[edit]

Hello, as i'm new to this subject, i would like to know, if there were any government system changes in European countries in the time from 1848 to 1849 besides France. For example from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy or republic. --KaterBegemot (talk) 10:02, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

Revolutions of 1848 is an overview article with links to articles on events in individual countries. --Wrongfilter (talk) 10:30, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
As noted in the article, there are two persepctives on the question. 1) Did the revolutions of 1848 cause any immediate and direct changes of political systems and 2) Did the revolutions of 1848 cause any lasting and long term shifts in the politics of Europe. The general historical consensus on 1) is no; because in almost every case, the actual revolutions themselves were shut down and the old order re-established in the immediate aftermath. The consensus on 2) is absolutely yes, as 1848 is the year where the tide change occurred; the events of that year is what laid the groundwork (over more than a century and a half of frequently violent upheaval) of the democratization of Europe. There are, of course, a few exceptions: Denmark is one noted in that article, as it's liberalized constitutional monarchy established in 1848 was not overthrown. --Jayron32 14:48, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

Full title of Dalí's 1950 painting "Myself at the age of six"[edit]

What is the correct full title of Salvador Dalí's painting "Myself at the age of six" (1950)? I have found several variations, but the following seems to be correct: "Moi-même à l'âge de six ans, quand je croyais être petite fille, en train de soulever avec une extrême précaution la peau de la mer pour observer un chien dormant à l'ombre de l'eau". Curiously, the part "quand je croyais être petite fille" is often dropped, although I personally find it to be the most remarkable part of the title. --Florian Blaschke (talk) 20:55, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

Oddly, the Dali Foundation's catalogue raisonné uses the third person ("Dalí at the Age of Six, When He Thought He Was a Girl, Lifting the Skin of the Water to See a Dog Sleeping in the Shade of the Sea"), but leaves out the thinking-he-was-a-girl part in French, while giving it in English, Catalan, and Castilian Spanish. ---Sluzzelin talk 21:10, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
René Passeron in his Encyclopédie du surréalisme (1975), Paris: Éditions Somogy, appears to give the following title: "Dali à l'âge de six ans quand il croyait être une jeune fille, en train de soulever la peau de l'eau, pour voir un chien dormir à l'ombre de la mer", compare here. --Florian Blaschke (talk) 23:10, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
However, this mysteriously omits "avec une extrême précaution". It's really frustrating. Every source, even among the reliable-appearing ones, appears to give a different variant of the title. Compare this source, which again has the first person: "Moi-même à l'âge de six ans quand je croyais être petite fille, en train de soulever avec une extrême précaution la peau de la mer, pour observer un chien dormant à son ombre". It's maddening. Why do people find it so difficult to get the freaking title right? --Florian Blaschke (talk) 23:28, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
And just to add to the confusion, I also found Yo, a la edad angélica, levantando con precaución la piel del agua para observar un perro dormido a la sombra del mar (my emphasis) in "París, Nueva York, Madrid: Picasso y Dalí ante las grandes exposiciones internacionales" by Miguel Cabañas Bravo and Idoia Murga Castro. ---Sluzzelin talk 07:22, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
http://thedali.org/contact may be the best place to go, the Salvador Dalí Museum. Alternately, you could email comunicacio@fundaciodali.org, which appears to be the main email address for the Dalí Theatre and Museum at Figueres, his home town in Spain. Nyttend (talk) 12:15, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
Thank you. I have tried both. Let's see. I was under the impression that Dalí usually gave titles in French to his paintings, but this assumption of mine might be mistaken. I suspect there may not be an authentic title, as this painting (like apparently many paintings in general, not just Dalí's) does not bear an inscribed title, but there should at least be a canonical or "official" title. I don't know if this is something specific to this painting, or to Dalí or to long titles, but it strikes me as odd that all these numerous sources would disagree and give so many variants, and that there should not be one conventional, agreed-on title, perhaps found in some "official" index or catalogue, approved and used by academic experts. I must admit ignorance about art history, but I thought in musicology, an analogous function is fulfilled by registers such as catalogues of classical compositions. --Florian Blaschke (talk) 21:41, 23 July 2016 (UTC)

A definitive English title for the painting may be that given in the 2-volume Surrealism edited by Daniel Filipacchi (1970 Heron Books, ISBN: 0810969211): "Myself at the Age of Six When I Thought I Was a Girl Lifting with Extreme Precaution the Skin of the Sea to Observe a Dog Sleeping in the Shade of the Water"[1]

www.wikiart.org names the painting in the 3rd person: "Dali at the Age of Six When He Thought He Was a Girl Lifting the Skin of the Water to See the Dog Sleeping in the Shade of the Sea". Another version reads: "Dali, at the age of six, when he thought he was a girl, lifting the skin of the sea to watch the dog sleeping in its shadow."[2]

An etching signed by Dali was also sold[3] with title "Myself at the Age of Six...". It differs slightly from the painting in that the girl child is bent forward and there is a chapel building behind her.

Incidentally, the dog in the painting looks borrowed from Ayne Bru's 16th century painting The Martyrdom of Saint Cucuphas.


Other age-related declarations by Salvador Dali include: "At the age of six I wanted to be a cook. At seven I wanted to be Napoleon. And my ambition has been growing steadily ever since."[4] [5]

"Infraterrestrials Adored by Dali at the Age of Six when he Thought Himself an Insect" (Engraving 1974 [6])

"Myself at The Age of Ten When I Was The Grasshopper Child" (1933 painting[7] [8]) AllBestFaith (talk) 22:44, 22 July 2016 (UTC)

For all those who get bored at trying to understand Salvador Dali's ambiguous lists of lines there is the other (number one) surrealist painter René Magritte. His own lines all make immediate sense (although who can ascertain they are sincere ?) .--Askedonty (talk) 20:31, 23 July 2016 (UTC)

Two questions about mass shootings in the United States[edit]

1. Most, if not almost all mass shootings in the United States end with the death of the perpetrator (usually by suicide, although occassionally by being shot to death by police or other armed individuals). In cases where the shooting ended with the death of the perpetrator, were there any efforts to save the life of the perpetrator (i.e. to try and treat his wounds, or to revive him after he shoots himself/has been shot)? Also, in cases which end in the perpetrator's suicide, did police and other officials make any effort to at least attempt to arrest the perpetrator before he could commit suicide?

2. How come in the cases I'm aware of, there is no media coverage about the fate of the perpetrator after death (i.e. funeral details, etc.), and at least in the media, the perpetrator's name is usually not listed in the list of names of fatalities? This refers not just to mass shootings but to murder cases in the United States in general.

Narutolovehinata5 tccsdnew 22:52, 21 July 2016 (UTC)

2) Many such mass shootings seem to be designed to get media coverage, and not listing their name is supposed to reduce copy-cat attacks. StuRat (talk) 22:52, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
You have not provided any evidence for your first claim. The second claim involves pressworthiness *"Who cares?") and I hope, as CSD has said, damnatio memoriae which is every so often called for in the press, and which I try to abide by myself. μηδείς (talk) 23:53, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
For my first question, my source would be List of spree killers by number of victims, the section on North America suggests that most end in the death of the perpetrator. Also, I've asked similar questions about spree killings here on the Reference desk before. Narutolovehinata5 tccsdnew 23:58, 21 July 2016 (UTC)
You should be aware, then, that (1) wikipedia is not a RS, and (2), that most multiple shootings are domestic violence, not spree shootings. Perhaps you can reword your question as a well-defined request for references? And why exactly is the US named? As far as I am aware, Anders Breivik is the worst known spree killer in history. A definition of spree killer in respect to references, regardless of country might help. Otherwise it looks like you wnt to make a point or start a debate, neither of which is appropriate here. μηδείς (talk) 04:08, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel killed more than Brevik, and is also not American. --Jayron32 11:23, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
Burial places would be a matter of public record, but that doesn't mean the papers want to make a thing out of it. Such info could lead to vandalism and/or memorials to the perp. The average cemetery wouldn't want that. As for Anders Breivik, it's most unfortunate that he doesn't yet have a burial place to visit. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 04:12, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
Bad planning on his part? —Tamfang (talk) 08:07, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
I just came across the phrase "spree killer". Who invented it? 194.66.226.95 (talk) 11:56, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
Looking at Newspapers.com (a pay site), I'm seeing the expression used as far back as the early 1900s. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 16:37, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
There are news reports about the burial [9] - generally speaking though, it's hard because the more careful cemeteries want nothing to do with it; the corpse tends to roam around like a garbage barge looking for a place to drop out of sight. So it's low profile and well after the initial wave of news reports by the time the deed is done, and generally with a deliberate effort by all involved to avoid any publicity arising from the act whatsoever. (in the case I cited above, it was public officials who tipped the story with a death certificate; otherwise the family and cemetery would have kept it under wraps) Wnt (talk) 15:01, 22 July 2016 (UTC)

July 22[edit]

Charities[edit]

In most charity organisations, do volunteers do most of the frontline service delivery with paid staff doing office admin and high level management? 2A02:C7D:B945:6400:2897:1BD0:7DBA:B99D (talk) 10:21, 22 July 2016 (UTC)

That is very variable - and it rather depends on the type of work the charity is doing. Some make a lot of use of volunteers, with very few paid staff, while others who undertake more complex work requiring professional skills may have mainly paid front line staff (with volunteers more involved in fund raising and support roles). In the UK, where I have worked for several charities, the majority of registered charities are, in fact, quite small, local organisations. Those tend to be very dependent on volunteers - some may have no paid employees at all, while others may only have one or two. Wymspen (talk) 15:18, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
In the UK I expect most charities are as you say but some surprising institutions have charitable status. Most (all?) public schools (exclusive private schools in any other part of the world) are charities[10]and I suppose just about everyone is paid. I used to work for a scientific research institute which was a charity and we all got paid at rates comparable to the public sector. The only volunteers would be (1) young people getting work experience, (2) people doing PhD and MSc research (are they volunteers?), (3) people who have retired but want to continue with their research and (4) members of the public volunteering to take part as subjects in scientific experiments. Thincat (talk) 17:37, 22 July 2016 (UTC)

Could the reported rape rate in Sweden be partly attributed to an increase in immigration?[edit]

Who pays to test drinking water for THC?[edit]

There is a headline going around currently about a town in Colorado with tetrahydrocannabinol, the active principle of marijuana, supposedly in the drinking water. As described in this report, the idea is ludicrous. It seems more probable that somebody collecting the water or in the lab lit up while working. But there's still a mystery here --- why would any town be paying to test for THC in drinking water? I mean, there were a lot of people in Flint, Michigan drinking water with tremendous levels of lead for a year because no one was testing, and here someone is paying to test for a substance that could not possibly be added to the water in sufficient quantity to be detectable? What budget is this under? Wnt (talk) 14:55, 22 July 2016 (UTC)

You aren't asking the more important question, which is best answered with understanding that the The dose makes the poison. I would expect non-zero quantities of THC to be in any major metropolitan area's drinking water. The question not being asked is if meaningful amounts of it are found in drinking water. One part per trillion would still mean a glass of drinking water would have over a trillion THC molecules in it; but I'm not sure that one part per trillion is enough to have any meaningful effect on the consumer. --Jayron32 15:29, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
The cited article reports a statement that THC was first detected in a vial of tap water meant to serve as a negative result in a drug test. The article about Cannabis drug testing mentions thresholds of 50-20 ng/mL used in urine and saliva tests, though detection levels as low as 0.5 ng/mL may be required for the latter. It would not be ludicrous but a genuine concern to Forensic chemistry labs (whose work is routinely funded by law enforcement) if tap water gave indications near these levels, which appears to have been the case in Hugo, OhioColorado. AllBestFaith (talk) 15:40, 22 July 2016 (UTC)

More likely the vial was contaminated. THC is not even water soluble. Reporters are not known in this day and age for getting their facts straight, they prefer to make headlines. HighInBC Need help? {{ping|HighInBC}} 15:55, 22 July 2016 (UTC)

That's not new - it's always been a problem. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 16:32, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
AllBestFaith Just wanted to let you know that the town of Hugo is in Colorado. I couldn't find a town of that name in Ohio though I'm sure there are at least a few people who go by that moniker in that state :-) Cheers. MarnetteD|Talk 16:54, 22 July 2016 (UTC) Thanks for the correction. AllBestFaith (talk) 21:02, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
They probably sent this to the same lab that tests parolees, and a certain number of false positives is part of the contract... Seriously though, the science here is no great mystery to me; it's the funding. If someone is actually doing some kind of GC/MS on the water they must have all sorts of peaks to explain from various biological sources, and I'd think it would cost a fortune to figure everything out; yet if they just pulled out some cannabis testing kit, then I have no idea why they'd think to do such a crazy thing. It seems like either the town is being much, much more careful than I thought anyone really was with their drinking water, or else it's doing some kind of weird political stunt, and I don't have any idea which. Wnt (talk) 17:59, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
I think this has already been answered, both in the cited article and by AllBestFaith above. It was "meant to serve as a negative result in a drug test". I interpret that to mean that they were testing a person for THC use, and concurrently with testing his/her sample, they also tested some tap water so they could compare the person's test result with that of a sample that was presumably known to not contain any THC. The test wasn't done because anyone suspected that the tap water might contain THC. CodeTalker (talk) 21:05, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
Whoooooops! Looks like I gotta learn to read more carefully! Wnt (talk) 01:18, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
In a followup report it turns out the original tests were false positives. MarnetteD|Talk 18:35, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle[edit]

Now that my 7 years of bad luck are over, I'd like to bring to this forum some questions I asked @Talk:St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle#Funeral of Lady Gowrie in 2009, but got no replies.

The 2 questions are:

  • Was some special permission required for Lady Gowrie's funeral to be held in the chapel of a royal castle, and if so, why was it given?
  • Was Dame Joan Hammond the first woman ever to sing in the Chapel, and if so, why were women previously banned?

Thanks. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 22:31, 22 July 2016 (UTC)

Maybe they wanted to see if her voice could shatter a mirror? ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 23:55, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
I take your comments with a grain of (spilled) salt. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 23:59, 22 July 2016 (UTC)
This is a very good question Jack, and one which leads me to question our entry. Having looked at the official website of St George's Chapel, I can not see her listed as having received a funeral there. Now it may be that they only list the Royals who have had a funeral at the chapel, and I think that to answer your question properly you would have to contact them yourself and ask them. --TammyMoet (talk) 09:35, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
This book confirms Lady Gowrie's funeral at St George's Chapel and Joan Hammond's attendance there. I've not been able to find any answers to Jack's specific questions, though. Tevildo (talk) 12:38, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
I see that he was Deputy Constable and Lieutenant-Governor of Windsor Castle 1945-53. Maybe that came with certain privileges. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 12:48, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
I think that's the most likely answer; the chapel of the Order of St Michael and St George (Lord Gowrie was a GCMG) is in St Paul's Cathedral in London. A reference supporting the funeral at Windsor is at The Governors of New South Wales 1788-2010 edited by David Clune and Ken Turner (p. 504). As to women singing in the chapel, the English choral tradition was an entirely male-voice affair until quite recently, so it's quite plausible that Dame Joan was the first, although why permission needed to be sought is a bit of a puzzle; perhaps nobody wanted the buck to stop with them. What Did Women Sing? A Chronology concerning Female Choristers, by Laura Stanfield Prichard, Northeastern University, Massachusetts, USA discusses the role of women in western choral music, finding the Anglican Church to be particularly reluctant to include female voices in their choirs, but just because they supposed that male voices sounded better rather than any religious conviction. Alansplodge (talk) 15:32, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
It wasn't just Anglican churches that were antipathetic to women singers. A case in point is Frédéric Chopin: he died on 17 October 1849, but the funeral could not be held until 30 October, when the Catholic Church of the Madeleine in Paris, after almost 2 weeks of holding out, finally acceded to Chopin's express wishes and permitted the singing of Mozart's Requiem, which includes women as soloists and choristers. The inordinate delay meant that large numbers of people from distant parts, who would not otherwise have considered making the journey, did so; so many came from afar, that the church was full to capacity and many found they had travelled in vain. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 22:15, 23 July 2016 (UTC)

July 23[edit]

IQs and political affiliations[edit]

First, this is not intended to be a trollish post. I am genuinely interested and am asking seriously.

I wish to know if there are good studies that link IQs and political affiliations, including those with no political affiliations, in the United States.

Anna Frodesiak (talk) 04:43, 23 July 2016 (UTC)

High IQ correlates well with self-identification as a liberal, and low-IQ with self identification as a conservative[11]. It's not an enormous difference, with "very conservative"s averaging out at 95 IQ points, and "very liberal"s averaging out at 105 (so a difference between slightly below average and slightly above, rather than a difference between genius and brain damaged as some might suspect). This correlation is consistent in the UK as well. It's interesting to note that intelligence also correlates similarly well with degree of religiosity, so there could be a connection there. Also, now please also consider all of the problems with measuring IQ. Someguy1221 (talk) 04:54, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
The group of papers that cite the one I linked also provide some interesting reading material [12]. Someguy1221 (talk) 04:57, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
Thank you, Someguy1221. :) Anna Frodesiak (talk) 09:45, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
FYI, that guy Satoshi Kanazawa is a well-known firebrand, and some of his ... let's say "odd" views are described in our article. He used to write blog posts for Psychology Today, but his work seems to have been purged from the site, and he's also written there with similarly sensational and not-that-well supported content, e.g. "Why Are Black Women Less Physically Attractive Than Other Women?" [13]. I'm not saying he's a liar or charlatan, and I do think that he has shown in that work linked by Someguy a very slightly significant and weak correlation between IQ and liberal self-identification, but I think readers should know he is an economist by training who seems completely willing and able to spin statistics into saying nearly whatever he wants, often with controversial and click-baity headlines. Even when an article is peer reviewed, caveat emptor. SemanticMantis (talk) 17:21, 23 July 2016 (UTC)

Berlin blockade[edit]

Why didn't the Soviets blocked all forms of traffic between Berlin and West Germany? Maybe at a first glance they didn't realize that the airlifts would save the day for West Berliners, but day after day they must have been aware that lots of planes were supplying the city. They could have easily closed the airspace against a non-stop stream of cargo airplanes. What blocked them of doing it? --Hofhof (talk) 17:49, 23 July 2016 (UTC)

The risk of starting a new war, perhaps. Road and rail traffic is easy to block without using force. The only way to reliably block air traffic is to shoot down planes or destroy their airfields. Shock Brigade Harvester Boris (talk) 18:01, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
But didn't they need to ask East German air traffic for an authorization to enter their air space? That's also simply a question of general safety. --Hofhof (talk) 18:06, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
See Berlin_Blockade#The_decision_for_an_airlift. Shock Brigade Harvester Boris (talk) 18:11, 23 July 2016 (UTC)
The West Berlin Air Corridor was outside of the control of the Soviet occupation forces (it was then the Soviet occupation zone, the state of East Germany didn't exist until 1949). Air traffic between the US, French and British Zones and Berlin was controlled by the Berlin Air Safety Center, which was jointly operated by the four occupying powers. Blockading the Air Corridor may well have been seen as an act of war. The first Soviet atomic bomb wasn't tested until August 1949, putting the Soviets at a severe disadvantage should a full-scale war break out. It really was "peace through superior firepower" at that point. However, that didn't stop the Soviets from harassing the Allied flights, resulting in the 1948 Gatow air disaster. Alansplodge (talk) 19:28, 23 July 2016 (UTC)

Jehovah's Witnesses and Purple Triangles[edit]

When Jehovah’s Witnesses were imprisoned in Nazi Germany’s Concentration camps they were assigned an identifying mark for identification, a Purple Triangle. (Star of David for Jews, Pink Triangles for Homosexuals, etc)

Were there any others that were assigned Purple Triangles, other than Jehovah’s Witnesses? 74.176.238.227 (talk) 21:35, 23 July 2016 (UTC)

In Nazi concentration camp badge#Single triangles, it is said that the purple triangle identified "small religious groups", 99% of which were Witnesses. However, this website emphatically disagrees (apparently based on the source given at the end), saying that only a minority of the "Bibelforscher" who were identified with the purple triangle were Witnesses. This is apparently a highly politically loaded question, and as a layperson, I cannot judge. In any case, it is clear that not all inmates who were assigned this badge were Witnesses. --Florian Blaschke (talk) 21:58, 23 July 2016 (UTC)

July 24[edit]

Kevin B Macdonald[edit]

How much truth is there to his claims in 'The culture of critique' series? — Preceding unsigned comment added by Numerologician (talkcontribs) 02:24, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

Some links: Kevin B. MacDonald, The Culture of Critique series. -- ToE 02:38, 24 July 2016 (UTC)
In response to your question, I don't know that we will be able to give you more than is in The Culture of Critique series#Criticism. -- ToE 02:40, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

Jason Matthews author Red Sparrow[edit]

Does Wikipedia contain an entry for Jason Matthews the author or his novel Red Sparrow? Is there a reason?66.168.198.148 (talk) 18:37, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

There is not an article for Jason Matthews or for the book. The reason is that nobody has created one yet. Based on this NYT review both could meet WP:GNG but that is just my opinion. Looks like a good project for anyone who is interested. MarnetteD|Talk 19:12, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

What's a fair trade for Detroit? (as is, no warranties, no refunds)[edit]

This would never happen but what's a fair trade for giving Canada the contents of the city limits of Detroit with a reasonable amount of connectivity services? (they wouldn't have to build pipes/wires to old Canada or plants to feed them if they get it from new US at fair market price, if more road or rail connections to original Canada are needed we can pay half or proportional to GDPs). Could the US get any land or water for this (all of British Columbia south of the 49th parallel?) or is this actually something you couldn't give away for free (but Canada can try to improve Detroit so it's worth something in the future). They may need to keep the border crossings like Hong Kong, in this case to keep all the illegal handguns and problems out of Windsor. There's apparently a two small incorporated city cities in the middle of it so that has they have to go, too. Congratulations, you are now Canadians. (not a bad change actually) Sagittarian Milky Way (talk) 19:40, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

Do you mean how much would the US have to pay Canada to take Chicago off our hands? See: Detroit bankruptcy. --2606:A000:4C0C:E200:98E7:59EE:3480:3C03 (talk) 19:46, 24 July 2016 (UTC)
So I'm assuming the part of Minnesota north of 49°N is not even a down payment? Sagittarian Milky Way (talk) 19:58, 24 July 2016 (UTC)
(Aka: Northwest Angle, presumably) --2606:A000:4C0C:E200:98E7:59EE:3480:3C03 (talk) 20:37, 24 July 2016 (UTC)
Canada might agree to take Detroit if the US agreed to take Quebec (the Province, not just the city). Blueboar (talk) 22:39, 24 July 2016 (UTC)
The U.S. tried twice, once by asking nicely] and once by asking not so nicely. --Jayron32 22:50, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

Saudi Arabia and US Treasury Securities[edit]

http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/04/16/world/middleeast/saudi-arabia-warns-ofeconomic-fallout-if-congress-passes-9-11-bill.html http://247wallst.com/economy/2016/04/18/can-the-us-treasury-market-absorb-a-750-billion-saudi-arabian-fire-sale/

Can somebody explain why drop of treasury securities of 0,750 trillion scared Obama? I mean what consequences could such act have? And why can it cause global crisis? Such act can decrease price of securities, but only non-matured. Should US Treasury buy non-matured bonds if no one else can?

72.19.61.71 (talk) 20:11, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

As I vaguely understand it, the issue is that if Saudi increases the supply of securities, then their price falls, but their return increases (because the return rate is a fixed percentage of the nominal price, whereas the actual price may be lower than nominal) and so to compete for funds, the US Treasury has to increase the returns it offers on new securities. The fix for this, were one required, is probably quantitative easing, which is pretty much printing money in exchange for bonds - something that seems to be less harmful than once it would have been in these times of low inflation & low interest rates. --Tagishsimon (talk) 22:25, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

Question about Qin_Shi_Huang[edit]

When people found his tomb did they find a mummy and was there a legend about the tomb being cursed? I ask because he was featured in The_Mummy:_Tomb_of_the_Dragon_Emperor he is depicted as a mummy. 50.68.118.24 (talk) 21:10, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

No, that was Bruce Forsyth. Muffled Pocketed 22:32, 24 July 2016 (UTC)
As far as is known, the tomb has never been unsealed since he was interred. See Qin Shi Huang#Tomb.--Jayron32 22:43, 24 July 2016 (UTC)

July 25[edit]

"Ah" surnames[edit]

Where do the surnames in use in Hawaii beginning with Ah (Ah Choi, Ahnee, Ah Quin, etc.) come from? Cilantrohead (talk) 00:54, 25 July 2016 (UTC)

see Chinese in Samoa#Names. As that section mentions, it also applies to Chinese-Hawaiian names.--William Thweatt TalkContribs 01:03, 25 July 2016 (UTC)
(edit conflict)
Wiktionary's listing of Hawaiian given names describes Ah as a "Cantonese informal prefix", presumably borrowed into Hawaiian usage as a result of Chinese immigration. But I don't know what "Cantonese informal prefix" means. Shock Brigade Harvester Boris (talk) 01:09, 25 July 2016 (UTC)
"Ah" is often used as a prefix in informal situations when addressing or possibly referring to someone indicating familiarity or closeness. Normally in front of the given name or sometimes the kinship term. If the person has a generation name, ah is used in front of the personal part and not the generation part AFAIK. I think it's the same if the person has a double character given name even if the first part is not a generation name, it's normally the final character. It's not generally used in front of the surname, probably because there's a contradiction in referring to the person by the surname and the use of the prefix. There's some discussion here [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] here which includes discussion how it was used in various Westernised contexts. Nil Einne (talk) 04:29, 25 July 2016 (UTC)